Chad

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Amdang
[amj] Wadi Fira Region, Biltine department, Biltine subprefecture, Mimi Goz and Mimi Hadjer cantons; Batha Region, Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer and Haraze Djombo Kibit subprefectures; some in Ouaddaï Region. 41,100 (2000). Population lower in Wadi Fira (home region) than in Batha and Ouaddaï regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andangti, Biltine, Mima, Mime, Mimi, Mututu Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Babalia Creole
[bbz] West, Hadjer-Lamis Region, N’Djamena department, north of Djermaya and between Karal and Tourba. 23 villages. 3,940 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Babalia, Babaliya, Bubalia Dialects: None known. A creole developed from Chadian Arabic [shu] (90% of the vocabulary) and Berakou [bxv] (Decobert 1977). Babalia shares structural similarities with Juba Arabic [pga]. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Creole, Arabic based Comments: Ethnonym: Babalia; original language Berakou [bxv]. Muslim.

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Arabic, Chadian Spoken
[shu] Salamat, Ouaddaï, and Wadi Fira regions, Batha Region center and west, much of Chari-Baguirmi Region; Mayo-Kebbi; north Tandjilé Region; Guéra Region. 896,000 in Chad (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,139,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chad Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Chowa, L’arabe du Tchad, Shua, Shua Arabic, Shuwa Arabic, Suwa Dialects: Dialects depend on whether their speakers are sedentary or nomads, rural or urban, and on migration routes. A pidginized variety, commonly called, Bongor Arabic, is spoken as L2 by many in the Mayo-Kebbi and other parts of south Chad. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Shuwa Arabic is the name used in other countries for the dialect near Lake Chad. Muslim.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Assangori
[sjg] Ouaddai Region, Assoungha department, northwest of Adré and of the Masalit [mls] language area. 23,500 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asong, Assoungor, Asungore, Azanguri, Bognak-Asungorung, Goran, Madungore, Soungor, Sungor Dialects: Sungor, Walad Dulla. Girga and Walad Dulla are ethnic groups which may or may not speak different dialects. Madungore may be a dialect of Tama [tma]. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Tama [tma]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor Comments: Muslim.

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Bagirmi
[bmi] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Massenya subprefecture, Massenya area, Bousso subprefecture, Bousso area; also in Mayo-Kebbi Est and Moyen-Chari regions; Gol: Massenya; Kibar: east of Massenya; Bangri: west of Massenya and along Chari river between Guélendeng and N’Djamena; Dam: along Chari river from Bousso to Guélendeng. 44,800 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Widely spoken as L2 or becoming L1 in neighboring people groups. Alternate Names: Baghirmi, Bagrimma, Baguirme, Baguirmi, Barma, Lis, Lisi, Mbarma, Tar Bagrimma, Tar Barma Dialects: Bangri, Dam, Gol, Kibar. Many dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Relatively small language used vehicularly in a limited area. Muslim.

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Barein
[bva] Guera Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west (Jalkia), south, southwest (Komi), and east (Sakaya) of Melfi. 4,100 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baraïn, Guilia, Jalkia Dialects: Guilia, Jalkia, Komi, Sakaya (Dagne, Jelkin). Lexical similarity: 92% between the Jalkia dialect and the Guilia dialect, 70% between the Sakaya dialect and both Jalkia and Guilia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Comments: Muslim.

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Bedjond
[bjv] Mandoul Region, Mandoul Occidental department, Bediondo area, west of the Day [dai] language area; separate area in east central Logone Oriental Region. 36,000 (Caprile and Fedry 1969). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bediondo, Bediondo Mbai, Bédjonde, Bedjondo, Mbay Bediondo, Mbay Bejondo, Nangnda Dialects: Bébote, Bedjond, Yom. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: A distinct language from Sar [mwm] or Ngambay [sba].

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Berakou
[bxv] Chari-Baguirmi Region, N’Djamena and Bokoro subprefectures. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Babalia, Bubalia Dialects: Bolo Djarma, Manawadji, Mondogossou, Yiryo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi

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Besme
[bes] Southwest, Tandjile Region, Kélo and Laï subprefectures, in Besmé, Bodor, and 3 other villages along Logone river northwest of Lai. 1,230 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beseme, Besemme, Bodor, Hounar, Huner, ’Unar Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Kim [kia]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bidiyo
[bid] Guera Region, Guera department, Mongo subprefecture, south of Mongo and west of Abou Telfane. 14,000 (Jungraithmayr 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bidio, ’Bidio, Bidiya, ’Bidiyo, Bidiyo-Waana, Bidyo Dialects: Bigawguno (Tounkoul), Garawgino (Kafila), Jekkino (Kofilo), Nalguno (Niergui), ’Oboyguno (Zerli). The first 2 dialects listed are eastern, the others western. Dambiya is probably a Bidiyo dialect instead of a Migaama [mmy] dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim.

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Birgit
[btf] Salamat Region, Aboudéïa and Barh-Azoum departments; Ouaddai Region, Djourf al Ahmar department, centered in Abgué; also in western Sila and southern Batha regions. 10,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bergit, Berguid, Birgid Dialects: Abgue, Agrab, Duguri, Eastern Birgit. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Comments: All sources since Greenberg list it as a separate language from other Dangla languages. Different from Birked [brk] (Birgit) of Sudan, a Nilo-Saharan language.

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Bolgo
[bvo] Guera Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, east of the Barain, southeast of Melfi. 1,800 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bolgo Dugag (Small Bolgo), Bolgo Kubar (Big Bolgo). Lexical similarity: 68% with the 2 dialects and with Bolgo Dugag and a form of Koke [kou] spoken in Daguéla. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bon Gula
[glc] Guera Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Bon and Ibir villages; western Salamat Region, border area. 1,200 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bon, Bon Goula, Bun, Êeni, Gula Guera, Poun, Taataal Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 46% with Zan Gula [zna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Bon Gula and Zan Gula are referred to together as Gula Guera. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Boor
[bvf] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug-Chari department, Bousso subprefecture; Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Dumraw (Bwara) village on Chari river north bank. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bwara, Damraw Dialects: Some have classified it as a dialect of Miltu [mlj]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Miltu [mlj] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2

