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Abaza
[abq] Karachay-Cherkessia Province. Also in Germany, Turkey. 37,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 47,880. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ashuwa Dialects: Ashkaraua (Ashkar, Ashxar), Bezshagh, Tapanta. Some dialects partially intelligible of Abkhaz [abk]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin Comments: Muslim.

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Adyghe
[ady] Adygeya Republic. Also in Egypt, France, Germany, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Macedonia, Netherlands, Syria, Turkey, United States. 117,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). No monolinguals (Ministry of Education, Adygea Republic). Population total all countries: 491,800. Ethnic population: 128,500. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Adyghea (1995, Constitution, Adyghea Republic, Article 2). Alternate Names: Adygei, Adygey, Circassian, Kiakh, Kjax, Lower Circassian, West Circassian Dialects: Abadzex (Abadzakh, Abadzeg), Bezhedukh (Bzedux, Bzhedug, Chemgui, Temirgoj), Natuzaj (Natukhai), Shapsug (Sapsug), Xakuchi. Most similar to Kabardian [kbd]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Some literature. Muslim (Sunni).

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Aghul
[agx] Southeast Dagestan Republic, Agulsky and Kurakhsky districts; Moscow; Stavropol region. 29,300 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aghul-ch’al, Agul Dialects: Agul, Fit’e, Gequn (Burkikhan), Keren, Koshan (Q’ushan), Tsirkhe. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Akhvakh
[akv] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Akhvakhsky district, 6 villages; Kakhib county. 3 villages. Also in Azerbaijan. 210 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: ’Aqwalazul, Ashvado, Axvax, Ghahvalal Dialects: Kaxib, Northern Akhvakh, Southern Akhvakh (Tlyanub, Tsegob). Diverse dialects. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Aleut
[ale] Commander (Komandor) Islands, Bering island, Nikolskoye settlement. 350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Mednyj Aleut [mud]. Ethnic population: 200 (Krauss 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Unangan, Unangany, Unanghan Dialects: Beringov (Atkan, Bering). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut Comments: From 1820 to 1840 dozens of Aleut families were brought from other islands to Komandor Islands. Until 1960s, 2 villages on Bering and Medny islands. 1950s-1980s children sent to boarding schools by the state. Christian.

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Aleut, Mednyj
[mud] Commander (Komandor) Islands, Copper island. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Aleut [ale]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Attuan, Copper, Copper Island Aleut, Copper Island Attuan, Creolized Attuan, Medny Classification: Mixed language, Russian-Aleut Comments: From 1820–1840, dozens of Aleut families were brought from other islands to Commander Islands. Until 1960s, 2 villages on Bering and Medny islands. 1950s–1980s, children sent to boarding schools by the state. Christian.

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Altai, Northern
[atv] Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, Mongolia and China border. 57,400 (2010 census). 2,000 Tuba, several thousand Kumandy, 2,000 Chalkan (Salminen 2007). Census includes Southern Altai [alt]. Ethnic population: 67,200 (including Southern Altai). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Telengit, Telengut, Teleut Dialects: Chalkan, Kumandy, Tuba. No comprehension of Southern Altai [alt]. Considered a separate language. Teleut may be a separate language. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Altai, Southern
[alt] Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, Mongolia and China border. 57,400 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 67,200 (including Northern Altai [atv]). 2002 census excluded 2,400 Talangits and 2,650 Teleuts. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Altai Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Altai, Oirot, Oyrot Dialects: Altai Proper (Altai-Kizhi, Altaj Kizi, Maina-Kizhi, Southern Altai), Talangit (Chuy, Talangit-Tolos, Telengit), Teleut. No intelligiblility of Northern Altai [atv]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Different from Oirat [xal] (Kalmyk-Oirat), a Mongolian language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Alutor
[alr] Kamchatka District, northeast Kamchatka peninsula, Vyvenka and Khailino villages; 2 families in Rekinniki; some in Tilichiki and Tymlat; some scattered. 25 (2010 census), decreasing. Some monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aliutor, Alyutor, Olyutor Dialects: Alutorskij (Alutor Proper). Considered a dialect of Koryak [kpy] until recently. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor Comments: In 1950s–1970s, children were sent to boarding schools.

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Andi
[ani] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Botlikhsky district. 9 villages. 5,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 23,800 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andii, Andiy, Qandisel, Qwannab Dialects: Gagatl, Kvanxidatl, Lower Andi/South Andi, Munin, Rikvani, Upper Andi/North Andi (Andi, Ashali, Chanho, Gagtl, Gunho, Rikvani, Zilo). Dialects appear quite divergent. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Archi
[aqc] Southern Dagestan Republic, Arsha community upper Risor river. 8 villages. 970 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Archib, Archin, Archintsy, Archsel, Arshashdib Dialects: One of the most divergent Lezgian (Lezgic) languages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Archi Comments: Muslim.

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Avar
[ava] Western Dagestan Republic, Terek and Sulak river areas. Also in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkey. 715,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 761,960. Ethnic population: 815,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Avaro, Bolmac, Khundzuri, Maarul Dagestani Dialects: Antsukh (Ancux), North Avar (Andian Avar, Bolmats, Khunzakh, Salatav, Unkratl), Qarakh (Bacadin, Karakh), Qusur, South-East Avar (Andalal, Andalal Shulanin, Andalal Untib), South-West Avar (Batlukh, Hid Kaxib, Hid Keleb), Zaqatal (Char). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Avar Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Azerbaijani, North
[azj] Southern Dagestan Republic, south Caucasus mountains, Caspian coast. 473,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani

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Bagvalal
[kva] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Tsumadinsky district, Khushtada, Tlondoda, Kvanada, and Gimerso; Akhvakhsky district, Tlissi and Tlibisho; a few other communities. 1,450 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagulal, Bagvalin, Bagwalal, Barbalin, Kvanada, Kvanadin Dialects: Kvanada-Himerso, Tlissi-Tlibisho, Tlondoda-Khushtada. Similar to Tindin [tin]. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Bashkort
[bak] Bashkortostan Republic, between Volga river and Ural mountains; beyond the Urals. Also in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. 1,150,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 1,221,340. Ethnic population: 2,060,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bashkortostan Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Bashkir, Basquort Dialects: Burzhan (Western Bashkir), Kuvakan (Mountain Bashkir), Yurmaty (Steppe Bashkir). Similar to Tatar [tat]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Bezhta
[kap] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Tsuntinsky district, Bezhta, Tlyadal, and Khasharkhota villages. Also in Georgia. 6,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 6,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bazht’, Bazht’al, Bechitin, Bexita, Bezheta, Bezhita, Bezhituri, Bezhti, Kapucha, Kapuchin, Kapuchin-Gunzib, Kapuchuri, Khvanal, Kiburabi, Kupuca Dialects: Bezhta proper, Khocharkhotin, Tlyadaly. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic Comments: Khvanal is Avar [ava] name for both Bezhta and Hunzib [huz]. Muslim.

