Singapore

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Bengali
[ben] Bengalis have settled in Singapore’s North East district (No. 19), especially in the Hougang and Sengkang areas; scattered elsewhere. 600 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 80,000 (2006 People’s Daily). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bangla. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu, Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] 69,000 in Singapore (1980). Ethnic population: 233,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hokka, Ke, Kechia, Kehia, Kek, Khek. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 1,210,000 in Singapore (2010 census). L2 users: 880,000 in Singapore. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Alternate Names: Guoyu, Huayu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. 2,505,209 ethnic Chinese (2000 census).

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Chinese, Min Bei
[mnp] Concentrated in Districts 23 and 24, North West, Bukit Batok area; scattered elsewhere. 4,000 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 11,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Min Pei. Dialects: Hokchia (Hockchew). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Scattered. 34,200 in Singapore (2000). Ethnic population: 54,200 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow, Guxhou). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Experienced sea traders in South-East Asia area, first settling in the Telok Ayer section in Singapore in early 19th century; branched into retail trade as well as banking, finance, shipping, insurance, etc. Remains the largest Chinese ethnic group in country; dialects include Hokkien (the most speakers), followed by Teochew and Hainanese. Promoted Chinese education with the founding of Chinese schools, the first in 1906. 333,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,860,000 (2010 census). Includes 1,120,000 Hokkien, 562,000 Teochew, 178,0000 Hainanese. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Min Nam, Southern Min. Dialects: Hokkien (Amoy, Fujian, Fukienese, Xiamen), Teochew (Chaochow, Chaozhou, Taechew), Hainanese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] 14,100 in Singapore (2000). Ethnic population: 25,600 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Henghua (Hinghua, Xinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Speakers of Yue Chinese variant, the Cantonese are currently the third-largest Chinese group in Singapore, originating in the Guangdong province of China; the first such group arrived around 1821. Many Cantonese found work in the skilled trades such as carpentry and as artisans; others developed the wholesale and retail trade in medicines. They are noted for their hard work and for being quite vocal in expressing their needs. Unlike most other Chinese ethnicities, they are quite liberal towards their women finding work outside the home. 121,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 409,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Guangfu, Yue, Yueh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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English
[eng] 1,100,000 in Singapore (2010 census). L2 users: 2,000,000 in Singapore (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gujarati
[guj] 4,120 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gujerathi, Gujerati. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu.

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Hindi
[hin] 13,100 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Javanese
[jav] 800 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 88,600 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djawa, Jawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Madura
[mad] 900 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 14,300 (1985). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Madhura, Madurese. Dialects: Bawean (Boyanese). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Malay
[zlm] 414,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution, Article 153A(2)), not dominant despite status. Alternate Names: Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu, Melayu. Dialects: Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Non-indigenous. Local Malay [zlm] in Singapore is distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Malay [zsm] by its sociolinguistic status as a vernacular, as well as by various linguistic features. Muslim.

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Malay, Baba
[mbf] Mainly Kallang District, near city center; also in surrounding Geylang and Jao Chiat districts. 10,000 in Singapore (Pakir 1986). Ethnic population: 250,000 (1986). Total users in all countries: 12,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baba, Chinese Malay, Straits Malay. Dialects: None known. It developed after 15th century from Low Malay with many Min Nan Chinese [nan] borrowings. Regional variants between Malacca and Singapore. Partially intelligible with Standard Malay [zsm]. It is generally believed that Baba of Malaysia is more, refined, and that of Singapore more, rough. Most learn Standard Malay and English in school. Distinct from Peranakan Indonesian [pea]. Baba in Melaka, Malaysia speak a Hokkien-influenced Malay creole; those in Penang, Malaysia speak a localized version of Hokkien [nan] (2006 Tan Chee Beng). Classification: Creole, Malay based.

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Malay, Standard
[zsm] Few L1 speakers. L2 speakers include ethnic Malays and some others, particularly the older generation. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bahasa Malaysia, Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Non-indigenous. In Singapore, Standard Malay [zsm] exists in a diglossic relationship with Local Malay [zlm].

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Malayalam
[mal] 26,300 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alealum, Malayal, Malayalani, Malean, Maliyad, Mallealle, Mopla. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Orang Seletar
[ors] North-Eastern Islands District, in Johor strait north of airport; scattered elsewhere. 880 in Singapore (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Punjabi, Eastern
[pan] 5,670 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 14,000 (1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Panjabi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi. Comments: Non-indigenous. Sikh.

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Sindhi
[snd] 3,970 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Singapore Sign Language
[sls] Scattered. 3,000 (2007 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Natural Sign Language, SgSL. Dialects: Natural Sign Language, Contact Signing (Pidgin Signed English). Strong influence from American Sign Language [ase], Signing Exact English (SEE2) and from sign language in Shanghai, but with some locally-developed signs. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Interpreters and sign language classes available through Singapore Association for the Deaf. Singapore School for the Deaf uses bilingual-bicultural approach since 2014. Two other schools use Total Communication.

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Sinhala
[sin] 3,140 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,000 (1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chingalese, Singhalese, Sinhalese. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Sinhalese-Maldivian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Great difference between the literary and colloquial language. Buddhist.

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Tamil
[tam] 111,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 189,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu.

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Telugu
[tel] 600 in Singapore (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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