Togo

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Adangbe
[adq] Plateaux region: Togo, Ghana border directly east of Ho. 4,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Different from but related to Dangme [ada]. The Adan and Agotime are separate ethnic groups who speak Adangbe.

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Adele
[ade] Centrale region: Sotouboua prefecture. 26,400 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 37,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedere, Bidire, Gadre, Gidere, Gidire Dialects: Lower Adele, Upper Adele. Intelligibility : 85%–90% between dialects, minor differences in tone and lexicon. Ghana and Togo dialects differ. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele Comments: Ethnic group is Bedere. Different from Adere [add] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Aguna
[aug] Plateaux region: southeast corner, north and south of ‘Forêt de Togodo’, Moyen-Mono, ‘des Lacs’, and Yoto prefectures, both sides of Mono river; Lome and other towns south. 14,000 in Togo (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agunaco, Agunagbe, Agunaný, Awuna Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Some villages in the Aguna language area also have Ifè [ife], Fon [fon] and Aja [ajg] speakers; one reportedly had Kabiye [kbp] speakers. (2006 G. Faton).

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Aja
[ajg] Plateaux region: southeast corner, Haho, Moyen-Mono, and Ogou prefectures, Mono river area, southeast of Atakpame town; Maritime region: Lacs and Yoto prefectures, east of Mono river. 190,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajagbe Dialects: Dogo, Hwe (Ehoue), Sikpi (Shikpi), Tado (Tadou), Tala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja Comments: Tado and Tala speakers are mainly in Togo. Traditional religion.

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Akaselem
[aks] Centrale region: east of Sokodé, Tchamba prefecture. 59,200 (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akasele, Cemba, Chamba, Kamba, Kasele, Tchamba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham Comments: Muslim.

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Akebu
[keu] Plateaux region: Akébou and Wawa prefectures east of Ghana, mostly in Kougnohou, Djon, Kamina, Sérégbéné, and Yala. 70,300 (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akebou, Akébou, Ekpeebhe, Gakagba, Kabu, Kébou, Kebu, Kegberike, kekpeeke, kekpeerike Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, LSAF, Togo Sign Language Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Although many people say they use ASL in Togo, they generally do not understand nor sign standard ASL from the United States. However, the sign language in Togo has not been separately recognized by ISO 639-3.

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Anii
[blo] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, Balanka, Kouloumi, Nandjoubi, and Afem villages. 15,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akpe, Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, “Ounji-Ounji” (pej.), “Winji-Winji” (pej.) Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele Comments: Each village has a distinct speech variety name, and that of Balanka is hard to understand. Muslim.

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Anufo
[cko] Savanes region: Oti prefecture, Mango town area southwest. 72,100 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bago-Kusuntu
[bqg] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, mostly Koussountou and Bagou. 9,900 (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bago, Koussountou Dialects: Bago, Kusuntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Muslim.

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Biali
[beh] Savanes region: Kpendjal prefecture, along Benin border. 2,580 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

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Bissa
[bib] Savanes region: Tone prefecture, Burkina Faso border. 12,000 in Togo (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bisa Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa Comments: Traditional religion.

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Delo
[ntr] Centrale region: Sotouboua prefecture; Plateaux region: Wawa prefecture, near Ghana border. 7,500 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ditammari
[tbz] Kara region: Kéran prefecture, northeast of Kanté, mostly in Nadoba, Wantema, Warengo, and Koutougou; Savanes region, Oti prefecture, western corner. 34,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Soma, “Somba” (pej.), Some, Tamari, Tamberma Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Comments: Ethnonym: Tamberma, Bataba, Batammarab. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Éwé
[ewe] Widespread. Maritime and Plateaux regions: south of Atakpamé. Kpalimé, Notsé, and Tsévié are main centers. 862,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ehwe, Eibe, Eve, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe Dialects: Adan, Agu, Anglo (Anlo, Awlan), Aveno, Be, Gbin, Ho, Kpelen, Togo, Vlin, Vo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Christian (Protestant), Christian (Roman Catholic), traditional religion.

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Fon
[fon] Plateaux region: north and south Atakpamé, scattered small groups. 35,500 in Togo (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dahomeen, Djedji, Fo, Fogbe, Fon-Gbe, Fonnu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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French
[fra] 3,000 in Togo (1993). L2 users: 2,000,000 in Togo (Francophonie 2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 3). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Fulfulde, Borgu
[fue] Savannes and Kara regions: scattered small groups. 48,200 in Togo (Johnstone 1993). Often speak the language of their home base as a second language (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulani, Peul, Peulh Dialects: Atakora Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Muslim.

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Gbe, Maxi
[mxl] Plateaux region: north and south of Atakpamé; isolated villages south. 25,300 in Togo (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahi, Maxi-Gbe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Waci
[wci] Maritime region: Yoto, Vo, Bas-Mono, and Lacs prefectures, mostly Vogan, Tabligbo, and Attitogon. 366,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 476,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ouatchi, Wachi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Western Xwla
[xwl] Maritime region: southeast Lacs prefecture, along Mono river. 21,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gen
[gej] Maritime region: Lacs prefecture, east of Lomé toward Benin border. 201,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 327,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ge, Gebe, Gen-Gbe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo Dialects: Agoi, Anexo, Gen, Gliji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina Comments: Ethnonym: Mina.