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Bohtan Neo-Aramaic
[bhn] Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Originally in Anatolia, Ottoman Empire, east of Tigris River (present-day southeastern Turkey). Fled to Russia during World War I. Christian.

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Botlikh
[bph] Western Dagestan Republic, Botlikh and Miarsu villages. 210 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (A. Kibrik). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Botlix, Buykhadi Dialects: Botlikh, Zibirkhalin. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Buriat
[bua] Population total all countries: 329,100. Comments: Member languages are: China Buriat [bxu] (China), Mongolia Buriat [bxm] (Mongolia), Russia Buriat [bxr]

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Buriat, Russia
[bxr] Siberia, Republic of Buryatia, east of Lake Baikal, bordering on Mongolia. 219,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 445,200 (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Buriat Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Buriat-Mongolian, Buryat, Northern Mongolian Dialects: Alar, Barguzin, Bohaan, Bokhan, Ekhirit-Bulagat, Ninzne-Udinsk, Oka, Selengin, Tunka, Unga. Less influenced by Russian [rus] east of Lake Baikal; more similar to Mongolia. Literary dialect differs considerably from those in Mongolia and China, which are influenced by other languages. Khori is main dialect in the Russian Federation. Speakers in Russian Federation appear to understand each other well. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat Comments: Heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Chamalal
[cji] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Tsumadinsky district. 8 villages; Chechnya Republic. 500 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1990 A. Kibrik). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Camalal, Chamalin Dialects: Gadyri (Gachitl-Kvankhi), Gakvari (Agvali-Richaganik-Tsumada-Urukh), Gigatl (Hihatl), Kwenkhi, Tsumada. Dialects quite distinct. Gigatl (Hihatl) and Chamalal proper (with Gadyri, Gakvari, Tsumada and Kwenkhi dialects) are considered to be sublanguages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Chechen
[che] Chechnya Republic, north Caucasus. 63% in rural areas. Also in Georgia, Germany, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Syria, Turkey, Uzbekistan. 1,350,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 233,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,361,000. Ethnic population: 1,360,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Chechen Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Galancho, Nokchiin Muott, Nokhchiin Dialects: Akkin (Aux), Cheberloi, Itumkala (Shatoi), Kistin, Melkhin, Ploskost. Chechen partially intelligible with Ingush [inh]. Melkhi transitional dialect to Ingush. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush Comments: Many Russians, Ingush, Ossetins, and other peoples live among them. From 1944–1957, they were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia losing 25%–50% of the population, much land, economic resources, and civil rights. They have been largely removed from productive lowlands. Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Sufi).

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Chukchi
[ckt] Northeast Siberia, Chukchi peninsula, Chukotka Autonomous Region and Kamchatka District. 5,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 15,800 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chuchee, Chukcha, Chukchee, Chukot, Luoravetlan Dialects: Chaun, Enmylinskij, Enurmin, Nunligranskij, Pevekskij, Uellanskij, Xatyrskij, Yanrakinot. Closely related to Alutor [air], Kerek [krk] and Koryak [kpy]. Itelmen [itl] is more distantly related. Chukchi may be mutually intelligible with some varieties of Koryak (1988 B. Comrie). Literary dialect and gender dialects also exist. Gender differences largely phonological. Women’s dialect largely ignored in language development. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Chukot Comments: School at Anadyr. Chukchi in Magadan area are nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Chulym
[clw] North of Altay mountains, Chulym river basin, Ob river tributary. 44 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 660 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chulim, Chulym Tatar, Chulym-Turkish, Melets Tatar Dialects: Lower Chulym, Middle Chulym. Similar to Shor [cjs]; some consider them one language. The government considers them separate. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian Comments: Spoken in villages. Also spoken by the Kacik (Kazik, Kuarik).

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Chuvash
[chv] Chuvashia Republic, east of Moscow, near Volga river. About half live in towns. Also in Estonia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan. 1,043,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,077,420. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Chuvash Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Bulgar Dialects: Anatri, Viryal. The only extant language in Bolgar branch of Turkic. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Bolgar Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dargwa
[dar] Southern Dagestan Republic. Also in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. 486,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 492,490. Ethnic population: 510,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dargi, Dargin, Dargintsy, Khiurkilinskii, Uslar Dialects: Akusha (Akkhusha, Urakha-Akhush, Urkarax), Chirag, Cudaxar (Tsudakhar), Dejbuk, Itsari, Kajtak (Kaitak, Kaytak, Xajdak), Kubachi (Kubachin, Kubachintsy, Ughbug), Muirin, Sirxin, Uraxa-Axusha, Xarbuk. Kaytak, Kubachin, Itsari, and Chirag may be separate languages from Dargwa. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Dargi Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Dido
[ddo] Southern Dagestan Republic, Tsuntinsky district, several villages. Also in Georgia. 12,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 15,400 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cez, Didoi, Tsez, Tsezy, Tsuntin Dialects: Sahada. Sahada most distinct. May be a separate language. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic Comments: Muslim.

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Dolgan
[dlg] Sakha Republic, Anabar district; Krasnoyarsk district, Dudinka and Khatange counties. 1,050 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,260 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Contact language on Tajmyr Peninsula spoken by Evenki [evn], Nganasan [nio], and long-term Russian residents. Different from Yakut [sah]. Traditional religion.

