Sudan

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Acheron
[acz] Janub Kurdufan state: Saraf Aj-Jaamous area, east of Moro hills. 20,000 (2006 R. Norton). 9,830 speakers in home area (2006 R. Norton). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aceron, Achurun, Asheron, Garme. Dialects: Gandok (Eastern Acheron), Gathuk (Western Acheron), Garong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

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Afitti
[aft] Shamal Kurdufan state: east Jebel ed Dair, main center is Sidra. 4,000 (de Voogt 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Affitti, Dinik, Ditti, Unietti. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 59% with Ama [nyi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nyimang.

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Aka
[soh] An Nil al Azraq state: Jebel Silak, southwest of Ingessana hills. 300 (Bender 1983a). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fa-C-Aka, Jebel Silak, Jebels Sillok, Sillok. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo. Comments: Heavily Arabicized and influenced by Berta [wti]. A remnant group (Bender 1983b).

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Ama
[nyi] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Nyimang hills area, Mandal hills, Kalara, Koromiti, Nitil, Al Fous, Kakara, Hajar Sultan, Salara, Tundia, Fuony, and other villages. 70,000 (1982 SIL). Elderly and young children are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Inyimang, Nyima, Nyiman, Nyimang, Nyuwing. Dialects: Ama, Mandal (Male). 80% similarity between Ama and Mandal dialects. Lexical similarity: 59% with Afitti [aft]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nyimang. Comments: Called Nyuwing by some Hill Nubian languages; people on the Mandal Hills (Sobay (Sud), Adlan, Bade, Kule, Wulal) used to speak the Kudur dialect of Dilling [dil], but now only speak Ama.

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Andaandi
[dgl] Ash Shamaliyah state: Dongola district; north boundary with Nobiin [fia] language area is Burgeg. 70,000 (2014 M. Jaeger). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Danaagla, Dongola, Dongola Nubian, Dongolawi, Dongolawi Nubian, Dongolese. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mattokki dialect of Kenzi [xnz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Dongolawi.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Not intelligible with Sudanese Spoken Arabic [apd] or Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga].

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread. 15,000,000 in Sudan (1991). Population now divided between Sudan and South Sudan. Total users in all countries: 16,967,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as an L2 by all other language groups in Sudan. Alternate Names: Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic. Dialects: Khartoum, Western Sudanese, North Kordofan Arabic, Ja’ali, Shukri. Western Sudan Spoken Arabic and Khartoum Arabic dialects have little compatibility (Kaye 1988). A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Written form rarely used; Standard Arabic [arb] used instead.

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Baygo
[byg] Janub Darfur state: southeast of Nyala, east Kube hills, Jebel Beygo. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 850 (1978 GRN). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baigo, Bego, Beigo, Beko, Béogé, Beygo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju. Comments: May have been the same as Njalgulgule [njl].

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Bedawiyet
[bej] Al Bahr al Ahmar state; Kassala, Nahr an Nil, and Al Qadarif states, southeast River Nile. 951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). 30,000 Hadendoa, 15,000 Bisharin (1992). Total users in all countries: 1,237,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedauye, Bedawi, Bedàwie, Bedawiye, Bedja, Beja, Tu Bdhaawi, Tu-Bedawie. Dialects: Hadendoa (Hadendiwa, Hadendowa), Hadareb (Hadaareb), Bisharin (Bisariab), Beni-Amir. Little vocabulary in common with other Cushitic languages, but a great deal of the verbal morphology is similar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North. Comments: Beja is the Arabic name. Not related to Western Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic (Bedawi) [ayl] or Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic (Bedawi) [avl].

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Berta
[wti] An Nil al Azraq state: Ethiopia border area, Kurmuk and Geissan districts, south Roseires district. 180,000 in Sudan (Osman 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barta, “Beni Shangul” (pej.), Burta, Gwami, Rotana, Wetawit. Dialects: Shuru, Bake, Undu, Mayu, Fadashi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites.

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Berti
[byt] Shamal Darfur state: Tagabo hills. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern.

