Sudan

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Acheron
[acz] South Kordofan, Saraf Aj-Jaamous area east of Moro hills. 9,830 (2006 R. Norton). Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aceron, Achurun, Asheron, Garme Dialects: Gandok (Eastern Acheron), Garong, Gathuk (Western Acheron). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho

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Afitti
[aft] South Kordofan, east Jebel ed Dair. Main center is Sidra. 4,510 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Affitti, Dinik, Ditti, Unietti Dialects: Lexical similarity: 59% with Ama [nyi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Nyimang

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Aka
[soh] Southern Blue Nile, Jebel Silak, southwest of Ingessana hills. 300 (Bender 1983). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fa-C-Aka, Jebel Silak, Jebels Sillok, Sillok Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo Comments: Heavily Arabicized and influenced by Berta [wti]. A remnant group (Bender 1983).

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Ama
[nyi] South Kordofan, Jebel Nyimang hills area, Mandal hills, Kalara, Koromiti, Nitil, Al Fous, Kakara, Hajar Sultan, Salara, Tundia, Fuony, and other villages. 70,000 (1982 SIL). Elderly and young children are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Inyimang, Nyima, Nyiman, Nyimang, Nyuwing Dialects: Ama, Mandal (Male). 80% similarity between Ama and Mandal dialects. Lexical similarity: 59% with Afitti [aft]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Nyimang Comments: Called Nyuwing by some Hill Nubian languages; people on the Mandal Hills (Sobay (Sud), Adlan, Bade, Kule, Wulal) used to speak the Kudur dialect of Dilling [dil], but now only speak Ama.

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Andaandi
[dgl] North, Dongola district; north boundary with Nobiin [fia] language area is Burgeg. 180,000 (1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dongola, Dongolawi, Dongolawi Nubian, Dongolese Dialects: Similar to Kenzi [xnz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Dongolawi Comments: Ethnonym: Danaagla or Dongola Nubian.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)), writing, formal speech use only. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Not intelligible with Sudanese Spoken Arabic [apd] or Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga].

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread as L1 or L2. Also in Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan. 15,000,000 in South Sudan and Sudan. Population total all countries: 1,833,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic Dialects: Ja’ali, Khartoum, North Kordofan Arabic, Shukri, Western Sudanese. Western Sudan Spoken Arabic and Khartoum Arabic dialects have little compatibility (Kaye 1988). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Written form rarely used; Standard Arabic [arb] used instead.

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Baygo
[byg] South Darfur, southeast of Nyala, east Kube hills, Jebel Beygo. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 850 (1978 GR). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baigo, Bego, Beigo, Beko, Béogé, Beygo Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju Comments: May have been the same as Njalgulgule [njl].

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Bedawiyet
[bej] Red Sea and Kassala states, southeast River Nile. Also in Egypt, Eritrea. 951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). 30,000 Hadendoa, 15,000 Bisharin (1992). Population total all countries: 1,186,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedauye, Bedawi, Bedawiye, Bedja, Beja, Tu Bdhaawi, Tu-Bedawie Dialects: Beni-Amir, Bisharin (Bisariab), Hadareb (Hadaareb), Hadendoa (Hadendiwa, Hadendowa). Little vocabulary in common with other Cushitic languages, but a great deal of the verbal morphology is similar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North Comments: Beja is the Arabic name. Not related to Western Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic (Bedawi) [ayl] or Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic (Bedawi) [avl].