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Bua
[bub] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Korbol area and northeast; Guéra Region, Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture. 7,710 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Ba, Boa, Boua, Bwa Dialects: Distinct from Niellim [nie], Fania [fni], Tunia [tug], and Day [dai]. Mana, or Kobe may be an alternate name or dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Different from Bua [bww] (Bwa) of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is Benue-Congo. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Buduma
[bdm] Lac Region, Mamdi department, Bol subprefecture; also Hadjer-Lamis Region, Lake Chad islands and north shore. 51,600 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 54,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudouma, Yedima, Yedina, Yidana, Yidena Dialects: Northern Buduma, Southern Buduma. 90% inherent intelligibility between dialects. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Buso
[bso] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug Chari departement, Bousso subprefecture. 40 (Welmers 1971). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bousso, Busso, Dam de Bousso Dialects: None known. Not in the Bua group, but Chadic (Boyeldieu 1977). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1

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Chadian Sign Language
[cds] Schools and an association for the deaf in N’Djamena, Sarh, and Moundou. 390 (1989 M. Yonadjiel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Influences from American Sign Language [ase]. Some signs are traditional. Teachers trained in Nigeria. Muslim, Christian.

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Dagba
[dgk] Moyen-Chari Region, Grande Sido department, Maro and Sido subprefectures, villages Sido, Ngokorio, and Ntilo, and quartier Jardin in Sarh. 10,000 in Chad (2007 S. Hossack). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper

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Daju, Dar Daju
[djc] Guera Region, Guera department, Mongo subprefecture, Mongo and Eref area; Batha Region, southern border. 34,000 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dadjo, Dadju, Dajo, Dajou, Daju, Daju Mongo, Daju Oum Hadjer Dialects: Bardangal, Eref, Gadjira. Not inherently intelligible with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Lexical similarity: 64% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju Comments: Muslim.

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Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] Ouaddai Region, Sila department; Goz-Beïda area and east to Sudan border; Salamat Region, Barh Azoum department, camps of internally displaced people. 63,100 in Chad (2000). Population total all countries: 70,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bokorike, Dadjo, Dajou, Daju, Sila, Sula Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dar Daju Daju [djc]. Lexical similarity: 74% with Daju [daj] of Darfur (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Shatt [shj], 57% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju Comments: Muslim.

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Dangaléat
[daa] Guera Region, Guera department, Bang-bang subprefecture; possibly in Batha Region; Western dialect: Korbo area, Central dialect: around Barlo, Koubo Adougoul; Eastern dialect: around Korlongo. 60,000 (2005 SIL), increasing. 45,000 in Dangaléat Canton. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Danal, Dangal, Dangla Dialects: Central Dangaléat, East Dangaléat, West Dangaléat (Karbo, Korbo). Intelligibility between east and west dialects is low, but central dialect well understood. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Day
[dai] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department (Sarh); Mandoul Region, Barh Sara department (Moïssala), southwest of Sarh. 49,900 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dai Dialects: Bangoul, Bouna, Ngalo, Takawa-Béngoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Day

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Dazaga
[dzg] Borkou, Ennedi, Kanem, Barh el Gazel, Batha, Hadjer-Lamis, Wadi Fira, and Lac regions. 331,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 381,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dasa, Daza, Dazza Dialects: Reportedly similar to Tedaga [tuq]. The Azzaga dialect, the speech of the Azza, a caste division, is different from Dazaga. Its relation to Dazaga and speech of the Azza among the Teda is not known. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu Comments: Distinct from Daza [dzd] in Nigeria, which is Chadic. L1 users known as the Gorane. Muslim.

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Disa
[dsi] Guera Region, Barh Signaka department, Chinguil subprefecture. 2,370 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Related to Gula [glu] (Sara Gula) of Chad.

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Fania
[fni] Guera Region, Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west of Lake Iro; north of Sarh, Mouraye area, Sengué, Malakonjo, Rim, Sisi, and Karo villages. 1,100 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fagnia, Fana, Fanian, Fanya, Fanyan, Kobe, Mana Dialects: Northern Fania, Southern Fania. Distinct from Bua [bub]. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Fongoro
[fgr] Ouaddaï Region, Sila department, Fongoro canton; Dar Fongoro area along Sudan border, rather inaccessible. A few elderly speakers (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Dimmendaal 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gele, Kole Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi Comments: The tse-tse fly is a problem in the area.

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French
[fra] 3,000 in Chad (1993). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lac Léré department. 148,000 in Chad (2006). Kano-Katsina-Bororro Fulfulde. 152,000 all Fulfulde varieties in Chad. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adamawa Fulani, Biira, Boulbe, Domona, Dzemay, Eastern Fulani, Foulfoulde, Ful, Fula Fulbe, Nagapelta, Palata, Paldena, Paldida, Pelta Hay, Peul, Peulh, Pladina, Pule, Pullo, Sanyo, Taareyo, Zaakosa, Zemay Dialects: Bilkire Fulani (Bilkiri), Garoua, Kambariire, Maroua, Ngaoundéré, Nomadic Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Fulfulde, Bagirmi
[fui] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dababa department, Bokoro subprefecture, between Bokoro and Massenya. 24,000 in Chad. Population total all countries: 180,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baghirmi Peul, Bagirmi Fula Dialects: None known. May be similar to Bororo Fulfulde [fuv]; a nomadic group of Mbororo. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Spoken by people of Wodaabe lineage; also in northern Niger, northern Cameroon, Central African Republic. Nomadic. Different from Bagirmi [bmi], which is Nilo-Saharan.

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Fulfulde, Kano-Katsina-Bororro
[fuv] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Pala and Léré area; Chari-Baguirmi Region, Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dagana department, Massakory subprefecture; Kanem Region, Kanem department, Rig-Rig subprefecture. Nomadic Bororro travel along Chari river banks area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Peul Dialects: Bororro (Ako, Bororo, Mbororo, Nomadic Fulfulde), Kano-Katsina. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central Comments: Muslim.

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Fur
[fvr] Sila Region. 1,800 in Chad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: For, Four, Kondjara, Konjara Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur Comments: Several small groups. Muslim.