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Domari
[rmt] Karachi in the Caucasus. 500 in Russian Federation (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Karachi, Luli, Maznoug. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Muslim.

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Enets, Forest
[enf] Potapovo, Dudinka, and other Taimyr settlements. Most are in Potapovo. 40 (2010 census). Census includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Ethnic population: 200 with Tundra Enets (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bay Enets, Pe-Bae, Yenisei Samoyedic Dialects: Forest and Tundra Enets [enh] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets

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Enets, Tundra
[enh] Vorontsovo and Karepovsk settlements; some nomads near Tukhard. 40 (2010 census). 6 in Vorontsovo, 3 in Karepovsk (2005 O. Khanina and A. Shluinsky). Ethnic population: 200 together with Forest Enets (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Madu, Somatu, Yenisei Samoyedic Dialects: Tundra and Forest Enets [enf] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets

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Erzya
[myv] North and east Mordovia Republic; Nizhny Novgorod, Ulynovsk, Penza, Samara provinces; Orenburg Province, Buguruslan; Chuvashia, Tartastan, and Bashkortostan republics. Also in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. 431,700 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Moksha [mdf]. Population total all countries: 514,330. Ethnic population: 843,350 Mordvin in Russia. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erzia, Mordvin, Mordvin-Erzya Dialects: Quite different from Moksha [mdf]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Even
[eve] Scattered in Sakha Republic (half of all Evens), Magadan Province, Khabarovski District, Kamchatka peninsula, and Chukotka Autonmous Region. 5,660 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 19,100 (2002 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eben, Ewen, Ilqan, Lamut, Orich Dialects: Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Lamunkhin, Okhotsk, Ola, Sakkyryr, Tompon, Upper Kolyma. Many dialects. Arman has no remaining speakers. Ola (basis for literary Even) not accepted by dialect speakers. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Even Comments: Many dialects divided into two main groups: Western and Eastern Even. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Evenki
[evn] Most in Sakha Republic, Evenki autonomous district and adjacent areas of Taymyr autonomous district, Krasnoyarsk and Khabarovsk districts; Maritime region settlements; Sakhalin island. 4,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 35,500 in the Russian Federation (2002 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Avanki, Avankil, Chapogir, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Solon, Tungus Dialects: Aldan Timpton, Ayan-Maya, Baykit, Cemdalsk, Cis-Baikalia, Ilimpeya, Jeltulak, Kalar, Kur-Urmi, Lower Nepa Tungir, Manegir, Nakanna, Nepa, Podkamennaya Tunguska, Poligus, Sakhalin, Sym, Tokko, Tokmo-Upper Lena, Tommot, Tuguro-Chumikan, Tutoncana, Uchama, Uchur, Vanavara, Yerbogocen, Zeya-Bureya. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Evenki Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Finnish
[fin] Ingria region, Saint Petersburg area. 38,900 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 51,900 (2002 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Some living in the Russian Federation, originally from the area of Ingria, call themselves Ingrian Finns. They are distinct from the Ingrians (Izhor), who speak a Finnic language, Ingrian (Izhorian) [izh]. Christian.

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Ghodoberi
[gdo] Southwestern Dagestan Republic, Botlikhsky district, Godoberi, Zibirkhali and Beledi. 130 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Godoberi, Godoberin Dialects: Godoberi, Zibirkhali. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Muslim.

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Gilyak
[niv] Sakhalin island, Nekrasovka and Nogliki villages; Rybnoe, Moskalvo, Chir-Unvd, Viakhtu, and other villages; Amur river area, Aleyevka village. 200 (2010 census). A few hundred active users (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 5,160. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nivkh, Nivkhi Dialects: Amur, East Sakhalin Gilyak, North Sakhalin Gilyak. Amur and East Sakhalin dialects have difficult inherent mutual intelligibility. North Sakhalin is between them linguistically. Classification: Language isolate

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Hinukh
[gin] Southwestern Dagestan Republic, Tsuntinsky district, Ginukh. 5 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ginukh, Ginukhtsy, Ginux, Hinux Dialects: Close to Tsez (Dido) [ddo], but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic Comments: Hinukh men marry Dido women. Hinukh women marry men from other ethnic groups. Muslim.

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Hunzib
[huz] Southern Dagestan Republic, Tsuntinsky district, Nakhada, Gunzib and Garbutl; Kizilyurtovksy district, Stalskoe. Also in Georgia. 1,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,420. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enzeb, Gunzib, Khunzal, Khunzaly, Xunzal Dialects: Separate from Bezhta [kap] (1989 Comrie) but very similar to it. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic Comments: Muslim.

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Ingrian
[izh] Baltic, Saint Petersburg, Kingisepp and Lomonosov areas. 120 (2010 census). L1 speakers should not be confused with Ingrian Finns, who speak Finnish [fin]. Ethnic population: 820 (1989 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ingermanlandian, Inkeroisen, Izhor, Izhorian Dialects: Khava, Lower Luzh, Oredezh (Upper Luzh), Soykin. Similar to Karelian [krl]. Oredezh dialect is extinct. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian.

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Ingush
[inh] North Caucasus, Ingushetia Republic. Also in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. 306,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 322,900. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Ingushetia (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Galgay, Ghalghay, Ingus, Kisti, Kistin Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with Chechen [che], more so with contact. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ghalghay. 1944–1957 deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia, losing 25% to 50% of the population. Lost much land, economic resources, and civil rights. Removed from Vladikavkaz in late 1992, but many returned. Muslim (Hanafi Sunni).

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Itelmen
[itl] Kamchatka Peninsula, west coast, Tigil region, Kamchatka District, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij. 80 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,200 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Itelymem, Kamchadal, Kamchatka, Western Itelmen Dialects: Sedanka, Xajrjuzovo. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Southern Comments: 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding schools. Traditional religion.