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Birked
[brk] Shamal Darfur state: between Jebel Harayt and Rizaykat (Arab) country, north of Nyala; Shamal Kurdufan: south of El Obeid. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birgid, Birguid, Birkit, Birqed, Kajjara, Murgi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kadaru [kdu], 51% with Midob [mei]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Birked.

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Burun
[bdi] An Nil al Azraq state: north Kurmuk district. 18,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Borun, Cai, Lange. Dialects: Ragreig, Abuldugu (Bogon, Mugo-Mborkoina), Maiak, Mufwa (Mopo), Mughaja (Mugaja, Mumughadja). Some southern dialects intelligible with Mabaan [mfz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Burun. Comments: 3 cultural sections: Northern, comprising Cerkom (Serkum), Morkuny (Baldugu), Mayica (Magaja); Eastern, comprising Gengar (Kurmuk), Jorak (Jorok), Redwak (Regareg); South-West, comprising Mayak, Mofo (Mufu).

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Dagik
[dec] Janub Kurdufan state: Mesakin hills, Reikha (Tolabe), Taballa, Kamlela (Togaro), Tosari, and Buram (Thobu) villages. 11,700 including Ngile [jle] speakers (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagig, Masakin, Masakin Dagig, Masakin Gusar, Ruwa, Thakik, Tharuwa. Dialects: Arreme, Adobu, Tosari. Lexical similarity: 80% with Ngile [jle] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu.

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Dair
[drb] Shamal Kurdufan state: west and south of Jebel Dair. 1,000 (1978 GRN). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dabab, Daier, Thaminyi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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Daju, Dar Fur
[daj] Janub Darfur State, Daju hills 40 km northeast of Nyala; Gharb Darfur state: Geneina district; Lagowa dialect: Janub Kurdufan state: Lagawa, Dar el Kabira (Kidong), Silecce, Warina, Jebel Miheila, Nyukri, and Tamanyik area villages. 80,000 (Bender 1983a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beke, Bekke, Dagu, Daju Ferne, Fininga, Nyala-Lagowa. Dialects: Nyala, Lagowa (Lagawa). Lexical similarity: 83% with Nyala and Lagowa dialects, 74% with Daju Dar Sila [dau], 62% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

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Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] Gharb Darfur state: Habilla district. 7,000 in Sudan (2009 T. Alaki). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bokor, Bokorike, Bokoruge, Mongo-Sila, Sila, Sula. Dialects: Mongo, Sila. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

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Dilling
[dil] Janub Kurdufan state: Dilling town and surrounding hills, including Kudur. 5,300 (Stevenson 1984), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Delen, Warki, Warkimbe. Dialects: Dilling, Debri. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dilling and Debri dialects; 93% with Kadaru [kdu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified. Comments: The Dilling people call themselves Warki; those of Kudur call themselves Kwashe. People of Mandal Hills (Sobay (Sud), Adlan, Bade, Kule, Wulal) used to speak the Kudur dialect of Dilling, but now speak Ama [nyi] and only use Dilling for ceremonies.

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Domari
[rmt] Scattered in urban centers, such as Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, and Al Wahdah. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dom. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Main clans in Sudan: Halabi and Ghajar.

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El Hugeirat
[elh] Janub Kurdufan and Shamal Kurdufan states: El Hugeirat hills, Sija, Bija, Shenshin, and Baboy villages; area divided by border. 50 (2007 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: El Hagarat. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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English
[eng] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution Article 8(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Janub Darfur, Sinnar, An Nil al Azraq and Al Qadarif states: Blue Nile river towns; possibly Shamal Kurdufan and Janub Kurdufan states, scattered. 90,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fellata. Dialects: Gombe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Migration originally from Sokoto, Adamawa, and Gombe in Nigeria, Maasina in Mali, Liptaako and Jelgooji in Burkina Faso, also the Wodaabe lineage, and from Cameroon. Influenced by Arabic.