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Gabri
[gab] Tandjile Region, Tandjile Est department, Lai subprefecture, northwest of Lai, Dormon and Darbé villages area. 34,400 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabere, Gaberi, Ngabre, Southern Gabri Dialects: Darbé, Dormon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Comments: Dormo and Chiri are Gabri villages, erroneously listed as languages in some sources. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gadang
[gdk] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Mogo and Mbarlé; Somrai area. 2,500 (1997 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Sarua [swy] and Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2

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Gidar
[gid] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lac Léré department, northwest of Léré. At least 25 villages. 11,700 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Baynawa” (pej.), Gidder, Guidar, Kada Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C

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Gor
[gqr] Logone Oriental Region, La Pendé department, Bodo center area; Mandoul Region. 87,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bodo Dialects: Bodo, Yamod. Reportedly similar to Bedjond [bjv] and Gor [gqr], with high intelligibility. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: A clear understanding of separate identity from Mango [mge] and Bedjond [bvj]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Goundo
[goy] Tandjile Region, Lai and Kélo subprefectures, Goundo-Bengli, Goundo-Nangom, and Goundo-Yila villages. 30 (1998). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Besmé [bes], 51% with Kim [kia]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim

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Gula
[glu] Moyen-Chari Region, Lac Iro department, Alako and Boum-Kebir subprefectures, southwest of Lake Iro; Guera Region, border area. 10,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bayo, Goula, Sara Goula, Sara Gula Dialects: Kofoy, Malé, Moufa, Souka, Toussa. Probably related to Disa [dsi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Different from Gula Iro [glj] of Chad, which is Adamawa, and from Gula [kcm] of Central African Republic and Sudan.

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Gula Iro
[glj] Moyen-Chari Region, Lac Iro department; Salamat Region, Barh Azoum department, Lake Iro, Boum Kabir area; also in Guera Region; Pongaal dialect: Boum Kabir, Boum Saher, Madjok, Teonen, and Karou; Tiaala dialect: Masidjanga (Cheroba), Bouni, and Kore; Patool dialect: Badi and Foundouk; Korintal dialect: Cheou (Tieou); Tiitaal dialect: west Salamat Region. 3,500 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Pongaal, 730 Tiaala, 200 Tiitaal, 350 Patool, 170 Korintal. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula d’Iro, Goula Iro Dialects: Korintal, Patool, Pongaal (Ponaal), Tiaala, Tiitaal. Not intelligible of Bon Gula [glc] and Zan Gula [zna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Different from Gula [glu] of Chad and Sudan, which is Nilo-Saharan, and from Gula [kcm] of Central African Republic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gulay
[gvl] Mandoul (6 cantons), Logone Oriental (1 canton), and Tandjile (1 canton) regions, between Koumra, Laï, and Doba. 163,000 (1993 census). 23,500 Pen in 26 villages (1995 D. Djarangar). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulai, Goulaye, Goulei, Gulai, Gulei Dialects: Gulay, Pen (Peni). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: The Pen do not like to be called Gulay.

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Hausa
[hau] 100,000 in Chad (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Widespread use as L2 in northern Chad. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1

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Herdé
[hed] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Mayo-Dallah (Pala) and Lac Léré departments (Léré), Pala and Lamé area; some in Mayo-Kebbi Est Region; near the Pevé [lme] and west of the Ngeté [nnn] language areas. 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: He’dé, “Kado” (pej.), Ka’do Herdé, Zime, Zime of Pala Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa

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Horo
[hor] Moyen-Chari Region. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hor Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper

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Jaya
[jyy] Guera Region, Guera department, Bitkine subprefecture, 50 km north-northwest of Bitkine. 2,200 (1993 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Naba [mne]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi

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Jonkor Bourmataguil
[jeu] Salamat Region, Aboudeia department, west of Abou Deia; border area, Guera Region; originally centered in Bourmataguil village, now centered in Ader-Ader. 1,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djongor Bourmataguil, Dougne, Karakir Dialects: Dougne, Musunye. Relationship with other Dangla languages needs investigation, especially Toram [trj] and Mogum [mou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: ‘Karakir’, cave-dwellers in Arabic. Ethnonym: Jegu has been applied to this language, but Jegu is a dialect of Mogum [mou].

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Kaba
[ksp] Logone Oriental Region, La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture, Goré area and southeast. 11,000 in Chad (Welmers 1971). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba de Baibokoum, Kaba de Paoua, Kabba, Western Kaba Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Different from Kaba Deme [kwg], Sara Kaba Náà [kwv], Kulfa [kxj], or Laka [lap].

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Kaba Démé, Sara
[kwg] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh and Lac Iro departments, between Sarh and Kyabé; southernmost Guera Region; along Chari river, Bobé, Hélibongo, Banda, Moussafoyo, and Kemata villages. 40,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba ’Dem, Kaba Démé, Kaba Demi, Sara Kaba Dem, Tà Sàra Dialects: Boho, Kuruwer (Kuwaré?), Mara, Sime. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Kulfa [kxj], Sara Kaba Náà [kwv], or Laka [lap].

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Kaba Naa, Sara
[kwv] Moyen-Chari Region, Lac Iro department, centered in Kyabé. 35,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). 5,560 in Bale village, 4,940 in Koskabo, 4,550 in Kyabé. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dana, Kaba Na, Kaba Naa, Kaba Nar, Na, Sara Kaba Dialects: Dunje (Dendje, Denje, Dindje, Dinje, Dounje), Mbanga (Banga), Na, Tie (Tiye). The Dunje dialect may be the same as Sara Dunjo [koj] of Central African Republic. Sara Kaba Náà may be the same as Sara Kaba [sbz] of Central African Republic. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Kaba Deme [kwg], Kulfa [kxj], or Laka [lap].

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Kabalai
[kvf] Southwest Chad, Tandjile Region, Lai subprefecture, Lai and south on Logone river east bank. 17,900 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gablai, Kaba-Lai, Kabalay, Kabalaye, Keb-Kaye, Lai, Lay Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Nancere [nnc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Comments: Erroneously called Sara or Kaba of Lai.

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Kajakse
[ckq] Sila Region, northwest; Ouaddai Region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, south and southeast of Am Dam. 10,000 (Bender 1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kadjakse, Kajeske, Kawa Tadimini, Kujarke, Mini Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Masmaje [mes] and Mubi [mub]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2

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Kanembu
[kbl] Lac, Kanem, and Barh el Gazel regions; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dagana department, Massakory subprefecture. 461,000 (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kanambu, Kanembou Dialects: Kanembu, Kanuri, Karkawu, Mando, Nguri. There is a gradual differentiation between dialects of Kanembu and Kanuri [knc]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Ethnic groups: Badé (Badde 2,646), Baribu, Chiroa, Diabu, Galabu, Kadjidi (5,638), Kankena, Kanku, Kenguina (1,944), Koubri (Koubouri 2,817), Maguirmi (1,825), Nguiguim (7,233). Muslim.