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Berta
[wti] Blue Nile State, Ethiopia border area, Kurmuk and Geissan districts, south Roseires district. 22,000 in Sudan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barta, “Beni Shangul” (pej.), Burta, Gwami, Wetawit Dialects: Bake, Fadashi, Mayu, Shuru, Undu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Berta

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Berti
[byt] Tagabo hills, Darfur, and Kordofan. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern

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Birked
[brk] North Darfur, between Jebel Harayt and Rizaykat (Arab) country; north of Nyala; north Kordofan, south of El Obeid. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birgid, Birguid, Birkit, Birqed, Kajjara, Murgi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Kadaru [kdu], 51% with Midob [mei]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Birked

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Burun
[bdi] Blue Nile State, north Kurmuk district. 18,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Borun, Cai, Lange Dialects: Abuldugu (Bogon, Mugo-Mborkoina), Maiak, Mufwa (Mopo), Mughaja (Mugaja, Mumughadja), Ragreig. Some southern dialects intelligible with Mabaan [mfz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Burun Comments: 3 cultural sections: Northern, comprising Cerkom (Serkum), Morkuny (Baldugu), Mayica (Magaja); Eastern, comprising Gengar (Kurmuk), Jorak (Jorok), Redwak (Regareg); South-West, comprising Mayak, Mofo (Mufu).

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Dagik
[dec] South Kordofan State, Mesakin hills, Reikha (Tolabe), Taballa, Kamlela (Togaro), Tosari, and Buram (Thobu) villages. 38,000 including Ngile [jle] speakers (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagig, Masakin, Masakin Dagig, Masakin Gusar, Thakik Dialects: Adobu, Arreme, Tosari. Lexical similarity: 80% with Ngile [jle] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ruwa.

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Dair
[drb] South Kordofan State, west and south of Jebel Dair. 1,000 (1978 GR). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dabab, Daier, Thaminyi Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified

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Daju, Dar Fur
[daj] South Darfur State, Daju hills 40 km northeast of Nyala; West Darfur State, Geneina district. Lagowa dialect: South Kordofan State, near Lagawa, Dar el Kabira (Kidong), Silecce, Warina, Jebel Miheila, Nyukri, and Tamanyik villages. 80,000 (Bender 1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beke, Dagu, Daju Ferne, Fininga, Nyala-Lagowa Dialects: Lagowa, Nyala. Lexical similarity: 83% with Nyala and Lagowa dialects, 74% with Daju Dar Sila [dau], 62% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju

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Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] West Darfur State, Habilla district. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bokor, Bokorike, Bokoruge, Mongo-Sila, Sila, Sula Dialects: Mongo, Sila. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju

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Dilling
[dil] South Kordofan State, Dilling town and surrounding hills, including Kudur. 5,300 (Stevenson 1984), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Delen, Warkimbe Dialects: Debri, Dilling. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dilling and Debri dialects; 93% with Kadaru [kdu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified Comments: The Dilling people call themselves Warki; those of Kudur call themselves Kwashe. People of Mandal Hills (Sobay (Sud), Adlan, Bade, Kule, Wulal) used to speak the Kudur dialect of Dilling, but now speak Ama [nyi] and only use Dilling for ceremonies.

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Domari
[rmt] Scattered in urban centers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Main clans in Sudan: Halabi and Ghajar.

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El Hugeirat
[elh] South Kordofan State, El Hugeirat hills, Sija, Bija, Shenshin, and Baboy villages. 50 (2007 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: El Hagarat Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified

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English
[eng] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution Article 8(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Gezira, Sennar, and Blue Nile states, Blue Nile river towns; North and South Kordofan states, scattered. 90,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fellata Dialects: Gombe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Migration originally from Sokoto, Adamawa, and Gombe in Nigeria, Maasina in Mali, Liptaako and Jelgooji in Burkina Faso, also the Wodaabe lineage, and from Cameroon. Influenced by Arabic.

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Fur
[fvr] North, West, and South Darfur states; some villages in east Sudan. Also in Chad. 500,000 in Sudan (Bender 1983). Population total all countries: 501,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dala, For, Fora, Fordunga, Forok, Forta, Furakang, Furawi, Kadirgi, Konjara, Korra, Kungara, Kurka, Lali, Onage, Yerge Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur Comments: Called Furawi by Arabs; Forta by Masalit; Yerge by Daju Dar Sila; Onage by Daju Dar Fur; Forok by Tama; Korra by Zaghawa; Kadirgi by Birgid; Kurka by Meidob; Dala by Kara; Lali by Gula.