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Fur
[fvr] Gharb Darfur, Janub Darfur, and Shamal Darfur states; some villages in east Sudan. 744,000 in Sudan (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 900,000 (2014 SIL). Total users in all countries: 745,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dala, For, Fora, Fordunga, Forok, Forta, Furakang, Furawi, Kadirgi, Konjara, Korra, Kungara, Kurka, Lali, Onage, Yerge. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Fur. Comments: Called Furawi by Arabs; Forta by Masalit; Yerge by Daju Dar Sila; Onage by Daju Dar Fur; Forok by Tama; Korra by Zaghawa; Kadirgi by Birgid; Kurka by Meidob; Dala by Kara; Lali by Gula.

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Gaam
[tbi] An Nil al Azraq state: Baw district, Jebel Tabi and outlying hills. 67,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaahmg, Ingassana, Ingessana, Kamanidi, Mamedja, Mamidza, Metabi, Muntabi, Tabi. Dialects: Soda (Tao), Kukur (Gor), Kulang (Bau, Kulelek), Buwahg (Buek). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Gaam. Comments: Called Ingassana, Ingessana by Arabs. Clan groups: Agadi, Bagis, Beek, Bulmut, Kilgu, Kukuli, Mugum, Sidak.

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Ganza
[gza] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, between Yabus and Daga rivers, Dahmoh, Tugubele, Korbum, Darsoma, and Yeshkab villages. 2,600 in Sudan (2007 A. Krell). Total users in all countries: 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganzo, Gwami, Koma, Koma-Ganza. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West.

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Gbaya
[krs] Janub Darfur state: Radom district, Kafia Kingi and south. 6,000 total in Sudan and South Sudan (2014 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh.

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Ghulfan
[ghl] Janub Kurdufan state: Ghulfan Kurgul and Ghulfan Morung hills south of Dilling; villages: Tarda, Ninya, Kurgul, Moring, Dabri, Katang, Shigda, Karkandi, Ota, and Namang. 16,000 (Stevenson 1984), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gulfan, Uncu, Uncunwee, Wunci, Wuncimbe. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Kadaru [kdu] (Jabal Sitta), then to Dilling [dil] and Wali [wll]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan.

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Gula
[kcm] Janub Darfur state: Kafia Kingi. 200 in Sudan (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kara, Kara of Sudan, Yamegi. Dialects: Gula (Goula), Nguru (Bubu, Koyo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Comments: Different from Kara [kah] of Central African Republic, Kare [kbn] of Chad, or Gula [glu] of Chad.

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Gule
[gly] An Nil al Azraq state: Damazin district, Jebel Gule, San and Roro hills. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Bender 1983a). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Anej, Fecakomodiyo, Hamej. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Gumuz
[guk] An Nil al Azraq state: east Er Roseires district, Famaka and Fazoglo areas on the Blue Nile; Sinnar state: Dinder district, north along Ethiopia border. 40,000 in Sudan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Debatsa, Deguba, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Kadallu, Mendeya, Shankillinya, Shanqilla. Dialects: Disoha (Desua), Dakunza (Degoja, Dugunza, Dukuna, Dukunza, Ganza, Gunza), Sai, Sese (Saysay), Dekoka, Dewiya, Kukwaya, Gombo, Jemhwa, Modea. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Gumuzoid. Comments: A section in Sudan call themselves Kadallu.

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Hausa
[hau] Al Khartum and An Nil al Azraq states; scattered in Khartoum, along Blue Nile river; Kordofan. 80,000 in Sudan (2007). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Heiban
[hbn] Janub Kurdufan state: Heiban and Abul towns. 4,410 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Abul, Ebang. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Laro [lro]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru.