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Communities in Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis, and Mayo-Kebbi Est regions. 104,000 in Chad (2006). 34,500 in Chari-Baguirmi and 23,300 in N’Djamena. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aga, “Baribari” (pej.), “Beriberi” (pej.), Bornouan, Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Kolere, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri Dialects: Dagara, Fadawa, Guvja, Kabari (Kuvuri), Kaga (Kagama), Kwayam, Lare, Mao, Ngazar, Njesko, Sugurti, Temageri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Muslim.

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Karang
[kzr] Logone Oriental Region, Monts de Lam department, Baibokoum subprefecture, northwest of Baïbokoum: Loumbogo, Lawtiko I, Lawtiko II, and Sarkaluki villages, 2 Sakpu villages. 1,000 in Chad (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Mbum, Kareng, Laka, Lakka, Lakka Mbum, Mbum Bakal, Nzák Kàráng Dialects: Karang, Mbere, Ngomi, Sakpu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Different from Laka [lap] of Central African Republic and Chad, and from Laka [lak] of Nigeria. Traditional religion.

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Karanga
[kth] Ouaddai Region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar and Ouara departments; also in Sila and Batha regions; around Am Dam and between Am Dam and Abéché, south of the Maba; Bakha are southwest of Am Dam, Karanga and Koniéré are northeast of Am Dam, Kashmere are south of Abéché and north of the Karanga. 10,000 (1999 SIL). 4,700 Karanga and 1,420 Bakha. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kurunga Dialects: Bakha (Bakhat, Baxa, Faala, Fala), Karanga (Kurunga), Kashmere (Kachmere), Koniéré (Kognere, Konyare, Mooyo, Moyo). Lexical similarity: 73% with Maba [mde], 94% between Karanga and Kashmere dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban Comments: The 4 dialects are distinct ethnic groups. Muslim.

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Kendeje
[klf] Ouaddai Region, Assoungha and Ouara departments, rural Abéché and Adré subprefectures, northwest of Hadjer Hadid. 1,860 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yaali Dialects: Faranga, Yaali. Lexical similarity: 89% between dialects with little contact between them. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Kendeje Comments: Muslim.

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Kenga
[kyq] Guera Region, Guera department, Bitkine subprefecture, Bitkine area, 52 villages, including Bolongo and Bokiyo. 40,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cenge, Kenge Dialects: Banala (Tar Banala), Banama (Tar Banama), Bidjir, Bolong (Tar Bolongo), Cenge (Tar Cenge). Lexical similarity: 62% with Jaya [jyy], 81%–93% with the Bolong (Tar Bolongo) dialect. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Some consider Bidjir a distinct language. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kera
[ker] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mont d’Illi department, south of Fianga, near Lake Tikem. 44,500 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 50,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kwang [kvi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 Comments: Confused with neighboring Tupuri [tui] in some publications.

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Kibet
[kie] Salamat Region, Barh-Azoum department; Ouaddaï Region, Sila department. Northeast of Am Timan and southwest of Goz Beïda. 18,500 (Bender 1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabentang, Kibeet, Kibeit Dialects: Dagel (Daggal), Kibet, Murru (Mourro, Muro). Reportedly similar to Runga [rou]. Not a dialect of Tama [tma] as reported in some sources. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Runga-Kibet Comments: Ethnonym: Kaben. The area is flooded 6 months each year. Muslim.

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Kim
[kia] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo Boneye Department, Eré, Djouman, Kolobo and Kim villages; also in Tandjile Region. 15,400 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Garap (Éré), Gerep (Djouman, Jumam), Kolop (Kilop, Kolobo), Kosop (Kim, Kwasap). Dialects listed may be closely related languages. Formerly classified as Chadic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim Comments: Incorrectly called Masa.

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Kimré
[kqp] Tandjilé Region, Tandjile Est department, east of Laï. 20,000 (2007 A. Oumounabidji). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabri-Kimré, Gawra Dialects: Buruwa (Bordo), Kimruwa (Kimré, Kim-Ruwa). Popular glossonym: Gabri, but it is not intelligible of Gabri [gab]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1

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Koke
[kou] Guera Region, Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, southeast of Melfi; Daguéla, Sengué, and Djourab village areas. 600 (1993 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Khoke Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Bolgo Dugag [bvo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua

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Kujarge
[vkj] Sila Region, Dar Fongoro, Jebel Mirra area, 7 villages; also scattered in Fur and Sinyar in Sudanese villages along Wadis Salih and Azum rivers. 1,000 (Bender 1983). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Unclassified Comments: A few groups.

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Kulfa
[kxj] Southeast, Moyen-Chari Region, Kyabé subprefecture, southwest of Lake Iro; centered in Alako and Kirimikoro; some in Guera Region. 7,110 (1993 census). 4,000 Koulfa, 2,200 Kouroumi, 910 Bara (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kaba So” (pej.), Kulfe, Kurmi, Kurumi Dialects: Bara, Kulfa (Koulfa), Kurumi (Kouroumi). Lexical similarity: 80% with Sara Kaba Náà [kwv]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Laka [lap], Sara Kaba Deme [kwg], or Sara Kaba Náà [kwv]. They do not perceive themselves as Sara Kaba.

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Kuo
[xuo] Logone Oriental Region, Monts de Lam department, Baibokoum subprefecture, near Baibokoum, Pao, and Bouroum cantons. 12,300 in Chad (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 20,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ko, Koh Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karang [kzr] and Nzakambay [nzy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Koh

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Kwang
[kvi] Southern Chari-Baguirmi Region; Mayo-Kebbi Est Region; Tandjile Region, Tandjile Est department; north of Lai, east of Bongor, southwest of Bousso, Mobou dialect: Mobou; Aloa dialect: Mogo. 16,800 (1993 census). 10,000 or more Kwang, 2,000 Mobou, 250 Aloa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kouang, Kuang, Kwong Dialects: Aloa, Gaya, Kawalké, Kwang, Mindéra, Mobou (Mobu), Ngam (Gam, Modgel), Tchagin (Tchakin). Includes Midigil village, sometimes erroneously listed as ‘Modgel’ (Medegel) in some sources. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kera [ker]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 Comments: Ngam dialect is different from Ngam [nmc] of Chad and Central African Republic in the Sara group of Nilo-Saharan. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Laal
[gdm] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, between Korbol and Dik, Gori (center), Damtar, and Mailao villages. 750 (2000). Damtar village had its own dialect called Laabe with 3 speakers left in 1977. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gori Dialects: Laabe, Laal. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Some lexical relationship to the Bua group, but Boyeldieu (1977) says it should not be classified with Bua. Probably Adamawa, some sources say Chadic.

