Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken
Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
Arabic, Najdi Spoken
Arabic, North Levantine Spoken
[apc] 8,800,000 in Syria (1991). Population total all countries: 14,426,540. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Lebanese-Syrian Arabic, Levantine Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Syro-Lebanese Arabic Dialects: There is an urban standard dialect based on Damascus speech. Beiruti dialect well accepted. Aleppo dialect shows Mesopotamian (North Syrian) influence. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Druze, Christian, Jewish, Muslim.
Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[aii] North, Khabur river banks. Over 30 villages. 30,000 in Syria (1995). Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aisorski, Assyrian, Assyriski, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern
[rmt] Nawar dialect: Palestine, Syria, and Egypt; Kurbat dialect: Syria and western Iran; Helebi: Egypt and Libya; Karachi dialect: north Turkey, Russian Federation Caucasus, and north Iran; Domaki and Wogri-Boli: India; Barake dialect: Syria; Luli and Maznoug: Uzbekistan; other groups in Iran; Churi-Wali dialect: Afghanistan. 37,000 in Syria (2005). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Barake, Gypsy, Kurbat, Middle Eastern Romani, Nawar, Tsigene Dialects: Barake, Beirut, Kurbati, Nablos, Nawar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Arabic influence. Muslim.
[kmr] North: Northern Cizire (Qamishlok), Kurd-Dagh (Ciyayê Kurdî, Afrin), Ain-Arab, Allepo, Damascus. 938,000 in Syria (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Yezidi.
[lhs] Qamishli town; Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1998. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Turoyo [tru]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: A different language from Turoyo [tru], also called Suryoyo.
[tru] 7,000 in Syria (1994). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1994). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Surayt, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: Religious capital is Damascus; formerly at Tur ’Abdin, Turkey. Christian (Jacobite).
[amw] Qalamoun mountains, 50 km north of Damascus, Ma’lula, Bakh’a, and Jubb ’Adin villages. 15,000 (1996). 8,000 in Maaloula. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Loghtha Siryanoytha, Maalula, Neo-Western Aramaic, Siryon Dialects: Bakh’a (Bax’a), Jub-’adin (Jubb ’Adi:n), Ma’lula (Maaloula, Maalula, Ma’lu:la). Little dialect variation. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western Comments: Christian.