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Gaam
[tbi] Blue Nile State, Baw district, Jebel Tabi and outlying hills. 67,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaahmg, Ingassana, Ingessana, Kamanidi, Mamedja, Mamidza, Metabi, Muntabi, Tabi Dialects: Buwahg (Buek), Kukur (Gor), Kulang (Bau, Kulelek), Soda (Tao). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Gaam Comments: Called Ingassana, Ingessana by Arabs. Clan groups: Agadi, Bagis, Beek, Bulmut, Kilgu, Kukuli, Mugum, Sidak.

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Ganza
[gza] Blue Nile State, Kurmuk district, between Yabus and Daga rivers, Dahmoh, Tugubele, Korbum, Darsoma, and Yeshkab villages. Also in Ethiopia. 2,600 in Sudan (2007 A. Krell). Population total all countries: 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganzo, Gwami, Koma, Koma-Ganza Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West

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Gbaya
[krs] South Darfur State, Radom district, Kafia Kingi and south. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh

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Ghulfan
[ghl] South Kordofan State, 2 hills south of Dilling: Ghulfan Kurgul and Ghulfan Morung, villages: Tarda, Ninya, Kurgul, Moring, Dabri, Katang, Shigda, Karkandi, Ota, and Namang. 16,000 (Stevenson 1984), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gulfan, Uncunwee, Wunci, Wuncimbe Dialects: Most closely related to Kadaru [kdu] (Jabal Sitta), then to Dilling [dil] and Wali [wll]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Uncu.

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Gula
[kcm] South Darfur State, Kafia Kingi. 200 in Sudan (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kara, Kara of Sudan, Yamegi Dialects: Gula (Goula), Nguru (Bubu, Koyo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara Comments: Different from Kara [kah] of Central African Republic, Kare [kbn] of Chad, or Gula [glu] of Chad.

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Gule
[gly] Blue Nile State, Damazin district, Jebel Gule, San and Roro hills. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Bender 1983). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Anej, Fecakomodiyo, Hamej Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman

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Gumuz
[guk] Blue Nile State, east Er Roseires district, Famaka and Fazoglo areas on the Blue Nile; Sennar State, Dinder district, north along Ethiopia border. 40,000 in Sudan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Debatsa, Deguba, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Mendeya, Shankillinya, Shanqilla Dialects: Dakunza (Degoja, Dugunza, Dukuna, Dukunza, Ganza, Gunza), Dekoka, Dewiya, Disoha (Desua), Gombo, Jemhwa, Kukwaya, Modea, Sai, Sese (Saysay). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz Comments: A section in Sudan call themselves Kadallu.

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Hausa
[hau] Scattered in Khartoum, along Blue Nile river; Kordofan. 80,000 in Sudan (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1

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Heiban
[hbn] South Kordofan State, Heiban and Abul towns. 4,410 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Abul, Ebang Dialects: Lexical similarity: 90% with Laro [lro]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru

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Jumjum
[jum] Blue Nile State, west Kurmuk district on South Sudan border, Wadega, Jebels Tunga and Terta areas. Also in South Sudan. 25,000 in Sudan (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wadkai.

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Kadaru
[kdu] South Kordofan State, Jibaal as Sitta hills between Dilling and Delami. 7,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kadaro, Kadero, Kaderu, Kodhin, Kodhinniai, Kodoro Dialects: Dabatna (Kaaral), Kadaru (Kodur), Kafir (Ka’e), Kuldaji (Kendal), Kurtala (Ngokra), Kururu (Tagle). Dialects spoken by six clan groups living on six separate hills. Western form used by the Berko people at Habila (southwest of Jebel Sitta, neighboring the Ghulfan) may be another dialect or a separate language. Lexical similarity: 93% with Dilling [dil], 92%–87% with Debri [dil], 60% with Birked [brk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Tamya.

