Senegal

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Badyara
[pbp] South central, 1 village. 1,850 in Senegal (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Badian, Badjara, Badjaranké, Bajara, Bigola, Gola, Kanjad, Pajade, Pajadinca, Pajadinka Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Muslim.

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Bainouk-Gunyaamolo
[bcz] Niamone, Gunyaamolo area; Tobot, Gujaaxet area, in a triangle formed by Bignona, Tobor, and Niamone, across Casamance river. Also in Gambia. 6,220 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 32,520. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bagnoun, Bainuk, Banhum, Banyuk, Banyum, Banyun, Banyung, Elomay, Elunay, Guñuun Ñuñ Dialects: Gujaaxet, Gunyamoolo. Dialects mutually intelligible. Similar to Kobiana [kcj] and Kasanga [ccj] of Guinea-Bissau. More closely related to Tenda languages of eastern Senegal than to neighboring Diola-Fogny [dyo] and Balanta [bjt]. Gunyuño in Guinea-Bissau is distinct. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Bainouk-Samik
[bcb] Casamance river south side, mainly Samik area and villages north and east, 20 km east of Ziguinchor. 1,850 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun

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Balanta-Ganja
[bjt] Southwest corner, south of Casamance river, between Goudomp and Tanaff, and south. 82,800 (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 979 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Fjaa, Fraase Dialects: Fganja (Ganja), Fjaalib (Blip). A separate language from Balanta-Kentohe [ble] in Guinea-Bissau. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Balant-Ganja Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bandial
[bqj] Affiniam, Badiate-Grand, Bandial, Batinier, Brin, Elubalir, Enampor, Essil, Etama, Kamobeul, and Seleky villages on a peninsula bounded by the Casamance river north, the Komobeul Bôlon river west, Ziguinchor-Oussouye road south, and Brin-Nyassia road east. The only village north of the Casamance River is Affiniam. Also in Gambia. 11,200 in Senegal (2006), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banjaal, Eegima, Eegimaa Dialects: Affiniam, Bandial, Elun (Hulon, Kujireray, Kuluunaay). Lexical similarity: 74% with Bandial and Affiniam dialects, 76% with Bandial and Elun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Gusilay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bayot
[bda] Southwest of Ziguinchor, a cluster of villages grouped around Nyassia village. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. 16,100 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 18,790. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baiot, Baiote, Bayotte Dialects: Essin. A dialect subgroup. Phonology and vocabulary in Senegal are considerably different from the two Bayot dialects in Guinea-Bissau. Lexical similarity: 15%–18% with other Jola varieties (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Bayot Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Crioulo, Upper Guinea
[pov] Ziguinchor, Bignona, and Kolda. 105,000 in Senegal (2007). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kriulo, Portuguese Creole Dialects: Cacheu-Ziguinchor Creole. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based Comments: Senegal variety is different from Guinea-Bissau, with some Pidgin French vocabulary. Intelligible of Guinea-Bissau Creole. Christian.

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Ejamat
[eja] Extreme south, a few villages 5–7 km due south of Oussouye, including Kahem, Efok, Youtou. 2,230 in Senegal (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ediamat, Feloup, Felup, Felupe, Floup, Flup, Fulup Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat Comments: Distinct from other Jola varieties.

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French
[fra] 20,000 in Senegal (2006). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Fulah
[ful] Population total all countries: 22,246,400. Comments: Member languages are: Adamawa Fulfulde [fub] (Cameroon), Bagirmi Fulfulde [fui] (Chad), Borgu Fulfulde [fue] (Benin), Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde [fuq] (Niger), Maasina Fulfulde [ffm] (Mali), Nigerian Fulfulde [fuv] (Nigeria), Pulaar [fuc], Pular [fuf] (Guinea), Western Niger Fulfulde [fuh] (Niger)

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Gusilay
[gsl] Tionk Essil village, between Tendouck and Mlomp-North. 15,400 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gusiilaay, Gusiilay, Gusilaay, Kusiilaay, Kusilay Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Gusilay

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Hassaniyya
[mey] Northwest corner. 7,190 in Senegal (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No.980 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Hasaniya, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya, Klem El Bithan Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Jalunga
[yal] Southeast, intersection of Mali, Guinea, and Senegal borders. 10,000 in Senegal (2007 NTM), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dialonké, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonké, Yalunka, Yalunke Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka Comments: Muslim.