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Ginyanga
[ayg] Centrale region: Blitta prefecture, west and south of Blitta town. 16,500 (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Ethnic population: 12,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agnagan, Anyanga, Genyanga Dialects: None known. Closely related to Gikyode [acd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Ethnic autonym: Anyanga or Agnagan. Gikyode [acd] (Ghana) language materials not well understood. Traditional religion.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] Savanes region: Kpendjal prefecture; east Tone prefecture, Mandouri subprefecture, mostly Korbongou and Mandouri. 204,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ifè
[ife] Northeast Plateaux region: north Ogou, Anie and Est-Mono prefectures, mostly Atakpamé, Kamina, Dadja, and Ese-Ana; Centrale region: west Tchamba prefecture. 127,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 207,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ana, Ana-Ifé, Baate Dialects: Dadja, Djama, Tschetti. Ede language subgroup member. Lexical similarity: 78% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 87%–91% with Ede Nago [xkb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Igo
[ahl] Plateaux region: far northwest Danyi prefecture, Bogo-Ahlon canton, Sassanou village area. 7,600 (Gblem-Poidi 2012). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achlo, Ago, Ahlõ, Ahlon, Ahlon-Bogo, Ahonlan, Anlo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Official name: Ahlon. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ikposo
[kpo] Plateaux region: Amou, Wawa, and Ogou prefectures, west of Atakpamé, mostly Amlamé, Amou-Oblo, and Atakpamé. 155,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 162,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akposo, Akposso, Kposo Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] Widespread. 975,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 1,005,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye Dialects: Boufale, Kewe, Kijang, Lama-Tissi. Lexical similarity: 60% between Kabiye [kbp], Lama [las], Tem [kdh], and Lukpa [dop]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant), Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Konkomba
[xon] Kara region: Dankpen prefecture, north of Kabou, Ghana border, Guérin-Kouka, Nawaré, and Kidjaloum; Savanes region: south Oti prefecture. 84,700 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kpessi
[kef] Centrale region: Nyamassila area west of Mono river; Plateaux region: Est Mono prefecture. 4,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpesi, Kpési, Kpetchi, Kpétsi Dialects: None known. Closely related to Éwé [ewe] (1998 SIL). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kusaal
[kus] Savanes region: Cinkassé area, near Burkina Faso and Ghana borders. 1,200 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast

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Lama
[las] Widespread. Significant presence in Lomé. 198,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 258,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso Dialects: Defale, Kadjala (Kadjalla), Kande (Kante). Reportedly similar to Tem [kdh] and Kabiye [kbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Lama. Lamba is the French name. Losso refers to people on the Losso Plain, including the Nawdeba (Nawdm). Traditional religion.

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Lukpa
[dop] Kara region: Binah prefecture along Benin border; Central region: a few villages. 17,900 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Different from Logba [lgq] of Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mbelime
[mql] Kara region: Kéran prefecture, Koko Tamberma canton (Benin border). 2,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

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Miyobe
[soy] Kara region: Solla prefecture. 14,900 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kuyobe, Kyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bijobe, Sola is a village name.

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Moba
[mfq] Northwest Savanes region: Tandjoare prefecture, into Tone and Oti prefectures, mainly Dapaong and Bombouaka towns. 319,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 320,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ben, Moa, Moab, Moare Dialects: Ben, Lok, Natchaba, Yanbann. Limited intelligibility of Bimoba [bim] in Ghana, although related. Diverse dialect situation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mòoré
[mos] Savanes region: Cinkassé prefecture, Cinkassé, Timbou, and Tabi villages north of Dapaong. 33,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi Dialects: Yanga (Jaan, Timbou, Yaan, Yam, Yan, Yana). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest

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Nago, Northern
[xkb] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, Kambolé town area, Benin border. 40,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kambolé, Southwest Ede Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nawdm
[nmz] Kara region: Bassar and Doufelgou prefectures, Niamtougou area; Centrale and Plateaux regions: Sotouboua, Amou, Wawa, Tchamba, Est-Mono, and Haho prefectures; significant presence in Lomé. 146,000 in Togo (2012 SIL). 7,300 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Losso, Losu, Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam Dialects: Central Nawdm (Bana’, Tenega), East Nawdm (Siou Canton), West Nawdm (Baga, Koka, Niamtougou). Reportedly similar to Yom [pil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm Comments: Exonym: Losso. L1 speakers may use this term with outsiders. Traditional religion, Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Ngangam
[gng] Savanes region: Oti prefecture, Gando-Namoni, Mogou, Koumongou, and Kountouri areas; Kara region: Keran prefecture, small area. 57,400 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 77,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dye, Gangam, Gangum, Migangam, Mijiem, Nbangam, Ngangan Dialects: Koumongou, Motiem (Mogou). Reportedly similar to Konkomba [xon], Ntcham [bud], Moba [mfq], and Gurmanchema [gux]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Anufo villages also in the area. Gando is considered the center of economic and religious life. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ntcham
[bud] Kara region: Bassar and eastern Dankpen prefectures, Kabou, Kalanga, Bitchabe, Dimori, and Bangeli areas. 160,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 217,000. L2 users: Foreigners living in their area. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Ncam, Ncham, Tobote Dialects: Ceemba, Dipiitil, Ntaapum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tem
[kdh] Centrale region: Tchaoudjo and Sotouboua prefectures, Bafilo, Sokode, and Sotouboua; Plateaux region: north Agou prefecture near Badou; Kara region: Bassar and Assoli prefectures. 234,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Population total all countries: 337,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Wudu
[wud] Plateaux region: Amou prefecture, some near Atakpame. 2,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Traditional religion.

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