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Kanga
[kcp] South Kordofan state, Miri hills, west and southwest of Kadugli; Kufa village cluster southeast of Miri, northeast of Lima, and north of Kanga. Kufa-Lima dialect: Kufa, Toole (center), Lenyaguyox, Bilenya, and Dologi, and Lima, Kilag, and Mashaish villages, 15 km west of Kadugli. 8,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Abu Sinun, Chiroro-Kursi, Kanga, Krongo Abdalla, Kufa-Lima. Lexical similarity: 85% with the Tumma dialect of Katcha-Kadugli-Miri [xtc] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Scattered, in Darfur, Kordofan, and other regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Beriberi” (pej.), Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri Dialects: Dagara, Fadawa, Guvja, Kabari (Kuvuri), Kaga (Kagama), Kwayam, Lare, Maiduguri, Mao, Ngazar, Njesko, Sugurti, Temageri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Known as Bornu in Sudan.

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Karko
[kko] South Kordofan State, Karko hills, 35 km west of Dilling, includes Dulman. 13,000 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Garko, Karme, Kithonirishe Dialects: Karko, Kasha, Shifir. Varieties spoken by the Ilaki on Abu Junuk to the west (1,000) and by the Tamang at El Tabaq southwest of Katla (800) may be dialects or separate languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kaak. The Ama [nyi] call them Karme.

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Katcha-Kadugli-Miri
[xtc] South Kordofan State. Katcha dialect: Katcha, Tuna, Kafina, Dabakaya (Donga), Belanya, and Farouq villages, south of Kadugli; Kadugli dialect: Kadugli, Murta, Kulba, ’Daalimo, Thappare and Takko villages; Miri: Miri Bara, Miri Guwa, Umduiu, Nyimodu, Luba, Kadoda, Kya, Tulluk, Hayar al-Nimr, Kuduru, Kasari, and Sogolle villages, west of Kadugli. 75,000 (2004 SIL). 30,000 Katcha and Kadugli (2004), 4,000 Miri. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Damba, Kadugli (Dakalla, Dhalla, Kudugli, Morta, Talla, Toma Ma Dalla), Katcha (Dholubi, Tolubi), Miri, Tumma. Stevenson (1984) treats them as dialects of one language. Ruhlen (1987) and Schadeberg (1989) treat them as separate. Samir Bulus says that Tumma is dialect of Katcha. Lexical similarity: 85% among Katcha, Kadugli, and Miri dialects, 88% between Kadugli and Damba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Katla
[kcr] South Kordofan State, Katla hills 56 km southwest of Dilling. Katla dialect: Bombori, Kateik, Kiddu, Kirkpong, Karoka, and Koldrong; Julud dialect: Karkarya, Karkando, Kolbi, Kambai, Rumber, Octiang, Sabba, Tolot, Kary, Kitanngo, Kimndang, Kabog, Koto Kork, Kabosh, and Kabog North. 14,200 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Akalak, Kalak Dialects: Julud, Katla. Julud speakers understand almost everything spoken in Katla, and some Tima [tms]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla

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Keiga
[kec] South Kordofan State, Jebel Demik, northwest of Kadugli; Ambong area, Ambong, Ambongadi, Kandang, Kuluwaring, Tingiragadi, Lakkadi, Taffor, Arungekkaadi, Bila Ndulang, Roofik, and Saadhing villages; Lubung area, Kuwaik, Tungunungunu, Miya Ntaarang, Miya Ntaluwa, Miya Ndumuru, and Semalili villages; Tumuro area, Koolo, Kayide, Jughuba, and Tumuro villages. 6,070 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aigang, Demik, Keiga-Al-Kheil, Keiga-Timero, Yega Dialects: Demik (Rofik), Keiga (Aigang). Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Kadugli languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Kelo
[xel] South Blue Nile State, Geissan district, Jebel Tornasi, Keeli village, and Beni Sheko. 200. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kelo-Beni Sheko, Ndu-Faa-Keelo, Tornasi Dialects: Beni Sheko, Kelo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo