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Lagwan
[kot] Chari-Baguirmi Region, N’Djamena area, south of N’Djamena along Logone river, Logone-Gana area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone Dialects: Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Comments: Part of Kotoko ethnic and linguistic group. Kotoko total: 22,717 (1993 census): Afade [aal], Mser [kqx], Malgbe [mxf], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], and Jilbe [jie] (in Nigeria). Muslim.

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Laka
[lap] Logone Oriental Region, Monts de Lam department, Baïbokoum subprefecture; La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture, 310 villages; southwest Logone Occidental Region; Mang dialect: Goré subprefecture, Ngadjibian, Békan, and Timbéri cantons, Bémour dialect: Bessao and Pandzangué cantons south of Moundou, Maïngao dialect: Ngamadja-Dodang II and Bessao-Oudoumian area, Goula dialect: Andoum and Pandzangué cantons, Pan area: Paï dialect: Oudoumian. 55,100 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 57,150. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kabba Laka Dialects: Bémour, Goula, Maïngao, Mang, Paï. Some consider it a dialect of Ngambay [sba]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Different from Laka [lak] of Nigeria, which is Adamawa-Ubangi, and from Kaba [ksp] of Central African Republic and Chad.

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Lele
[lln] Tandjile Region, Tandjile Ouest department, south of Kélo. 26,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 Comments: Different from Lele [lel] of Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Lela dialect of Kasem [xsm] of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

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Lutos
[ndy] On Central African Republic border; Moyen-Chari Region, Grande Sido department, south of the Ngam [nmc] language area; southeast corner, Mandoul Region. 1,980 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ruto (Louto, Luto, Rito, Routo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale

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Maba
[mde] Ouaddai region, Ouara and Djourf-al-Ahmar departments; Wadi Fira Region, Biltine department, Biltine subprefecture; most of Ouara department and villages south of Biltine; also in Sila and Batha regions. 296,000 (2006 E. Zürcher), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Borgu, Bura Mabang, Kana Mabang, Mabaa, Mabak, Mabang, Ouaddai, Ouaddaien, Wadai, Waddayen Dialects: Kabartu, Kodroy, Kondongo, Maba. Lexical similarity: 73% with Karanga [kth], 63% with Marfa [mvu], 42% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Maba Comments: Ethnic groups: Uled Djemma (Aulad Djema, Awlad Djema). Muslim.

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Mabire
[muj] Guera Province, Bidiyo canton, Mongo-Rural subprefecture, Oulek village. 3 (2001 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Tounkoul dialect of Bidiyo [bid]. Lexical similarity: 37%–52% with Jegu dialect of Mogum [mou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1

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Majera
[xmj] Area on east bank, Logone River; Chari-Baguirmi Region; Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo Lemie department, north of Guélengdeng, Dogwea village. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Da’a, Mazera, Mida’a, Midah Dialects: Hwalem (Holom), Kajire-’dulo, Majera (Mazra). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina Comments: Included in what the Mandage call Mida’a and Da’a.

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Malgbe
[mxf] West, Hadjer-Lamis Region, N’Djamena subprefecture, north of N’Djamena along the Chari river; Douguia, Malalie, and Oulio (Walia) villages, and others. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goulfei, Goulfey, Gulfei, Kotoko-Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe Dialects: Douguia, Goulfey, Mara, Walia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: Related to other Kotoko ethnic and linguistic groups: Afade [aal], Lagwan [kot], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], Mser [kqx], and Jilbe [jie] (of Nigeria).

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Mambai
[mcs] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lac Léré department, Cameroon border west of Léré. 2,000 in Chad (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambay, Mamgbay, Mamgbei, Manbai, Mangbai, Mangbaï de Biparé, Mangbei, Momboi, Mongbay Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai

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Mango
[mge] Logone Oriental Region, La Pendé department, Bodo subprefecture; Mandoul and Tandjile regions. 52,200 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doba, Mbay Doba, Mongo Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bedjond [bjv] and Gor [gqr], with high inherent intelligibility. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mararit
[mgb] Wadi Fira Region, Biltine Department, Am Zoer Subprefecture (Abou Charib); Ouaddai Region, Assoungha Department, Mabrone Subprefecture (Mararit). 42,400 (1993 census). 15,400 Mararit, 27,000 Abou Charib. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abiri, Abiyi, Ebiri, Mararet, Merarit Dialects: Abou Charib (Abu Sharib, Abu Sharin), Mararit. Limited intelligibility between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Very difficult intelligibility of Tama [tma]. Not intelligible of Sungor [sjg]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Tama [tma], 75% between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Mararit Comments: The Abou Charib live north of the Mararit and trace their ancestry to them. Muslim.

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Marba
[mpg] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Ouest department; Mayo Kébbi Est Region, Kabbia department, north of Kélo. 148,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Azumeina Dialects: Kolon (Kolong, Kulung), Léo (Leou), Marba (Banana, Bananna, Maraba). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Different from Marfa [mvu] (Marba) of Chad, which is Maban.

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Marfa
[mvu] Ouaddai Region, Ouara department, south of Abéché. 5,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marba Dialects: Not a dialect of Masalit [mls]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Maba [mde], 69% with Karanga [kth], 45% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Maba Comments: Different from Marba [mpg], which is Chadic.

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Masalit
[mls] Ouaddai Region, Assoungha department, around Adré; Western Masalit dialect: Ouaddai Region; also in Sila Region. 60,900 in Chad (2006), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaana Masala, Kana Masaraka, Masale, Masara, Masaraka, Massalit, Massolit Dialects: Masaltang, Northern Masalit, Southern Masalit, Western Masalit. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Masalit Comments: Muslim.

