Syria

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Adyghe
[ady] As Suwayda’ Governorate, Salkhad district; equal-sized area, Dara’a Governorate, Dar’a district. 35,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adygey, Circassian, West Circassian. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken
[avl] Southwest corner, As Suwayda’ and Dara’a governorates, Hawran region, from the border to within 35 km of Damascus. 98,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedawi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] East, mainly Halab and Ar Raqqah governorates, with Buhayrat al Asad reservoir at center; into Dayr az Zawr Governorate, along the Euphrates; central strip in Hims Governorate; into (east) Idlib and (west) Hamah governorates. 68,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Arabi, Furati, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, North Syrian Arabic. Dialects: Euphrates Cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim, Christian, Jewish.

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Arabic, Najdi Spoken
[ars] Widespread; eastern Syrian desert. 1,690,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedawi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, North Levantine Spoken
[apc] Western Syria, Mediterranean coast; widespread. 18,800,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 25,871,950. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Lebanese-Syrian Arabic, Levantine Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Syro-Lebanese Arabic. Dialects: There is an urban standard dialect based on Damascus speech. Beiruti dialect well accepted. Aleppo dialect shows Mesopotamian (North Syrian) influence. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Druze, Christian, Jewish, Muslim.

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] Far east, Al Hasakah Governorate, from capital city towards northern border with Turkey. 300,000 in Syria (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Arabic. Dialects: Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 4). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian
[hye] Enclaves near rivers, urban centers, Dayr az Zawr and Al Hasakah governorates. 83,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri. Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] North, Al Hasakah Governorate, Khabur river banks, Turkey border, over 30 villages; some also in governorate capital. 227,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aisorski, Assyrian, Assyriski, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Hims and Hamah governorates, isolate central enclaves in both. 44,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Azeri, Turkmen, Turkomen. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Not written in Syria. Muslim.

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Domari
[rmt] Ar Raqqah Governorate; scattered nomadic groups; north, western rural areas; Kurbat dialect: Syria and western Iran. 10 in Syria (2015). Ethnic population: 37,000 (2005). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Barake, Dom, Gypsy, Kurbat, Middle Eastern Romani, Nawar, Tsigene. Dialects: Nawar, Kurbati, Beirut, Nablos, Barake. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Arabic influence. Muslim.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Dimashq Governorate; Damascus, Aleppo, possibly other cities. 39,000 in Syria (2005 Circassian Association). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Al Hasakah Governorate, area on border northwest of Al Hasakah city; Halab Governorate, north of reservoir along Euphrates; Ar Raqqah Governorate, area surrounding capital; other possible locales: northern Cizire (Qamishlok), Kurd-Dagh (Ciyayê Kurdî, Afrin), Ain-Arab; Allepo, Damascus. 1,900,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim, Yezidi.

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Lomavren
[rmi] Al Hasakah Governorate. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armenian Bosha, Arnebuab Bisa, Bosa, Bosha. Classification: Mixed language, Armenian-Romani. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mlahsö
[lhs] Al Hasakah Governorate, Qamishli town. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1998. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Suryoyo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Turoyo [tru]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern. Comments: A different language from Turoyo [tru], also called Suryoyo.

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Turoyo
[tru] Far northeast corner, Al Hasakah Governorate, Tigris river near Cizre. 32,000 in Syria (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1994). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Surayt, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern. Comments: Religious capital is Damascus; formerly at Tur ’Abdin, Turkey. Christian.

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Western Neo-Aramaic
[amw] Rif Dimashq Governorate, Al-Qutayfah district; Qalamoun mountains, 50 km north of Damascus, Ma’lula, Bakh’a, and Jubb ’Adin villages. 24,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Loghtha Siryanoytha, Maalula, Neo-Western Aramaic, Siryon. Dialects: Ma’lula (Maaloula, Maalula, Ma’lu:la), Bakh’a (Bax’a), Jub-’adin (Jubb ’Adi:n). Little dialect variation. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western. Comments: Christian.

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