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Jumjum
[jum] An Nil al Azraq state: west Kurmuk district on South Sudan border, Wadega, Jebels Tunga and Terta areas. 25,000 in Sudan (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega, Wadkai. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

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Kadaru
[kdu] Janub Kurdufan state: Jibaal as Sitta hills between Dilling and Delami. 25,000 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kadaro, Kadero, Kaderu, Kodhin, Kodhinniai, Kodoro, Tamya. Dialects: Kadaru (Kodur), Kururu (Tagle), Kafir (Ka’e), Kurtala (Ngokra), Dabatna (Kaaral), Kuldaji (Kendal). Dialects spoken by six clan groups living on six separate hills. Western form used by the Berko people at Habila (southwest of Jebel Sitta, neighboring the Ghulfan) may be another dialect or a separate language. Lexical similarity: 93% with Dilling [dil], 92%–87% with Debri [dil], 60% with Birked [brk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan.

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Kanga
[kcp] Janub Kurdufan state: Miri hills, west and southwest of Kadugli; Kufa village cluster southeast of Miri, northeast of Lima, and north of Kanga. Kufa-Lima dialect: Kufa, Toole (center), Lenyaguyox, Bilenya, Dologi, and Lima, Kilag, and Mashaish villages, 15 km west of Kadugli. 8,000 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Abu Sinun, Chiroro-Kursi, Kanga, Kufa-Lima, Krongo Abdalla. Lexical similarity: 85% with the Tumma dialect of Katcha-Kadugli-Miri [xtc] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Scattered, in Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, and Janub Kurdufan states, as well as other regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Beriberi” (pej.), Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri. Dialects: Dagara, Kaga (Kagama), Sugurti, Lare, Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa, Maiduguri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Non-indigenous. Known as Bornu in Sudan.

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Karko
[kko] Janub Kurdufan state: Karko hills, 35 km west of Dilling, includes Dulman. 7,000 (2004 A. Farah). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Garko, Kaak, Kakenbi, Karme, Kithonirishe. Dialects: Karko, Kasha, Shifir. Varieties spoken by the Ilaki on Abu Junuk to the west (1,000) and by the Tamang at El Tabaq southwest of Katla (800) may be dialects or separate languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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Katcha-Kadugli-Miri
[xtc] Janub Kurdufan state. Katcha dialect: Katcha, Tuna, Kafina, Dabakaya (Donga), Belanya, and Farouq villages, south of Kadugli; Kadugli dialect: Kadugli, Murta, Kulba, ’Daalimo, Thappare and Takko villages; Miri dialect: Miri Bara, Miri Guwa, Umduiu, Nyimodu, Luba, Kadoda, Kya, Tulluk, Hayar al-Nimr, Kuduru, Kasari, and Sogolle villages, west of Kadugli. 75,000 (2004 SIL). 30,000 Katcha and Kadugli (2004), 4,000 Miri. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Katcha (Dholubi, Tolubi), Kadugli (Dakalla, Dhalla, Kudugli, Morta, Talla, Toma Ma Dalla), Miri, Damba, Tumma. Stevenson (1984) treats them as dialects of one language. Ruhlen (1987) and Schadeberg (1989) treat them as separate. Samir Bulus says that Tumma is dialect of Katcha. Lexical similarity: 85% among Katcha, Kadugli, and Miri dialects, 88% between Kadugli and Damba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Katla
[kcr] Janub Kurdufan state: Katla hills southwest of Dilling. Katla dialect: Bombori, Kateik, Kiddu, Kirkpong, Karoka, and Koldrong; Julud dialect: Karkarya, Karkando, Kolbi, Kambai, Rumber, Octiang, Sabba, Tolot, Kary, Kitanngo, Kimndang, Kabog, Koto Kork, Kabosh, and Kabog North. 25,000 (2009). Population for Julud. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Akalak, Kalak. Dialects: Katla, Julud. Julud speakers understand almost everything spoken in Katla, and some Tima [tms]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla.

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Keiga
[kec] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Demik, northwest of Kadugli; Ambong area, Ambong, Ambongadi, Kandang, Kuluwaring, Tingiragadi, Lakkadi, Taffor, Arungekkaadi, Bila Ndulang, Roofik, and Saadhing villages; Lubung area, Kuwaik, Tungunungunu, Miya Ntaarang, Miya Ntaluwa, Miya Ndumuru, and Semalili villages; Tumuro area, Koolo, Kayide, Jughuba, and Tumuro villages. 6,070 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kayigang, Keiga-Al-Kheil, Keiga-Timero, Yega. Dialects: Demik (Rofik), Keiga (Aigang). Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Kadugli languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Kelo
[xel] An Nil al Azraq state: Geissan district, Jebel Tornasi, Keeli village, and Beni Sheko. 200 Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kelo-Beni Sheko, Ndu-Faa-Keelo, Tornasi. Dialects: Beni Sheko, Kelo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo.