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Ko
[fuj] South Kordofan State, isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 2,680 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Fungor, Fungur, Kau Dialects: Kau (Ko), Nyaro. Nyaro and Kau may be the same dialect. Lexical similarity: 67% with Warnang [wrn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern

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Koalib
[kib] South Kordofan State, Delami area; Nguqwurang dialect: Umm Berumbita and Turum; Ngunduna dialect: Koalib hills area; Nginyukwur: Nyukwur, Umm Heitan and Hadra; Ngirere: Abri area villages scattered on the plain. 44,300 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Abri, Kawalib, Kowalib, Lgalige, Ngirere, Nirere, Rere Dialects: Ngemere, Nginyukwur, Ngirere, Ngunduna, Nguqwurang. Lexical similarity: 75% with most similar Heiban languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Rere

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Komo
[xom] South Blue Nile State, Kurmuk district, Ahmar, Tombak, and Yabus rivers area. Also in Ethiopia, South Sudan. 10,000 in Sudan (1979 W. James). Population total all countries: 18,530. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Koma, Como, Gokwom, Hayahaya, Koma of Daga, Madiin Dialects: Beilla, Chali. Dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 52% with Uduk [udu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman Comments: Called Aru in Uduk [udu].

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Krongo
[kgo] South Kordofan State, Krongo hills, mainly in Tabanya, Toroji and Angolo; also Damaguto, Dimadragu, Dimodongo, Dar, and Buram. 21,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimodongo, Kadumodi, Korongo, Kurungu, Tabanya Dialects: Fama-Teis-Kua. Lexical similarity: 85% with Tumtum [tbr]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Lafofa
[laf] South Kordofan State, central Eliri hills. 600 (2000 M. Brenzinger). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Jebel El Amira (El Amira), Jebel Tekeim (Jebel, Tegem, Tekeim), Lafofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Tegem

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Laro
[lro] South Kordofan State, Laro (Alleira) hills north of Heiban town. Villages: Oya, Rodong (Hajar Medani), Hajar Baco, Gunisaia, Serif, Tondly, Reli, Lagau (Serfinila), Getaw (Hajar Tiya), Orme (Ando). 40,000 (1998). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Laru, Leera, Liira, Ngwullaro, Yillaro Dialects: Yidundili-Yigoromany, Yilaru. Lexical similarity: 90% with Heiban [hbn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru Comments: Laru is the locally preferred name. Al-Leira is the Arabic name.

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Logol
[lof] South Kordofan State, isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 2,600. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lukha Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Otoro [otr] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Logol

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Logorik
[liu] South Kordofan State, Jebel Liguri and hills 15 km northeast of Kadugli. 2,000 (Welmers 1971). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Liguri Dialects: Liguri, Saburi, Tallau (Talau, Talo, Tilow). Lexical similarity: 64% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 57% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Eastern Daju

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Lumun
[lmd] South Kordofan State, Limon hills, Toromathan, To’ri, and Canya’ru villages. 30,000 (2012 T. Stirtz). Home area population 19,000 (2011 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kuku-Lumun, Lomon Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho

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Masalit
[mls] West Darfur State, Geneina and Habila districts; South Darfur State, scattered; Gedaref State. Northern Masalit dialect: north and east of Geneina. Also in Chad. 350,000 in Sudan (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 410,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kana Masaraka, Massalit Dialects: Dialect in West Darfur differs from that in South Darfur. Lexical similarity: 36% with Karanga [kth], 42% with Maba [mfz], 45% with Marfa [mvu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Masalit Comments: Many fled to Chad due to war in Darfur (2011).