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Masana
[mcn] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture, along Logone river; small enclave in Chari-Baguirmi Region. 130,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 233,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Banana” (pej.), Masa, Massa Dialects: Bongor, Bugudum (Budugum), Domo, Gizay (Gisey, Guissey), Gumay (Goumaye), Ham, Walia (Walya), Wina (Viri), Yagwa (Yagoua). All dialects understand Yagoua dialect well; Gizay and Yagoua dialects are 80% mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 97% between the Budugum dialect and the most similar other dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maslam
[msv] Ville de N’Djamena Region, Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture. North of N’Djamena, along Chari river; Maslam dialect: Miskini and Blabli villages; Sao dialect: Farcha-Milezi and Ngara-Mandju (Gourmadjo) villages. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Maltam, Maltam Dialects: Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: In the Kotoko ethnic and linguistic group. Kotoko total: 22,717 (1993 census).

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Masmaje
[mes] Batha Region, Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture, southwest of Oum Hadjer, north of the Mubi [mub] language area. Ethnic population: 25,700 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masmadje, Mesmedje Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2

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Massalat
[mdg] Batha Region, Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture, and Ouaddai Region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, Am Dam subprefecture. 10 (1991 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 29,800 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Masalit Comments: Originally separated from the Masalit [mls] along the Sudan border and moved west. Muslim.

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Mawa
[mcw] Guera Region, Guera department, Bitkine subprefecture, Mahoua village area, southeast of the Mukulu [moz] language area. 6,560 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahoua, Mahwa Dialects: Gura (village of Gurara) and Reupan (village of Roffono) have been called dialects but their speech is very similar to that of Mahoua. Lexical similarity: 8% with Ubi [ubi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim.

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Mbara
[mpk] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Mayo-Lémié department, along Chari river, Guélengdeng area. 1,000 (Tourneux, Seignobos, and LaFarge 1986). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: G’kelendeg, G’kelendeng, Guelengdeng, Massa de Guelengdeng Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2

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Mbay
[myb] Mandoul Region, Barh Sara department, Moïssala area. The traditional area is on the Chad and Central African Republic borders. 80,000 in Chad (1990 J. Keegan). Population total all countries: 88,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbai, Mbay Moissala, Mbaye, Moissala Mbai, Sara Mbai Dialects: Bbate, Bédégué, Bédjou, Kan (Mbay-Kan), Mougo, Ngoka (Mbang). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mesme
[zim] Tandjile Region, Tandjile Ouest department, south and west of Kélo, between Kélo and Pala. 20,100 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djime, Djiwe, Zime of Kélo Dialects: Bero, Zamre. Related to Pévé [lme], Ngeté [nnn], and Herdé [hed]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa

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Migaama
[mmy] Guera Region, Guera department, Mongo subprefecture, east of Mongo, Abou Telfane canton, Abu Telfan area; Migaama dialect: Baro; Doga dialect: Fityari; Gamiya dialect: Game and Julkulkili; Dambiya dialect: Mala. 20,000 (2000 W. Chesley). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,000 (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dionkor, Djonkor, Djonkor Abou, Dyongor, Jongor, Migama, Telfane Dialects: Dambiya (Ndambiya), Doga, Gamiya, Migaama. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim.

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Miltu
[mlj] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, Miltou town area; also into Moyen-Chari Region. 270 (1993 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Miltou Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 27% with Sarua [swy], Somrai [sor], Gadang [gdk], and Ndam [ndm], 36% with Boor [bvf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2

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Mogum
[mou] Guera Region, Guera department, Bitkine and Mongo subprefectures; Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, south of the Bidiyo [bid] language area. 7,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mogoum Dialects: Jegu, Kofa (Koffa), Mogum Délé, Mogum Diguimi, Mogum Urmi. Dialect subgroup. Mogum Diguimi may not be a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: more than 96% among dialects. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim.

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Morom
[bdo] Guera Region, Guera department, Bitkine subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dababa department, Bokoro and Gama subprefectures. 4,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bernde, Tar Murba Dialects: Bayo, Morbo, Morom. Bolong may be a dialect of Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: 59% with Bagirmi [bmi], 53%–72% with Kenga, 54%–73% with Jaya [jyy], 55%–70% with Naba [mne], 55%–70% with the Bilala dialect of Naba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi

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Mpade
[mpi] Hadjer-Lamis Region, Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture, south of Lake Chad; N’Djamena town; Mani area on Logone river, north of N’Djamena. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Makari, Makari Dialects: Bodo, Digam, Makari, Woulki. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: Mandage is used by the Kotoko (total population: 22,717, 1993 census) to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [kot] as well).

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Mser
[kqx] Chari-Baguirmi and Ville de N’Djamena regions; to Cameroon border. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Klesem, Kotoko-Kuseri, Kousseri, Kuseri Dialects: Gawi, Houlouf, Kabe, Kalo (Kalakafra), Mser (Kousseri, Msir). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Comments: Mandage is used by the Kotoko (total population: 22,717–1993 census) to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [kot] as well). Muslim.

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Mubi
[mub] Guera Region, Guera department, Mangalmé subprefecture, east of Mongo, centered in Mangalmé area,135 villages; also large area in Batha Region. 35,300 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Moubi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Zirenkel [zrn], 35% with Dangaléat [daa]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Comments: Different from Gude [gde] of Cameroon and Nigeria. Muslim.

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Mukulu
[moz] Guera Region, Guera department, Bitkine subprefecture, below Guera massif, Moukoulou, Séguine, Doli, Morgué, Djarkatché (Mezimi), and Gougué villages. 12,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diongor Guera, Djonkor Guera, Dyongor Guera, Gergiko, Guerguiko, Jonkor-Gera, Mokilko, Mokoulou, Mokulu Dialects: Doliki, Gugiko, Mezimko, Mokilko, Moriko, Seginki. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.2 Comments: Gergiko and Gergagi (pl.) are umbrella terms of recent creation to include all villages and dialects of this language, since Mukulu (or Mokilko), which is always used in the literature, properly designates only the principal village and its speech. Traditional religion.