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Ko
[fuj] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 2,680 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fungor, Fungur, Kau. Dialects: Kau (Ko), Nyaro. Nyaro and Kau may be the same dialect. Lexical similarity: 67% with Warnang [wrn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern.

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Koalib
[kib] Janub Kurdufan state: Delami area. Nguqwurang dialect: Umm Berumbita and Turum; Ngunduna dialect: Koalib hills area; Nginyukwur: Nyukwur, Umm Heitan and Hadra; Ngirere: Abri area villages scattered on the plain. 44,300 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abri, Kawalib, Kowalib, Lgalige, Ngirere, Nirere, Rere. Dialects: Nguqwurang, Ngunduna, Nginyukwur, Ngirere, Ngemere. Lexical similarity: 75% with most similar Heiban languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Rere.

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Komo
[xom] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, Ahmar, Tombak, and Yabus rivers area. 10,000 in Sudan (1979 W. James). Total users in all countries: 18,530. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Koma, Como, Gokwom, Hayahaya, Koma of Daga, Madiin. Dialects: Beilla, Chali. Dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 52% with Uduk [udu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman. Comments: Called Aru in Uduk [udu].

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Krongo
[kgo] Janub Kurdufan state: Krongo hills, Tabanya, Toroji and Angolo; Damaguto, Dimadragu, Dimodongo, Dar, and Buram. 21,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimodongo, Kadumodi, Korongo, Kurungu, Niino mo-di, Tabanya. Dialects: Fama-Teis-Kua. Lexical similarity: 85% with Tumtum [tbr]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Lafofa
[laf] Janub Kurdufan state: central Eliri hills. 5,140 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kidie Lafofa. Dialects: Jebel El Amira (El Amira), Jebel Tekeim (Jebel, Tegem, Tekeim), Lafofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Tegem.

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Laro
[lro] Janub Kurdufan state: Laro (Alleira) hills north of Heiban town; villages: Oya, Rodong (Hajar Medani), Hajar Baco, Gunisaia, Serif, Tondly, Reli, Lagau (Serfinila), Getaw (Hajar Tiya), Orme (Ando). 40,000 (Kuku 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Laru, Leera, Liira, Ngwullaro, Yillaro. Dialects: Yilaru, Yidundili-Yigoromany. Lexical similarity: 90% with Heiban [hbn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru. Comments: Laru is the locally preferred name. Al-Leira is the Arabic name.

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Logol
[lof] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lukha. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Otoro [otr] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Logol.

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Logorik
[liu] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Liguri and hills 15 km northeast of Kadugli. 2,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Liguri. Dialects: Saburi, Tallau (Talau, Talo, Tilow), Liguri. Lexical similarity: 64% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 57% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Eastern Daju.

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Lumun
[lmd] Janub Kurdufan state: Limon hills, Toromathan, To’ri, and Canya’ru villages. 15,000 (2014 SIL). Home area population 9,500 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2014 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuku-Lumun, Lomon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

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Masalit
[mls] Gharb Darfur state: Geneina and Habila districts; Janub Darfur state: scattered. Northern Masalit dialect: north and east of Geneina. 350,000 in Sudan (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 440,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kana Masaraka, Massalit, Mesalit. Dialects: Dialect in West Darfur differs from that in South Darfur. Lexical similarity: 36% with Karanga [kth], 42% with Maba [mfz], 45% with Marfa [mvu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Masalit. Comments: Many fled to Chad due to war in Darfur (2011).