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Judeo-Tat
[jdt] Dagestan Republic, Makhachkala, Majalis, Derbent, Buinaksk, and Kizlyar, south of Pyatigorsk; North Ossetia-Alania, Mozdok; Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, Nalchyk; Chechnya, Grozniy. Also in Azerbaijan, Israel. 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Tat [ttt]. Population total all countries: 96,010. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bik, Dzhuhuric, Hebrew Tat, Jewish Tat, Judeo-Tatic, Juhuri, Lahji, Mountain Jewish, Musulman Tats, Tati Dialects: North Tat, South Tat. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat Comments: Tat is not an ethnic name. It is a Turkic term for nomads. Ethnonym: Bik, known as Mountain Jews. Ethnic autonym: Juwri or Juhuri. Tradition says they lived in the Caucasus since 722 A.D. Different from Takestani [tks] of Iran. Jewish.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Kabardino-Balkaria Republic and Karachay-Cherkessia Province. Also in Germany, Jordan, Syria, Turkey, United States. 516,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 36,700 monolinguals (2002 census). Population total all countries: 1,628,500. Ethnic population: 520,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Beslenei, East Circassian, Kabard, Kabardino-Cherkes, Kabardo-Cherkess, Upper Circassian Dialects: Baksan, Beslenei (Beslenej), Cherkes, Greater Kabardian, Kuban, Lesser Kabardian, Malka, Mozdok. Similar to Adygey [ady]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Kalmyk-Oirat
[xal] Kalmykia Republic, Volga-Don steppes northwest of the Caspian, north of the Caucasus. Dörböt dialect: mostly west Kalmykia; Torgut dialect: mostly east, lower Volga region, Astrakhan Province. Also in China, Taiwan, Germany, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia (Oirat), United States. 80,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 360,500. Ethnic population: 174,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: European Oirat, Kalmack, Kalmuck, Kalmuk, Kalmytskii Jazyk, Khalli, Oirat, Qalmaq, Volga Oirat, Western Mongolian Dialects: Buzawa, Dörböt (Derbet, Dörbet, Dörböd), Oirat (Oyrat), Sart Qalmaq, Torgut (Torghoud, Torghud, Torguud, Torguut). Diverged from other Mongolian languages. Called Kalmyk in the Russian Federation; Oirat in China and Mongolia; in the United States, Kalmyk not heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Different from other varieties in China called Oirat [xal], which are sometimes called Asiatic Oirat. In Mongolia, some scholars consider Oirat to be a dialect of Halh Mongolian [khk]. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat Comments: The modern literary language is mainly based on the Torgut dialect, though it incorporates a large number of concessions to Dörböt. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Kamas
[xas] Sayan mountains, Abalakovo village. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kamassian Dialects: Kamassian, Koibal (Khoibal). Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed Comments: The last speaker died in 1989 (Salminen 2007). Originally in Siberia. Different from the Kamassian dialect of Khakas [kjh].

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Karachay-Balkar
[krc] South Karachay-Cherkessia Province and Kabardino-Balkaria Republic. Also in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, United States, Uzbekistan. 305,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 192,000 Karachay, 108,000 Balkar (2002 census). Used by 97% of the ethnic population. Population total all countries: 310,730. Ethnic population: 303,000 (2002 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Balkarian, Balqar, Karacaylar, Karachai, Karachaitsy, Karachay, Karachayla Dialects: Balkar, Karachay-Baksan-Chegem. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian Comments: Balkar and Karachay almost identical. Muslim (Sunni).

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Karagas
[kim] Siberia, Irkutsk Province, Nizhneudinsk district, Alygdzher, Nerkha, and Verkhnyaya Gutara villages. 90 (2010 census). Less than 40 fluent speakers, same number of passive speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 840 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kamas, Karagass, Sayan Samoyed, Tofa, Tofalar Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Karata
[kpt] West Dagestan Republic, Akhvakhsky district. 9 villages. 260 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1990 A. Kibrik) or 6,400 (Koryakov 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karatai, Karatin, Kirdi Dialects: Karata proper (Anchix, Archo, Chabakaroi, Enkhelo, Ratsitl), Tokita (Tokitin). Karatin and Tokitin dialects are quite different. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Karelian
[krl] Karelia Republic; Saint Petersburg; Murmansk Province; Tver Province, mainly Tolmachi area, Maksatikha and Ves’yegonsk. Also in Finland. 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Ludian [lud]. Population total all countries: 35,600. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Karelian Proper, Karel’skiy Jazyk, Karely, Severno-Karel’skij, Sobstvenno-Karel’skij-Jazyk Dialects: Northern Karelian, Novgorod, Southern Karelian, Tver (Kalinin). Ludian [lud] and Livvi-Karelian [olo] are separate languages. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Two language nests started in 1999 and 2002 in northwestern county center of Kalevala (Salminen 2007).

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Kerek
[krk] Cape Navarin; Chukchi villages. No known L1 speakers. 3 elderly speakers in 1991 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 8. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Khatyrka (Xatyrskij), Mainypilgino (Majna-Pil’ginskij). Formerly considered a dialect of Chukchi [ckt]. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor

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Ket
[ket] Upper Yenisei valley, Krasnoyarski District, Turukhansk, and Baikitsk regions; Sulomai, Bakhta, Verkhneimbatsk, Kellog, Kangatovo, Surgutikha, Vereshchagino, Baklanikha, Farkovo, Goroshikha, and Maduyka villages; eastern Siberia, east of Khanti [kca] and Mansi [mns] language areas. 210 (2010 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,490. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Imbatski-Ket, Yenisei Ostyak, Yenisey Ostiak Classification: Yeniseian Comments: Traditional way of life has changed. Traditional religion.

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Khakas
[kjh] Khakassia Republic, north of Altai mountains; Krasnoyarsk District, north; Tuva Republic; scattered throughout Russia. Also in China. 42,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 1,500 monolinguals (2002 census). Spoken by about 10% of the population of Khakasia (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 42,610. Ethnic population: 75,600 in the Russian Federation (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Khakassia Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Abakan Tatar, Hakass, Khakhass, Xakas, Yenisei, Yennisej Tatar Dialects: Beltir, Kachin (Kaca, Khaas, Xaas), Kamass (Kamassian), Koibal (Xoibal), Kyzyl (Khyzyzl, Xyzyl), Sagai (Sagaj, Saghai), Shor. Kamass dialect is extinct (Salminen 2007). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Fewer young people speak Khakas than previous generations, but more children study it in school than 20 years ago. Traditional religion, Christian (Orthodox).