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Jola-Fonyi
[dyo] Casamance river south, strip just north of Senegal-Gambia border, Diouloulou-Marigot tributary west, Soungrougrou river west, Bignona area; east and southeast of Ziguinchor. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. 340,000 in Senegal. Less than 10% are monolingual. 243,000 Fonyi, 96,700 Buluf. Population total all countries: 407,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Diola-Fogny, Dyola, Jola-Fogny, Jóola-Fóoñi, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak kati Kúfooñaak, Yola Dialects: Buluf, Kalounaye, Kombo, Narang. Gusilay [gsl], Kuwaataay [cwt], Karon [krx], Mlomp [mlo], Kerak [hhr], Ejamat [eja], and Bayot [bda] are distantly related to Fonyi, but are close geographically. Jola-Fonyi is the largest and most widely understood Jola variety. Lexical similarity: 68% with Jola-Kasa [csk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi Comments: Distinct from Jula [dyu] (Dioula, Dyoula, Dyula) of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Côte d’Ivoire. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Jola-Kasa
[csk] Oussouye area, north to Casamance river, bounded by Kamobeul Bolôn tributary east, Kachiouane Bolôn west; Hitou and Niamoun villages north of Casamance river. Also in Gambia. 45,100 in Senegal (2007), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bácuki, Casa, Diola-Kasa, Jóola-Kaasa, Jóola-Kasa Dialects: Ayun, Bliss (Niomoun), Esulalu (Esuulaalur, Mlomp South, Oussouye), Fluvial, Huluf, Selek. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Kasa Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Karon
[krx] Southwest coast, north from Bliss Island, Kalisseye Inlet to Casamance river, to The Gambia border; east to Dioloulou, Kafountine area extends north as far as Brikama (The Gambia); Karon islands. Also in Gambia. 9,000 in Senegal (2007), increasing. A few hundred elderly monolinguals. Population total all countries: 15,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jola-Karone, Kaloon, Karone, Karoninka, Kouloonaay Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Mlomp [mlo], the most similar (Jola) language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kaloon. Strong desire to develop the language and preserve the culture.

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Kerak
[hhr] Extreme southwest corner near Guinea-Bissau border, Kabrousse village and area. 13,200 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Her, Keerak, Keeraku Dialects: Distinct from other Jola varieties. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kerak and Ejamat [eja], more recent estimates are closer to 90%. Both languages are mutually intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat

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Kobiana
[kcj] 400 in Senegal (2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Buy, Cobiana, Uboi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kuwaataay
[cwt] Diembering, Bouyouye, Nyikine, Boukot-Diola; coastal villages just south of Casamance river mouth; Dakar. 6,210 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwatay Dialects: Distinct from other Jola varieties. Lexical similarity: 40% with most Jola languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Kwatay

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Laalaa
[cae] West central, north of Thies, Pambal area, Mbaraglov, Dougnan; Tambacounda area. 12,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lala, Lehar, Serer Dialects: 52% intelligibility with Noon [snf]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Noon [snf], 74% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], 68% with Ndut [ndv] and Palor [fap], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin Comments: Often identified by themselves and by the majority population as Serer, a widely used name for a cultural and linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Mandinka
[mnk] Southeast and south central. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. 669,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 1,346,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 982 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Mande, Manding, Mandingo, Mandingue, Mandinque, Socé Dialects: Mandinka, Eastern Maninkakan [emk], and Western Maninkakan [mlq] are separate languages. Lexical similarity: 79% with Kalanke, 75% with Jahanka [jad], 70% with Xaasongaxango [kao], 59% with Western Maninkakan [mlq], 53% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk], 48% with Bambara [bam]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Muslim.

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Mandjak
[mfv] Southwest. 105,000 in Senegal (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Degree No. 983 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Kanyop, Majak, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaaku, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjak, Manjaku, Ndjak Dialects: Bok (Kabok, Sara, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam, Ubok), Cur (Churo), Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Lund (Ulund), Yu (Pecixe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maninkakan, Western
[mlq] East. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali. 422,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 858,300. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Malinka, Malinke, Maninga, Maninka-Western, Western Malinke Dialects: Jahanka (Diakhanke, Diakkanke, Jahanque, Jahonque, Kyakanke). Lexical similarity: 59% with Mandinka [mnk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mankanya
[knf] Southwest, mostly in the Casamance, scattered. 29,200 in Senegal (2006), increasing. 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 984 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Bola, Mancagne, Mancang, Mancanha, Mankaañ, Mankanha, Uhula Dialects: Uhula, Uwoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ménik
[tnr] Southeast. 3,380 (2002 NTM). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 985 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Bande, Basari du Bandemba, Bedik, Budik, Tandanke, Tenda, Tendanke Dialects: Similar to Oniyan [bsc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Ménik is the traditional language name. Reportedly a creole with elements from Oniyan, Peul [fuc], and other languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mlomp
[mlo] North of Casamance river, Mlomp Village, 25 km east of Bignona, Tendouck to Tiobon road, Bignona department, several surrounding villages, and scattered. 5,400 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gulompaay, Mlomp North Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Karon [krx] (most similar), 42% with the next most similar Jola language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp

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Ndut
[ndv] West central, northwest of Thiès. 38,600 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndoute Dialects: 32% intelligibility of Palor [fap]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Palor [fap]; 68% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], Noon [snf], and Lehar [cae]; 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin Comments: Often identified by themselves and the majority population as Serer, a widely used name for a cultural or linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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N’ko
[nqo] No known L1 speakers in Senegal. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Mixed language

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Noon
[snf] Thiès area. 32,900 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 986 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Non, None, Serer, Serer-Noon Dialects: Cangin, Padee, Saawii. Noon is very different from Serer-Sine [srr]. 68% intelligibility of Lehar [cae]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Lehar [cae], 74% with Safen [sav], 68% with Ndut [ndv] and Palor [fap], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin Comments: Often identified by themselves and the majority population as Serer, which is a widely used name for a cultural or linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Christian, Muslim.