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Mulgi
[mvh] Tandjile Region, Tandjile Est department, Lai subprefecture, between the Ndam [ndm] and Kimré [kqp] language areas. 5,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mire Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Ndam [ndm], 32% with Kimré [kqp]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mundang
[mua] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lac Léré and Mayo-Dallah departments (Léré, Pala); Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mont d’Illi department (Fianga), Léré area. 191,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 235,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaele, Moundan, Moundang, Nda Dialects: Kabi (Kieziere), Zasing (Torrock-Kaélé, Yasing). A subdialect of Kabi is Kieziere, of Zasing is Torrock-Kaélé. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai

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Musey
[mse] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Kabbia and Mont d’Illi departments, Gounou Gaya, Fianga; Tandjile Region, Tandjile Ouest department, Kélo, Gounou Gaya is center; small border enclave, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region. 209,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 229,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bananna, Bananna Ho Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musei, Museyna, Mussoi, Mussoy Dialects: Bongor-Jodo-Tagal-Berem-Gunu, Jaraw-Domo, Lew, Pe-Holom-Gamé. Some intelligibility of Masana [mcn]. Marba [mpg] (Azumeina) is reportedly most similar linguistically. Lew dialect is most similar to Marba. All dialects mutually intelligible. Dialect names are village names. Pe dialect is in Cameroon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Traditional religion.

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Musgu
[mug] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Chari-Baguirmi Region, small area, east bank, Chari river; N’Djamena, between Chari and Logone rivers. 24,400 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mouloui, Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Mulwi, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk Dialects: Beege (Jafga), Mpus (Mousgoum de Pouss, Musgum-Pouss, Pouss, Pus), Muzuk (Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidik), Vulum (Mulwi-Mogroum, Vlum). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 Comments: Ethnic autonym: Mulwi. Distinct from Muskum [mje] in Mouskoun village.

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Muskum
[mje] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo-Boneye and Mayo-Lemie departments, Bongor subprefecture. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Muzgum Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Musgu [mug]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2

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Naba
[mne] Batha Region, Batha Est department, Ati subprefecture, Batha Ouest department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture; Barh el Gazel Region, southeast; Bilala dialect: around Lake Fitri east to Ati; Kuka dialect: Bokoro subprefecture, Moïto to Bokoro, and Ati to Oum Hadjer; Medogo dialect: southwest of Ati. 278,000 (2006). 137,000 Bilala, 76,700 Kuka, and 19,200 Medogo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bilala (Bilaala, Boulala, Bulala, Ma, Mage), Kuka (Kouka, Lisi), Medogo (Modogo, Mud). Related but not inherently intelligible of Berakou [bxv] or Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: between Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo dialects is 99%. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo are 3 ethnic groups who share a common culture and speak essentially the same language, Ethnonym: Naba by all 3 groups. Muslim.

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Nancere
[nnc] Tandjile Region, Tandjile Ouest department, Béré, Delban, and Kélo subprefectures. 81,000 (2007 B. Keineng), increasing. L2 users: Used as L2 in church and for intercultural communications. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nanchere, Nangcere, Nangjere, Nangtchere, Nanjeri, Nantcere Dialects: Bolo, Kwale, Mire, Nancere du Centre. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndam
[ndm] Tandjile Region, Tandjile Est department, Lai subprefecture, northeast of Lai, and southeast of Bousso d’Béré; southern Chari-Baguirmi, northwest Moyen-Chari, and north Mandoul regions. 6,500 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dam, Ndamm Dialects: Ndam Dik (Northern Ndam), Ndam-Ndam (Southern Ndam). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Comments: Distinct from Dam of Buso [bso]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ngam
[nmc] Moyen-Chari Region, Grande Sido department (Maro); Mandoul Region, Barh Sara department, Dembo subprefecture, Maro area; Ngam Tel dialect: Maro canton and Moussafoyo subprefecture; Barh Kôh department; Ngam Tira dialect: Maro, Moyo, and Danamadji; Kon Ngam dialect: Djéké canton; Kle dialect: Nara in Djéké canton. 43,700 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 61,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngahm, Ngama, Ngamh, Sarngam Dialects: Kle, Kon Ngam, Ngam Gir Bor, Ngam Tel, Ngam Tira. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: The Horo (Hor) reportedly no longer use their language but speak the Kle dialect of Ngam.

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Ngambay
[sba] Logone Occidental Region; Logone Oriental Region, Lanya department (Bébedjia), La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Mayo-Dallah department; Tandjile and Mayo-Kebbi Est regions; centered in Moundou area. 896,000 in Chad (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Gamba, Gambaye, Gamblai, Ngambai, Sara, Sara Ngambai Dialects: Bemar (Daba de Goré), Benoye, Kere, Lara, Murum (Mouroum). Some consider Laka [lap] to be a dialect of Ngambay. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ngete
[nnn] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Mayo-Dallah department, east of Pala, Ngeté village area; near the Pévé [lme] and east of the Herdé [hed] language areas; southern Mayo-Kebbi Est Region. 10,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ka’do Ngueté, Nge’dé, Ngueté, Nguetté, Zime Dialects: None known. Linguistic and sociolinguistic differences with Pévé [lme] and Herdé [hed]. Used by outsiders to refer to this and related languages: Herdé, Pévé, Mesmé [zim]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa

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Niellim
[nie] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, Niellim town area, Chari river southwest bank. Niou dialect: Niou on the northeast bank. 5,160 (1993 census). 1,000 in Sarh City; 400 in Niou dialect. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lua, Mjillem, Nielim, Nyilem Dialects: Niellim, Niou, Tchini (Cini, Cuni). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Ethnonym: Niellim by government. Ethnic autonym: Lua. Traditional religion.

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Noy
[noy] Moyen-Chari and Mandoul regions, between Sarh, Djoli, Bédaya, Koumra, and Koumogo villages. 36 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Loo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua

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Nzakambay
[nzy] Logone Oriental Region, Monts de Lam department, Baïbokoum subprefecture, Cameroon border, near Baïbokoum; Zoli dialect: Monts de Lam area. 18,500 in Chad (2000). Population total all countries: 31,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mboum, Mbum, Mbum Nzakambay, Njakambai, Nzak Mbai, Nzaka Mbay, Nzakmbay Dialects: Nzakambay, Zoli. Reportedly similar to Karang [kzr] and Kuo [xuo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Different from Mbay [myb], which is Nilo-Saharan, and from Mbum [mdd] of Cameroon. Traditional religion.

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Pana
[pnz] Logone Oriental Region; Pana dialect: Makele village; Gonge dialect: Giriwon and Diahoke villages. 1,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pani Dialects: Gonge, Pana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang

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Pévé
[lme] Southwest, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lamé is center. 30,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 35,720. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kado” (pej.), Ka’do Pevé, Lamé, Zime Dialects: Dari, Doe (Doué), Lamé. Related to Herdé [hed] and Ngeté [nnn] with differences in phonology, grammar, and ethnic attitudes. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Different from Lame [bma] of Nigeria. Ethnonym: Zime refers to Herdé [hed], Ngeté [nnn], Pévé, and Mesmé [zim].