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Khanty
[kca] Khantia-Mansia Autonomous Region; east past the Mansi [mns] language area, along Ob river. 9,580 (2010 census). Mostly speakers of Northern Khanty, 2,000 speakers of Eastern Khanty and probably no speakers left in Southern Khanty (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 28,700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hanty, Khant, Khanti, Ostyak, Xanty Dialects: Eastern Khanti, Northern Khanti, Southern Khanti, Vach (Vasyugan). Intelligibility difficult between geographically distant dialects. 3 dialect groups; ‘Vach’, archaic. Dialect used in writing rejected by many speakers. Classification: Uralic Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khvarshi
[khv] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Tsumadinsky district, Khvarshi, Inkhokvari, Santlada, Kvantlada, and Khonokh villages. 1,740 (2010 census). 1,000 Inxokvari speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,870 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atl’ilqo, Khvarshin, Xvarshi Dialects: Inxokvari (Inkhokvari), Xvarshi proper. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Sometimes Xvarshi and Inxokvari are treated as two separate languages. Muslim.

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Komi
[kom] Population total all countries: 219,100. Comments: Member languages are: Komi-Permyak [koi], Komi-Zyrian [kpv]

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Komi-Permyak
[koi] Komi-Permyak National Region, west of central Ural mountains, south of Komi-Zyrian. 63,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 125,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kama Permyak, Komi-Perm, Komi-Permyat, Permyak Dialects: North Permyak (Kochin-Kam), South Permyak (Inyven), Zyudin. Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Zyrian [kpv] and Udmurt [udm]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi Comments: Some literature available. Ancient literary and cultural traditions. More densely populated and mixed, higher education, and more assimilated to national culture than Komi-Zyrian. Christian, traditional religion.

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Komi-Zyrian
[kpv] Komi Republic, near the Arctic Ocean. South of Yurak [yrk], west of Vogul (Mansi) [mns] language areas. 156,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 293,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of national identity (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Komi Dialects: Yazva. Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Permyak [koi] and Udmurt [udm]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Korean
[kor] 42,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Language isolate

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Koryak
[kpy] Kamchatka District, south of the Chukchi [ckt] language area; Kamchatka Peninsula north half and adjacent continent. 1,670 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,000 (2003). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chavchuven, Nymylan Dialects: Apokinskij (Apukin), Cavcuvenskij (Chavchuven), Gin, Itkan, Kamenskij (Kamen), Palan, Paren, Xatyrskij. Koryak and Alutor [alr] border not yet been defined. Chachuve (Northern Koryak) and Alutor now separated. Alutor formerly considered a dialect of Koryak. Classification of other dialects unclear. Chavchuven, Palan, and Kamen dialects apparently not inherently intelligible. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor Comments: Chavchuven used by reindeer herding tribes, all others use Nymylan. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kumyk
[kum] Dagestan Republic, north and east plain. Also in Kazakhstan, Turkey. 426,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 426,550. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki Dialects: Buinaksk, Khaitag, Khasavyurt, Podgorniy, Terek. Dialects quite divergent. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian Comments: Different from Kumux dialect of Lak [lbe]. Muslim (Sunni).

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Lak
[lbe] Central Dagestan Republic. Also in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. 146,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 153,170. Ethnic population: 118,000 in the Russian Federation. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kazikumukhtsy, Laki Dialects: Arakul, Ashtikulin, Balxar-Calakan (Balkar-Tsalakan), Kayalin-Mashikin, Kumux (Kumkh), Pervotsovkrin, Shali, Shandi, Vicxin (Vitskhin), Vixlin (Vikhlin). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lak Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Lezgi
[lez] Southeast Dagestan Republic, west of Caspian sea coast; central Caucasus. Also in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. 402,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 788,720. Ethnic population: 412,000 in Russia (2002 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kiurinsty, Lezghi, Lezgian, Lezgin Dialects: Kiuri (Gelkhen, Giliar, Güne, Qurah, Yarki), Quba (Kuba), Samur (Akhty, Dashagyl-Filfil, Doquzpara, Fiy, Jaba, Qurush). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Livvi-Karelian
[olo] Karelia Republic, Olonetsky, western Pryazhinsky, and southwest Kondopozhsky districts. Also in Finland (Livvi). 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Karelian[krl] and Ludian [lud]. Population total all countries: 30,770. Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karelian, Livvi, Livvikovian, Livvikovskij Jazyk, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian Dialects: Similar to Karelian [krl] and Finnish [fin]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Ludian [lud] is transitional between Livvi-Karelian and Veps [vep]. Distinct from Karelian and Ludian.

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Ludian
[lud] Republic of Karelia, central Kondopozhsky and eastern Pryazhinsky districts; Olonetsky district, Mikhaylovskoye region; Arkhangelsk Province, north corner of Onezhsky district. 25,600 (2010 census). Census includes Karelian [krl] and Livvi-Karelian [olo]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ludic, Lüüdi, Lüüdikiel, Lyudic, Lyudikovian Dialects: Ludian is transitional between Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Veps [vep]. Separate from Karelian [krl] and Livvi-Karelian [olo]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic

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Mansi
[mns] Western Siberia, Komi-Zyrian [kpv] language area to the west of the Urals; between Ural and Ob rivers. 940 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 11,400. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mansiy, Vogul, Vogulich, Voguly Dialects: Eastern Vogul (Eastern Mansi, Kondin), Northern Vogul (Northern Mansi, Ob’, Sos’va, Sosyvin, Sygva, Upper Lozyvin), Western Vogul (Lower Lozyvin, Middle Lozyvin, Pelym, Vagily, Western Mansi). Mostly Northern Vogul speakers; probably only a handful of elderly speakers of Eastern Vogul; Western Vogul is probably extinct; Southern Vogul was extinct before 1950 (Salminen 2007). Most similar to Hungarian [hun]. Classification: Uralic Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mari
[chm] Population total all countries: 785,090. Comments: Member languages are: Hill Mari [mrj], Meadow Mari [mhr]