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Midob
[mei] Shamal Darfur state: Mellit district, Malha area; Al Khartum state: scattered throughout, and Omdurman district, Gezirat Aba island; An Nil al Abyad state. 50,000 (1993 R. Werner). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meidob, Meidob Nubian, Midobi, Tid, Tidda, Tid-N-Aal. Dialects: Shelkota (Shalkota), Kaageddi, Urrti (Uurti). Lexical similarity: 51% with Birgid [brk] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Western.

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Molo
[zmo] An Nil al Azraq state: Jebel Malkan. 100 (1988 M. Bender), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malkan, Tura-Ka-Molo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo.

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Moro
[mor] Janub Kurdufan state: Moro hills. 30,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhimorong. Dialects: Umm Dorein (Longorban), Umm Gabralla (Toberelda), Nderre, Laiyen, Nubwa, Ulba, Werria, Thetogovela. Lexical similarity: 75% with Tira [tic] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western. Comments: Schools may not exist due to the war.

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Nding
[eli] Janub Kurdufan state: East Nuba hills, south Eliri range. 400 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eliri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: was 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Nding.

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Ngile
[jle] Janub Kurdufan state: Mesakin hills. Masakin Tuwal dialect: Masakin and Togosilu villages; Daloka dialect: Daloka and El Aheimar villages. 11,700 (Stevenson 1984). Including Dagik [dec] speakers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Angire, Arra, Daloka, Darra, Masakin, Mesakin, Taloka. Dialects: Daloka (Taloka), Masakin Tuwal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu. Comments: Masakin Tuwal call their language Arra; Dagik [dec] call it Agosilu; Daloka called Angire by Masakin Tuwal.

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Nobiin
[fia] Ash Shamaliyah state: Wadi Halfa district, Burgeg to Wadi Halfa; possibly east of Khartoum city, New Halfa area. 295,000 in Sudan (1996). Total users in all countries: 634,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fiadidja-Mahas, Mahas-Fiadidja, Mahas-Fiyadikkya. Dialects: Mahas (Mahasi, Mahass). Lexical similarity: 67% with Kenzi [xnz], but not intelligible of it. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Northern.

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Otoro
[otr] Janub Kurdufan state: Otoro hills south of Heiban town. 10,000 (2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhitoro, Kawama, Kawarma, Litoro, Utoro. Dialects: Dugujur, Dukwara, Dorobe, Dogoridi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Utoro.

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Shatt
[shj] Janub Kurdufan state: Shatt Daman, Shatt Safia, and Shatt Tebeldia; Abu Hashim and Abu Sinam areas. 30,000 (2014 T. Stirtz). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caning. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Liguri [liu], 62% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Eastern Daju. Comments: Distinct from Thuri (Shatt) [thu] in the Lwo group.

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Shwai
[shw] Janub Kurdufan state: 20 km west of Heiban town. 3,500 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cwaya, Ludumor, Shirumba, Shuway. Dialects: Shabun, Cerumba (Shirumba), Ndano. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Shirumba.

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Tagoi
[tag] Janub Kurdufan state: Moreb, Tagoi, Turjok, Tumale, Tuling, Tukum, and Turum. 13,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tagoy. Dialects: Moreb, Tumale, Tagoi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad.

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Talodi
[tlo] Janub Kurdufan state: Talodi town, Tasomi and Tata villages. 1,500 (1989). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajomang, Gajomang, Jomang. Dialects: Dialects nearly identical. Lexical similarity: 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Jomang.

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Tama
[tma] Gharb Darfur state. Mileere dialect: Jabal Muun area, Salia town; Erenga dialect: Sirba area, Abu Suruj, Saraf Jidad, Bir Dagig, Kondobe, Budiflo, Tord, Shitkol, Muburung, Goboron, Agar, Immed Marloga, Gezin, Giilint, Zere, Kuma Mardok, Rigilmur, Abu Shadra, Matinoor, and Kengrem; Janub Darfur state: west of Nyala. 5,000 in Sudan (1970). Population known for Mileere only. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Tama, Erenga, Murase, Mileere (Milerinka). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Tama-Sungor. Comments: In Arabic, Mileere dialect is called Jabaal, speakers called Misiriya aj-Jabal.