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Runga
[rou] Salamat Region, Haraze-Mangueigne department; Ouaddaï Region, Sila department. 21,500 in Chad (1993 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 43,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aykindang, Rounga, Roungo Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kibet [kie]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Runga-Kibet Comments: The area is flooded for 6 months each year. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Saba
[saa] Guera Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, northeast of Melfi. 1,340 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jelkung Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sango
[sag] L2 users: Probably no L1 speakers in Chad, but used as L2 in southern Chad. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sangho Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based

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Sar
[mwm] Moyen-Chari and Mandoul regions, Sarh, Koumra, Balimba, Bessada, Bédaya, Djoli, Matékaga, and Koumogo cantons. 183,000 (1993 census). 74,700 Madjingay (1964), 16,300 No (1964), 32,000 Nar (1977). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sara, Sara Madjingay Dialects: Majingai (Madja Ngai, Madjingay, Madjingaye, Majinngay), Nar, No. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sarua
[swy] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Bousso and Miltou, along Chari river. 2,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Saroua, Sarwa Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Gadang [gdk], 27% with Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 Comments: Different from Sharwa [swq] in Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sinyar
[sys] Ouaddaï Region, Sila department, near confluence of Kaja, Azum, and Salih rivers. 12,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shamya, Shamyan, Shemya, Sinya, Symiarta, Taar Shamyan, Zimirra Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sinyar Comments: They are culturally Fur. Little education. Geographically cut off from languages of the Bongo-Bagirmi group. Possibly no remaining speakers in Sudan (2001). Muslim.

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Sokoro
[sok] Guera Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Gogmi to Badanga; southeast Hadjer-Lamis Region. 5,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bedanga, Sokoro. Lexical similarity: 55% with Tamki [tax]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Comments: A Djebren area group called, Tunjur of Melfi, may have spoken a now extinct Sokoro dialect; now reportedly mainly speak Chadian Spoken Arabic [shu]. Muslim.

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Somrai
[sor] Tandjile Region, Tandjile Est department, Lai subprefecture, northeast of Lai, Domogou is center. 7,410 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sibine, Somray, Somre, Somrei, Soumrai, Soumray, Sounrai, Sumrai Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of any other language. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ndam [ndm], 39% with Sarua [swy], 35% with Gadang [gdk], 33% with Tumak [tmc], 28% with Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Surbakhal
[sbj] Ouaddai Region, Assoungha department, Adré subprefecture, between Hadjer Hadid and Alacha. 7,890 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sourbakhal Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Surbakhal Comments: Muslim.

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Tama
[tma] Wadi Fira Region, Dar Tama department, Guéréda area; some in Ouaddai Region. 62,900 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 67,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tamok, Tamongobo, Tamot Dialects: Girga, Haura, Orra, Tama. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Assangori [sjg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor Comments: Muslim.

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Tamki
[tax] Guera Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Tamki village. 500 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Temki Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Sokoro [sok]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saba [saa], 55% with Sokoro [sok], 32% with Mawa [mcw]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tedaga
[tuq] Far north desert, Tibesti Region, Bardai area; Borkou, Ennedi, and Kanem regions. 28,500 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 42,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tebou, Tebu, Teda, Tibbu, Toda, Todaga, Todga, Toubou, Tubu, Tuda, Tudaga Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Daza [dzd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu Comments: Many separate groups. Seminomadic. Thousands reportedly residents of Libya. Muslim.

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Tobanga
[tng] Tandjile Region, Tandjile Est department, Deressia subprefecture; also in western Mayo-Kebbi Est Region. 30,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gabri, Gabri-Nord, Gabri-North, Northern Gabri Dialects: Mande, Tobanga (Deressia). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Comments: Distinct from Gabri [gab] (Southern Gabri). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Toram
[trj] Salamat Region, Aboudeïa department, southeast of Abou Deïa, south of the Birgit [btf] language area, in and west of Ter. 8,460 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Torom, Torum Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Comments: Muslim.

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Tumak
[tmc] Mandoul Region, Mandoul Oriental department, Gouindi subprefecture, southwest of the Niellim [nie] language area; east Tandjile and northwest Moyen-Chari regions. 25,200 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dije, Sara Toumak, Toumak, Tumac, Tumag, Tummok Dialects: Motun (Mawer, Mod, Moden, Modin, Mot, Motin), Tumak. Lexical similarity: 71% with Motun dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Comments: Erroneously called Sara Toumak.

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Tunia
[tug] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, Sarh and 3 small villages north. 2,260 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tounia, Tun, Tunya Dialects: Perim, Tunya. Not intelligible of other Bua languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tupuri
[tui] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mont d’Illi department, Fianga area. 104,000 in Chad (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndore, Toubouri, Toupouri, Tuburi Dialects: Bang-Ling, Bang-Were, Faale-Piyew, Podokge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai

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Ubi
[ubi] Guera Region, Guera department, Mongo subprefecture, southwest of Tounkoul, Oubi village area. 1,100 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Oubi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48% with Mawa [mcw] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1

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Zaghawa
[zag] Wadi Fira Region, Kobé department, Iriba subprefecture; Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region, Ennedi Est and Ennedi Ouest departments. 87,000 in Chad (2006). 3,000 Bideyat (Tuer-Gala). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beria, Beri-Aa, Berri, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua Dialects: Dirong-Guruf, Kobe-Kapka, Tuer-Gala (Anna, Awe, Baele, Beria, Bideyat, Terawia). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern Comments: Bideyat and Zaghawa dialects sometimes called Beria (Beri). Muslim.

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Zan Gula
[zna] Guera Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Chinguil; Moyen-Chari Region, northwest of Lake Iro. 5,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula, Gula Guera, More, Moriil, Morre Dialects: Chinguil, Zan. Lexical similarity: 46% with Bon Gula [glc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Together with Bon Gula ethnonym: Gula Guera. The Gula Iro use ethnonym: Moriil. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Zerenkel
[zrn] Guera Department, Mongo subprefecture, Canton Dadjo I, Dambiro, Sirbodom, and Nikel villages. 2,240 (1993 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zirenkel Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Mubi [mub], 34%–36% with Dangaléat [daa] (East, Central, and Western). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2

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