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Mari, Hill
[mrj] Mari El Republic, south of the Volga, Gornomariysky district; Bashkortostan Republic. 388,000 (2010 census). Census includes Meadow Mari [mhr]. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Gorno-Mariy, High Mari, Mari-Hills, Western Mari Dialects: Kozymodemyan, Yaran. Lexical, phonological, and morphological differences with Meadow Mari [mhr]. Classification: Uralic, Mari Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mari, Meadow
[mhr] Mari El Republic, east of the Volga, Bashkir, and Tatar; Udmurtia Republic; Perm District; Kirov Province. Also in Kazakhstan (Eastern Mari). 388,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Hill Mari [mrj]. Population total all countries: 397,090. Ethnic population: 604,300. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Eastern Mari, Low Mari, Lugovo Mari, Mari, Mari-Woods Dialects: Grassland Mari (Meadow Mari, Sernur-Morkin, Volga, Yoshkar-Olin). Classification: Uralic, Mari Comments: In many publications the term, Eastern Mari, is reserved for the diaspora groups outside the Republic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moksha
[mdf] West Mordovia Republic; Ryazan and Penza provinces; Tatarstan Republic, Orenburg Province, scattered. 432,000 (2010 census). Census includes Erzya [myv]. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mokshan, Mordoff, Mordov, Mordvin-Moksha Dialects: Very different from Erzya [myv]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin Comments: There are Moksha villages where people speak hardly any other language except Moksha. Christian.

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Mongolian, Halh
[khk] Republic of Buryatia. 8,830 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol Dialects: Dariganga, Khalkha (Halh), Ujumuchin, Urat. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper Comments: Halh is basis for literary Mongolian. Buddhist.

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Nanai
[gld] Extreme far east, confluence of Amur and Ussuri rivers, scattered in Ussuri valley; Sikhote-Alin, centered in Amur valley below Khabarovsk. Also in China. 1,350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,390. Ethnic population: 12,200. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gold, Goldi, Heche, Hezhe, Hezhen, Nanaj Dialects: Akani, Birar, Kila, Kuro-Urmi, Samagir, Sunggari, Torgon, Ussuri. Quite distinct dialects. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj Comments: Traditional religion.

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Negidal
[neg] Khabarovsk District, Kamenka and Im; Paulina Osipenko region; lower reaches of Amur river. 74 (2010 census). Only a few fully fluent (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: El’kan Beye, Elkembey, Ilkan Beye, Neghidal, Negidaly Dialects: Nizovsk, Verkhovsk. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Negidal Comments: From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding schools. Contacts and intermarriage with the Ulch, Nanai, and Nivkh in the Amur area. Traditional religion.

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Nenets
[yrk] Northwest Siberia, north Dvina river mouth tundra area to Yenisei river delta; scattered in Kola peninsula, Nenets and Yamalia autonomous regions; Krasnoyarsk District. 21,900 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 41,300 including both Forest Nenets and Tundra Nenets. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nenec, Nenetsy, Nentse, Yurak, Yurak Samoyed Dialects: Forest Yurak, Tundra Yurak. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed Comments: Mainly nomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nganasan
[nio] Siberia, Taimyr peninsula, Krasnoyarsk District, Duinka region, Ust-Avam and Volochanka villages; Khatang region, Novaya village. Northernmost people in Russia, near Yakut [sah], Dolgan [dlg], Nenets [yrk], and (Tundra) Enets [enh] language areas. 130 (2010 census). A group of about 100 lead a semi-nomadic life in Dudypta river region near Ust’-Avam (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 830. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nya, Tavgi Samoyed Dialects: Avam (West), Khatang. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed Comments: 2 ethnic groups: Avam and Vadeyev. From 1960s–1980s resettled in villages formerly used as winter quarters or trading posts along migratory routes in 1940s. Previous intermittent contact with Tundra Enets and Nenets, and formerly officially were considered part of them. Resettlement brought close contact with Russian, Ukrainian [ukr], Belarusian [bel], and Tatar [tat]. Traditional religion.

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Nogai
[nog] Northern Caucasus, Karachay-Cherkessia Republic; Dagestan Republic, Nogay, Tarumovka, Kizlyar, and Babayurt districts; Chechnya Republic, Shelkovskaya district; Stavropol District, Neftekumsk, Mineral’nyye Vody, and Kochubeyevskoye counties. Also in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. 87,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 87,410. Ethnic population: 90,700 (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karanogai, Kubanogai, Nogaitsy, Nogalar, Nogay, Noghai, Noghay, Noghaylar Dialects: Black Nogai (Kara), Central Nogai, White Nogai (Kuba). Slight dialect differences. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Oroch
[oac] Eastern Siberia, Khabarovsk District, along rivers that empty into Tatar channel; Amur river near Komsomolsk-na-Amure; Vanino region, Datta and Uska-Orochskaya settlements; some among Nanai [gld] language speakers. 8 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 690. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Orochi Dialects: Orichen, Tez (Tazy). Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe Comments: Russians, Ukrainians, and Evenki live among them. Formerly officially considered part of Udihe. Different from Orok [oaa]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Orok
[oaa] Sakhalin Province, Poronajsk district, Poronajsk town, Gastello and Vakhrushev settlements; Nogliki district, Val village, Nogliki settlement. Also in Japan. 47 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 50. Ethnic population: 350. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Oroc, Uilta, Ujlta, Ulta Dialects: Poronaisk (Southern Orok), Val-Nogliki (Nogliki-Val, Northern Orok). Significant dialect differences. Formerly officially considered part of Nanai [gld]. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj Comments: Scattered. Relinquished traditional way of life. Different from Oroch [oac]. Prevalent intermarriage with Russians, Nivkh, Nanai, Evenksi, Negidal, and Korean people.

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Ossetic
[oss] North Ossetia-Alania Republic, north of South Ossetia in Georgia. Also in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. 451,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 577,450. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in North Ossetia-Alania (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Osetin, Ossetian Dialects: Digor, Iron. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern Comments: Christian (Orthodox), Muslim (Sunni).