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Tegali
[ras] Janub Kurdufan state: Tegali and Rashad hills and Rashad town. 35,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Orig, Tagale, Tegele, Tekele, Togole, Turjok. Dialects: Rashad (Kom, Kome, Ngakom), Tegali, Tingal (Kajaja, Kajakja). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad. Comments: Tegali and Rashad dialects are nearly identical.

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Temein
[teq] Janub Kurdufan state: between Jebels Ghulfan Morung and Julud, Tukur, Nekring, Kwiye, Tokoing, Tulu, Farik, and Kuris villages. 13,000 (2006). 6,000 in home area villages; 7,000 in other towns in Sudan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rone, Ronge, Temainian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Tese [keg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Temein.

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Tese
[keg] Janub Kurdufan state: Keiga Jirru, and 6 villages northeast of Kadugli. 1,400 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keiga Girru, Keiga Jirru, Teis-Umm-Danab. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 67% with Temein [teq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Temein.

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Tigré
[tig] Al Bahr al Ahmar state: Tokar district, between Eritrea border and Tokar. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khasa, Xasa. Dialects: Mansa’ (Mensa). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North.

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Tima
[tms] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Tima village, 15 km southwest of Katla, north of Lagawa. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Domurik, Lomorik, Lomuriki, Tamanik, Yibwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla. Comments: Though classified as a Kordofanian language (Greenberg 1963), Tima appears to constitute a linguistic isolate together with Katla [kcr] (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007).

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Tira
[tic] Janub Kurdufan state: hills between Kauda and Talodi. 40,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lithiro, Thiro, Tiro. Dialects: Kinderma (Kanderma), Tira El Akhdar (Tira Dagig), Tira Lumum (Luman), Tira Mandi. Slight variations among dialects. Lexical similarity: 75% with Moro [mor] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western. Comments: Schools may not exist due to the war.

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Tocho
[taz] Janub Kurdufan state: 15 villages near Saraf aj Jamus, and Delabaya. 2,650 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Home area population: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tacho, Toicho. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

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Torona
[tqr] Janub Kurdufan state: Limon hills. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

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Tulishi
[tey] Janub Kurdufan state: Lagawa and northeast at Jebels Tulishi, Kamdang, Laati, Lawwa, Ntukungnge, Aabiisa, Nattilongke, Aliyooro Manadaha, Thudhi, and Kirakaati villages. Dar el Kabira dialect: 25km southwest of Lagawa. 2,500 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kuntulishi, Thulishi, Tulesh. Dialects: Tulishi, Kamda (Kamdang), Dar El Kabira (Logoke, Minjimmina, Truj, Turuj). Dar el Kabira and Kamdang dialects are reportedly similar. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Tumtum
[tbr] Janub Kurdufan state: Kurondi south of Eliri Hills. Talassa dialect: north Eliri hills; Tumtum dialect: west Talodi hills. 7,300. 6,000 in Karondi, 1,300 in Tumtum. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Karondi (Korindi, Kurondi), Talassa (Talasa), Tumtum. Lexical similarity: 85% with Krongo [kgo] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Uduk
[udu] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, from Belila north, south to Yabus river. 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the two not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan, Twampa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Wali
[wll] Janub Kurdufan state: 12 km northeast of Katla. 9,000 (2007 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Walari, Walarishe, Wele. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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Warnang
[wrn] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 1,100 (1956 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Werni. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 67% with Ko [fuj] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern.

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Yulu
[yul] Janub Darfur state: Habbaniya area. 3,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Zaghawa
[zag] Shamal Darfur and Gharb Darfur states, scattered. 180,000 in Sudan (Osman 2006). Total users in all countries: 315,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beria, Beri-Aa, Berri, Bideyat, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua. Dialects: Wagi (Twer), Kube, Tuba (Bideyat). Wagi is the main dialect in Sudan. Ethnic subgroups are Kobe, Dor, and Anka, with slight dialect differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern.

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