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Midob
[mei] North Darfur State, Mellit district, Malha area; Khartoum State, Omdurman district, scattered; White Nile State, Gezira Aba. 50,000 (1993 R. Werner). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meidob, Midobi, Tid, Tidda, Tid-N-Aal Dialects: Kaageddi, Shelkota (Shalkota), Urrti (Uurti). Lexical similarity: 51% with Birgid [brk] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Western

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Molo
[zmo] South Blue Nile State, Jebel Malkan. 100 (1988 M. Bender), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malkan Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo

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Moro
[mor] South Kordofan State, Moro hills. 30,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dhimorong Dialects: Laiyen, Nderre, Nubwa, Ulba, Umm Dorein (Longorban), Umm Gabralla (Toberelda), Werria. Lexical similarity: 75% with Tira [tic] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western

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Nding
[eli] East Nuba hills, south Eliri range. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Eliri Dialects: Lexical similarity: was 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Nding

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Ngile
[jle] South Kordofan State, Mesakin hills. Masakin Tuwal dialect: Masakin and Togosilu villages; Daloka dialect: Daloka and El Aheimar villages. 38,000 (1982). including Dagik [dec] speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daloka, Darra, Masakin, Mesakin, Taloka Dialects: Daloka (Taloka), Masakin Tuwal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu Comments: Masakin Tuwal call their language Arra; Dagik [dec] call it Agosilu; Daloka called Angire by Masakin Tuwal.

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Nobiin
[fia] Northern State, Wadi Halfa district, Burgeg to Wadi Halfa; Kassala State, New Halfa. Also in Egypt. 295,000 in Sudan (1996). Population total all countries: 605,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiadidja-Mahas, Mahas-Fiadidja, Mahas-Fiyadikkya Dialects: Mahas (Mahasi, Mahass). Lexical similarity: 67% with Kenzi [xnz], but not intelligible of it. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Northern

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Otoro
[otr] South Kordofan State, Otoro hills south of Heiban town. 10,000 (2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhitoro, Kawama, Kawarma, Litoro, Utoro Dialects: Dogoridi, Dorobe, Dugujur, Dukwara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Utoro

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Shatt
[shj] South Kordofan State, Shatt Daman, Shatt Safia, and Shatt Tebeldia; Abu Hashim and Abu Sinam areas. 15,000 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Liguri [liu], 62% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Eastern Daju Comments: Ethnonym: Shatt, dispersed or scattered, applied by Arabic speakers to various inhabitants of the Kordofan Hills. Distinct from Thuri (Shatt) [thu] in the Lwo group.

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Shwai
[shw] South Kordofan State, 20 km west of Heiban town. 3,500 (1989). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ludumor, Shirumba, Shuway Dialects: Cerumba (Shirumba), Ndano, Shabun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Shirumba

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Tagoi
[tag] South Kordofan State, Moreb, Tagoi, Turjok, Tumale, Tuling, Tukum, and Turum. 13,000 (1982 SIL). 2,000 Tagoi, 552 Moreb, 1,100 Tumale (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Tagoy Dialects: Moreb, Tagoi, Tumale. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad

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Talodi
[tlo] South Kordofan State, Talodi town, Tasomi and Tata villages. 1,500 (1989). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajomang, Gajomang, Jomang Dialects: Dialects nearly identical. Lexical similarity: 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Jomang

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Tama
[tma] Mileere dialect: West Darfur State, Jabal Muun area, Salia town; South Darfur State, west of Nyala; Erenga dialect: West Darfur State, Sirba area, Abu Suruj, Saraf Jidad, Bir Dagig, Kondobe, Budiflo, Tord, Shitkol, Muburung, Goboron, Agar, Immed Marloga, Gezin, Giilint, Zere, Kuma Mardok , Rigilmur, Abu Shadra, Matinoor, and Kengrem. 5,000 in Sudan (1970). Population known for Mileere only. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Erenga, Mileere (Milerinka), Murase, Tama. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor Comments: In Arabic, Mileere dialect is called Jabaal, speakers called Misiriya aj-Jabal.