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Odessa, Transcarpathia. 128,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes all gypsy languages. Ethnic population: 183,000 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalderash Dialects: Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Vlax speakers from Russia are called Rusurja. Ethnic groups: Sárvi (left-bank Ukraine), Volóxuja (right-bank Ukraine), Chache (Moldavia), Kalderari (Moldavia, Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia), Lovári (Ukraine). About 300,000 Gypsies from the former Soviet Union speak a variety of Romani, Lomavren, or Domari as L1 or L2 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Christian.

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Russian
[rus] Also in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan. 137,000,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 161,727,650. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 68(1)). Alternate Names: Russki Dialects: North Russian, South Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East Comments: Christian.

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Russian Sign Language
[rsl] Moscow and Saint Petersburg are major centers. Widespread with significant dialect variation. Also in Bulgaria. 121,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Reported historical connections to sign languages in Austria and France, but not obvious from extensive wordlist comparison (Bickford 2005). Very similar to sign languages in Ukraine and Moldova. Internal dialect variation appears significant but needs further survey. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: First school for the deaf opened at Pavlovsk near St. Petersburg in 1806. There is a manual system for spelling.

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Rutul
[rut] Southern Dagestan Republic. Also in Azerbaijan. 30,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 47,400. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chal, Mukhad, Myhynnynydy-ch’el, Rutal, Rutultsy, Rutuly Dialects: North Rutul (Asar-Kala, Ixrek, Luchek, Muxrek, Rutul, Shinaz, Vrush), South Rutul (Borch, Khnov). Dialects not sharply defined. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic Comments: Dialect groups may be treated as separate languages (Koryakov 2006). Muslim (Sunni).

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Saami, Akkala
[sia] Southwest Kola peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 100 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ahkkil, Babino, Babinsk Dialects: Most similar to Skolt Saami [sms]. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Last known speaker died 2003.

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Saami, Kildin
[sjd] Kola peninsula. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Skolt Saami [sms] and Ter Saami [sjt]. Ethnic population: 2,000 including all Saami (2002 census). 1,900 Saami in the Russian Federation (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Kildin Lappish” (pej.), “Lapp” (pej.), Saam, Saami Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami.

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Saami, Skolt
[sms] North and west Kola peninsula, Petsamo area. 350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Ter Saami [sjt]. 20 speakers (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 in the Russian Federation (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kolta, “Lapp” (pej.), Lopar, “Russian Lapp” (pej.), Saam, Skolt, “Skolt Lappish” (pej.) Dialects: Notozer, Yokan. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami. Christian.

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Saami, Ter
[sjt] Kola peninsula. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Skolt Saami [sms]. 6 elderly speakers in the early 1990s (Salminen 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Lapp” (pej.), Saam, “Ter Lappish” (pej.) Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami.

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Selkup
[sel] Tomsk Province; Yamalia and Nenetsia autonomous regions, Krasnoyarsk District. Northern dialect: Krasnoselkup region, Ratta, Krasnoselkupskaya Tolka, and Krasnoselkup villages; Purovsk region, Tolka Purovskaya village; Krasnoyarsk District, Farkovo; Turukhan river basin; Baikha. Southern dialect: north Tomsk Province area villages. 1,020 (2010 census). Central Selkup: 200 speakers, Northern Selkup: 1,000 to 1,500 speakers, Southern Selkup: less than 100 speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Selkups, Chumyl’ Khumyt, Northern Selkups, Ostyak Samoyed, Shöl Khumyt, Shösh Gulla, Syusugulla Dialects: Narym (Central Selkup), Srednyaya Ob-Ket (Southern Sel’kup), Taz (Northern Sel’kup, Tazov-Baishyan), Tym (Kety). Dialect continuum with difficult or impossible intelligibility between extremes. Southern speakers separated geographically from others. Northern Selkup literature not usable by Southern and Central. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed Comments: Formerly lingua franca for Ket, Evenki, Nenets, and Khanty. Traditional religion.

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Serbian
[srp] 11,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Bosnian [bos] and Croatian [hrv]. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Shor
[cjs] Kemerovo Province; Khakassia Republic; scattered in Russian Federation. 2,840 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 14,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aba, Kondoma Tatar, Kuznets Tatar, Mras Tatar, Shortsy, Tom-Kuznets Tatar Dialects: Kondoma, Mrassa (Mrasu). Some sources combine Shor and Chulym [clw]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Different from Shor dialect of Khakas [kjh]. Study of Shor revived; language association formed; chair of Shor created at Pedagogical University in Novokuznetsk (1996 I. Nevskaya). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Slavonic, Old Church
[chu] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Christian.

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Tabassaran
[tab] Southern Dagestan Republic. Also in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. 126,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 126,900. Ethnic population: 132,000 in Russia (2002 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ghumghum, Tabasaran, Tabasarantsy Dialects: North Tabasaran (Khanag), South Tabasaran. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Tat, Muslim
[ttt] Northern Caucasus (Daghestan Republic); large community in Moscow. 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Judeo-Tat [jdt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati Dialects: Northern Tats. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat

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Tatar
[tat] Tatarstan and Bashkortostan republics; Saint Petersburg and Moscow to eastern Siberia. Also in Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan. 4,280,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 24,700 Kreshen (Kryashen) Tatars, who are traditionally Russian Orthodox. Population total all countries: 5,407,550. Ethnic population: 5,550,000 (2002 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Tatarstan Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Tartar Dialects: Eastern Tatar (Siberian Tatar), Middle Tatar (Kazan), Western Tatar (Misher). Eastern Tatar is divided into 3: Tobol-Irtysh, Baraba, and Tom. Tobol-Irtysh is divided into 5: Tyumen, Tobol, Zabolotny, Tevriz, and Tara (Tumasheva). Mixed dialects are: Astrakhan, Kasimov, Tepter, and Ural (Poppe). 43,000 Astrakhan (L1 speakers) have shifted to the Middle dialect. Kasim (5,000 L1 speakers) is between Middle and Western Tatar. Tepter (300,000 L1 speakers) is reportedly between the Tatar and Bashkort [bak] languages. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian Comments: Different from Crimean Tatar (Crimean Turkish [crh]). Muslim (Sunni), Christian.

