[eng] 100,000 in Puerto Rico (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 1,840,000 in Puerto Rico (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1993, Official Languages Act No. 1, Article 1). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.
Puerto Rican Sign Language
[psl] Scattered. 8,000–40,000 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: PRSL. Dialects: None known. Related to American Sign Language [ase]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Although some form of PRSL may still be used in the lower populated areas in the western and central parts of the country, it appears that ASL [ase] is becoming the sole sign language of the Puerto Rican deaf community.
[spa] 3,490,000 in Puerto Rico (2012). L2 users: 136,000 in Puerto Rico (2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Official Languages Act No. 1, Article 1). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Some dialects considered archaic.
[tnq] Active community in Bayamon Municipality, southwest of San Juan on north coast, restoration efforts pursued; otherwise scattered. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Taino. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean. Comments: Taino vocabulary has been adopted into local Spanishes [spa] in the Caribbean.