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Tegali
[ras] South Kordofan State, Tegali and Rashad hills and Rashad town. 35,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tagale, Tegele, Tekele, Togole Dialects: Rashad (Kom, Kome, Ngakom), Tegali, Tingal (Kajaja, Kajakja). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad Comments: Tegali and Rashad dialects are nearly identical.

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Temein
[teq] South Kordofan State, between Jebels Ghulfan Morung and Julud, Tukur, Nekring, Kwiye, Tokoing, Tulu, Farik, and Kuris villages. 13,000 (2006). 6,000 in home area villages; 7,000 in other towns in Sudan. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Rone, Ronge, Temainian Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Tese [keg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Temein

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Tese
[keg] South Kordofan State, Keiga Jirru, and 6 villages northeast of Kadugli. 1,400 (Welmers 1971). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Keiga Girru, Keiga Jirru, Teis-Umm-Danab Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Temein [teq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Temein

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Tigré
[tig] Red Sea State, Tokar district, between Eritrea border and Tokar. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khasa, Xasa Dialects: Mansa’ (Mensa). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North

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Tima
[tms] South Kordofan State, Jebel Tima village, 15 km southwest of Katla, north of Lagawa. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lomorik, Lomuriki, Tamanik, Yibwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla Comments: Though classified as a Kordofanian language (Greenberg 1963), Tima appears to constitute a linguistic isolate together with Katla [kcr] (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007).

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Tira
[tic] South Kordofan State, hills between Kauda and Talodi. 40,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lithiro, Thiro, Tiro Dialects: Kinderma (Kanderma), Tira El Akhdar (Tira Dagig), Tira Lumum (Luman), Tira Mandi. Slight variations among dialects. Lexical similarity: 75% with Moro [mor] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western

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Tocho
[taz] South Kordofan State, 15 villages near Saraf aj Jamus, and Delabaya. 3,800 (Schadeberg 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tacho, Toicho Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho

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Torona
[tqr] South Kordofan state, Limon hills. 2 (2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho

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Tulishi
[tey] South Kordofan State, Lagawa and northeast at Jebels Tulishi, Kamdang, Laati, Lawwa, Ntukungnge, Aabiisa, Nattilongke, Aliyooro Manadaha, Thudhi, and Kirakaati villages. Dar el Kabira dialect: 25km southwest of Lagawa. 2500 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuntulishi, Thulishi, Tulesh Dialects: Dar El Kabira (Logoke, Minjimmina, Truj, Turuj), Kamda (Kamdang), Tulishi. Dar el Kabira and Kamdang dialects are similar. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Tumtum
[tbr] South Kordofan State, Kurondi south of Eliri Hills. Talassa dialect: north Eliri hills; Tumtum dialect: west Talodi hills. 7,300. 6,000 in Karondi, 1,300 in Tumtum. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Karondi (Korindi, Kurondi), Talassa (Talasa), Tumtum. Lexical similarity: 85% with Krongo [kgo] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Uduk
[udu] Blue Nile State, Kurmuk district, from Belila north, south to Yabus river. Also in South Sudan. 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the two not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kwanim Pa.

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Wali
[wll] South Kordofan state, 12 km northeast of Katla. 9,000 (2007). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Walari, Walarishe Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wele.

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Warnang
[wrn] South Kordofan State, small isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 1,100 (1956 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Werni Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Ko [fuj] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern

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Yulu
[yul] South Darfur State, Habbaniya area. 3,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara

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Zaghawa
[zag] North Darfur State, scattered in Darfur and Kordofan. Also in Chad, Libya. 75,000 in Sudan (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 169,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beri-Aa, Berri, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua Dialects: Kube, Tuba (Bideyat), Wagi (Twer). Wagi is the main dialect in Sudan. Ethnic subgroups are Kobe, Dor, and Anka, with slight dialect differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Beri.

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