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Tindi
[tin] Western Dagestan Republic, Tsumadinsky district, Tindi, Angida, Aknada, Echeda, and Tissi villages. 2,150 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tindal, Tindin Dialects: Angidin-Aknadin, Tindin-Echendin. Bagvalal [kva] closely related, but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Tsakhur
[tkr] Southern Dagestan Republic, Rutulsky district. 13 villages. 10,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caxur, Tsakhury, Tsaxur, Yiqny Miz Dialects: Gelmets-Mikik (Gelmets-kurdul, Kirmico-Lek, Mikik), Tsakh (Jinagh, Mishkesh, Mukhakh-Sabunchi, Muslakh, Suvagil, Tsakh-Qum). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic Comments: Most widely scattered smaller ethnic group. Muslim.

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Tuva
[tyv] Siberia, Tuva Republic. Also in China, Mongolia. 254,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 283,400. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Tuva Republic. Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tofa, Tokha, Tuba, Tuvan, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tyva, Uriankhai, Uriankhai-Monchak, Uryankhai Dialects: Central Tuvin, Northeastern Tuvin (Todzhin), Southeastern Tuvin, Tuba-Kizhi, Western Tuvin. Sharp dialect differences. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Until 1944 Tuva was an independent state. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Udihe
[ude] Siberia far east; Khabarovsk District, Lazo area, Gvasiugi settlement; Nanai [gld] language area, Arsenievo settlement; Primorsky District, Pozharsky area, Krasny Yar, Olon, and Sobolinyi settlements; Ternei area, Agzu settlement; Krasnoarmeisky area, Roschino, Dalniy Kut, and Melnichnoye settlements. 100 (2010 census). 80 or less L1 users (Vakhtin 2001). Ethnic population: 1,660. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kiakala, Tazy, Ude, Udegeis, Udeghe, Udehe Dialects: Aniuy, Bikin, Iman, Khor, Khungari, Kur-Urmi, Samarga. Dialect differences not great. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe Comments: Resettled in artificial villages in Russian-speaking [rus] region with Ukrainian and Nanai people. Children sent to boarding schools. Hezhe, in China may refer to this. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Udmurt
[udm] Near Ural Mountains, Udmurtia Republic, 1,000 km northeast of Moscow, bounded by Kama and Cheptsa rivers. Also in Kazakhstan. 324,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 339,800. Ethnic population: 637,000, plus 3,100 Besermyan speakers. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Votiak, Votyak Dialects: North Udmurt (Besermyan, Udmurt), South Udmurt (Southwestern Udmurt). Classification: Uralic, Permian Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ulch
[ulc] Khabarovsk District, Ulch county, Amur river and tributaries, Tatar channel coast, Bulava, Dudi, Kalinovka, Mariinskoe, Nizhnaya Gavan, Savinskoe, Mongol, Solontsy, Kolchom, Sofiyskoe, Tur, and Ukhta. Bogorodskove is capital. 150 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,900. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hoche, Hol-Chih, Olch, Olcha, Olchis, Ulcha, Ulchi, Ulych Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj Comments: Close contact with Russian [rus], Ukrainian [ukr], Nanai [gld], Nivkh [niv] (Gilyak), Negidal [neg], and others.

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Veps
[vep] Among Russian speakers, Saint Petersburg and Vologda Province boundary; Karelian Republic. 3,610 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 8,240. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chudy” (pej.), “Chuhari” (pej.), “Chukhari” (pej.), Vepsian Dialects: Central Veps, Prionezh (North Veps), Southern Veps. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian.

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Vod
[vot] Saint Petersburg, Kingisepp. 68 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 73. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Vodian, Vote, Votian, Votic, Votish Dialects: East Vod, West Vod. Intelligible with Standard Estonian [ekk] of the northeast coast. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Last speakers of East Vod dialect died in the 1960s.

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Yakut
[sah] Sakha Republic, near Arctic Ocean, middle Lena river, Aldan and Kolyma rivers, 3,220 km. 450,000 (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sakha Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Sakha, Yakut-Sakha Dialects: Dolgan, Middlekolymskyi, Olemkinskyi, Vilyiskyi. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yugh
[yuu] Krasnoyarsk District, Turukhan area, Vorogovo settlement. 1 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 19 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Yug Classification: Yeniseian

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Yukaghir, Northern
[ykg] Sakha Republic, lower Kolyma county, Andryushkino and Kolymskoye. 370 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Ethnic population: 230–1,100 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jukagir, Northern Yukagir, Odul, Tundra, Tundre, Wadul, Yukagir Dialects: Distinct from Southern Yukaghir (Kolyma) [yux]. May be distantly related to Altaic or Uralic. Classification: Yukaghir Comments: In 19th century their territory shrank due to merging clans, military clashes, assimilation with the Even, and later, collectivization. From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding school. Ethnic autonym: Odul. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yukaghir, Southern
[yux] Sakha Republic, upper Kolyma county, Nelemnoye and Zyryanka. 370 (2010 census). Census includes Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Ethnic population: 130 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Forest Yukagir, Jukagir, Kolym, Kolyma, Odul, Southern Yukagir, Yukagir Dialects: Not inherently intelligible of Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Classification: Yukaghir Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yupik, Central Siberian
[ess] Chukotka Autonomous Region, Bering Sea coast, Wrangel island; Providenie region, Chaplino, Novo-Chaplino and Providenie villages. 510 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Naukan Yupik [ynk]. Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Asiatic Yupik, Bering Strait, “Eskimo” (pej.), Siberian Yupik, Yoit, Yuit, Yuk, Yupik Dialects: Aiwanat, Chaplino, Noohalit (Peekit), Wooteelit. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik Comments: School at Anadyr. Sirenik [ysr] is a separate, but now extinct, language. Traditional religion.

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Yupik, Naukan
[ynk] Chukotka Autonomous Region, Laurence, Lorino, and Whalen villages, scattered. 510 (2010 census). Census includes Central Siberian Yupik [ess]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Naukan, Naukanski Dialects: 60%–70% intelligibility of the Chaplino dialect of Central Siberian Yupik [ess]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik

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Yupik, Sirenik
[ysr] Chukot peninsula, Sireniki village. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Old Sirenik, Sirenik, Sirenikski, Vuteen Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik

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