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Oniyan
[bsc] Southeast, Upper Casamance, Edun area; border areas, Kedougou, Tambacounda. Also in Gambia (Bassari), Guinea (Bassari), Guinea-Bissau (Bassari). 13,300 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 22,510. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 987 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Ayan, Basari, Bassari, Biyan, Onëyan, Onian, Tenda Basari, Wo Dialects: Ane, Këd, Oxalac. Closely related to Ménik [tnr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Often identified by the majority population as Bassari. Tenda is a cover term for Oniyan [bsc], Badyara [pbp], Wamey [cou], and Ménik [tnr]. High mortality rate. Women intermarry with men from Fulbe and other groups; children become part of the other group. Trading is carried on with the Fulbe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Palor
[fap] West central, west southwest of Thiès. 10,700 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Falor, Palar, Serer, Siili, Siili-Mantine, Siili-Siili, Waro Dialects: Ba’ol, Kajor. 55% intelligibility of Ndut [ndv], 27% of Saafi-Saafi [sav]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ndut [ndv], 74% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], 68% with Noon [snf] and Lehar [cae], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin Comments: Often identified by themselves and the majority population as Serer which is a widely used name for a cultural or linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Siili is the Palor word for Serer. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Fulbe Jeeri and Toucouleur mostly in Senegal river valley; upper Casamance Region, Fulacunda, west of Kolda to Gambia river headwaters. Also in Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania. 2,740,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 3,691,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde Dialects: Fulacunda (Fulakunda, Fulkunda), Toucouleur (Fulbe Jeeri, Haalpulaar, Pulaar, Tokilor, Tukolor, Tukulor). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western Comments: Muslim.

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Pular
[fuf] 150,000 in Senegal (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fouta Dyalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Many from Guinea settled or work seasonally in Casamance, eastern Senegal, and Dakar. Muslim.

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Saafi-Saafi
[sav] Triangle southwest of and near Thiès, between Diamniadio, Popenguine, and Thiès. 60 villages: 43 are over 80% Saafi, 8 are under 50%. 200,000 (2012), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 989 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Saafi, Safen, Safi, Safi-Safi, Sereer Saafen, Serere-Saafen, Serer-Safen Dialects: Boukhou, Diobass, Hasab, Sebikotane, Sindia. Dialects named after villages and a zone (Diobass). Lexical similarity: 74% with Noon [snf], Lehar [cae], and Palor [fap]; 68% with Ndut [ndv]; 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin Comments: Ethnonym: Saafi; Saafen is the area name, Families in Dakar may lose L1; the next generation will no longer consider itself Saafi. Often identified by themselves and the majority population as Serer, which is a widely used name for a cultural or linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Serer-Sine
[srr] West central; Sine and Saloum river valleys. Also in Gambia. 1,130,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 1,161,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Seereer, Seex, Sereer, Serer, Sérère-Sine, Serer-Sin, Serrer, Sine-Saloum, Sine-Sine Dialects: Dyegueme (Gyegem), Fadyut-Palmerin, Niominka, Segum, Sine. Niominka and Serere-Sine dialects are mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer Comments: Ethnic autonym: Sereer. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Soninke
[snk] Tambacouda Region (Kinxenna dialect), along Senegal river south bank, 42 villages. Bakel, Ouaoundé, Moudéri, and Yaféra are principal towns; Kolda Region, north of Velingara. 378,000 in Senegal (2006 World Factbook), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Sarangkolle, Saraxuli, Serahule Dialects: Kinxenna. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke Comments: Kolda region Soninke trace their origins back to the eastern dialect area of Mali (Kinbakka); northeastern Senegal group is part of the western Mali group (Kinxenna). Thus, significant differences exist between dialects of the 2 geographical groups in Senegal. Extensive interaction between Soninke of The Gambia and those of southern Senegal, Kolda region. Kolda region speakers are geographically isolated from those in northeastern Senegal. Muslim.

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Wamey
[cou] Southeast and central along Guinea border, pockets, usually beside Pulaar [fuc] language speakers. Also in Guinea. 18,400 in Senegal (2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 23,670. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Conhague, Coniagui, Koniagui, Konyagi, Wamei Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Ethnic autonym: Konyagi. All other ethnic groups consider Wamey too difficult to learn. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wolof
[wol] West and central, Senegal river left bank to Cape Vert. Also in France, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania. 3,930,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 3,976,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Ouolof, Volof, Walaf, Waro-Waro, Yallof Dialects: Baol, Cayor, Dyolof (Djolof, Jolof), Jander, Lebou (Lebu). Different from Wolof of Gambia [wof]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Wolof Comments: Muslim.

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Xasonga
[kao] 9,010 in Senegal (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Xaasonga, Xaasongaxango, Xasonke Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Muslim.

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