Togo

Print
Adangbe
[adq] Togo and Ghana border directly east of Ho. 2,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Different from but related to Dangme [ada]. The Adan and Agotime are separate ethnic groups who speak Adangbe.

More Information

Adele
[ade] Plateaux Region, Agou prefecture, south. Also in Ghana. 16,300 in Togo (2003 SIL). Population total all countries: 27,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedere, Bidire, Gadre, Gidire Dialects: Lower Adele, Upper Adele. Intelligibility : 85%–90% between dialects, minor differences in tone and lexicon. Ghana and Togo dialects differ. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele Comments: Ethnic group is Lolo. Different from Adere [add] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Aguna
[aug] Southeast, Plateaux Region southeast corner, north and south of ‘Forêt de Togodo’, Moyen-Mono, ‘des Lacs’, and Yoto prefectures, both sides of Mono river; Lome and other towns south. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agunaco, Agunagbe, Agunaný, Awuna Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Some villages in the Aguna language area also have Ifè [ife], Fon [fon] and Aja [ajg] speakers; one reportedly had Kabiye [kbp] speakers. (2006 G. Faton).

More Information

Aja
[ajg] Plateau Region southeast corner, Haho, Moyen-Mono, and Ogou prefectures, both sides of Mono river, southeast of Atakpame town; Maritime Region, Bas-Mono and Yoto prefectures, east of Mono river. 152,300 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajagbe Dialects: Dogo, Hwe (Ehoue), Sikpi (Shikpi), Tado (Tadou), Tala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja Comments: Tado and Tala speakers are mainly in Togo. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Akaselem
[aks] Central Region east of Sokodé, Tchamba prefecture. 47,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akasele, Cemba, Chamba, Kamba, Kasele, Tchamba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Akebu
[keu] Plateaux Region, Akébou and Wawa prefectures east of Ghana, mostly in Kougnohou, Djon, Kamina, Sérégbéné, and Yala. 56,400 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akebou, Akébou, Ekpeebhe, Gakagba, Kabu, Kébou, Kebu, Kegberike, kekpeeke, kekpeerike Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Anii
[blo] Central Region, Tchamba prefecture, Balanka, Kouloumi, Nandjoubi, and Afem villages. 12,300 in Togo (2002 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akpe, Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, “Ounji-Ounji” (pej.), “Winji-Winji” (pej.) Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele Comments: Each village has a distinct speech variety name, and that of Balanka is hard to understand. Muslim.

More Information

Anufo
[cko] Savanes Region, Oti prefecture, Mango town area southwest. 57,800 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Bago-Kusuntu
[bqg] Central region, Tchamba prefecture, mostly in Koussountou and Bagou. 7,500 (2000). Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bago, Koussountou Dialects: Bago, Kusuntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bissa
[bib] Far northwest corner, Savanes Region, Tone prefecture, Burkina Faso border. 3,000 in Togo (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bisa Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Delo
[ntr] Central Region, Blitta prefecture, extreme southwest corner near Ghana border. 5,400 in Togo (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Ditammari
[tbz] Kara Region, Kéran prefecture, northeast of Kanté, near Benin border, mostly in Nadoba, Wantema, Warengo, and Koutougou. 27,500 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Soma, “Somba” (pej.), Some, Tamari, Tamberma Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Comments: Ethnonym: Tamberma, Bataba, Batammarab. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Éwé
[ewe] Maritime and Plateaux regions south of Atakpamé. Widespread. Kpalimé, Notsé, and Tsévié are main centers. 862,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ehwe, Eibe, Eve, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe Dialects: Adan, Agu, Anglo (Anlo, Awlan), Aveno, Be, Gbin, Ho, Kpelen, Togo, Vlin, Vo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Fon
[fon] Plateaux Region, north and south Atakpamé, scattered small groups. 35,500 in Togo (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dahomeen, Djedji, Fo, Fogbe, Fon-Gbe, Fonnu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

French
[fra] 3,000 in Togo (1993). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 3). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

More Information

Fulfulde, Borgu
[fue] Savannes and Kara regions. Widespread, scattered small groups. 48,200 in Togo (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulani, Peul, Peulh Dialects: Atakora Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Gbe, Maxi
[mxl] Central and northwest Plateaux regions, north and south of Atakpamé; isolated villages south. 25,300 in Togo (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahi, Maxi-Gbe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Gbe, Waci
[wci] Western half of Maritime Province, Yoto, Vo, Bas-Mono, and Lacs prefectures, mostly in Vogan, Tabligbo, and Attitogon. Also in Benin. 366,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 476,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ouatchi, Wachi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Gbe, Western Xwla
[xwl] Maritime Region, southeast Lacs prefecture, along Mono river. 21,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Gen
[gej] Maritime Region, Lacs prefecture, east of Anecho town, west inland toward Benin border. Also in Benin. 201,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 327,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ge, Gebe, Gen-Gbe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo Dialects: Agoi, Anexo, Gen, Gliji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina Comments: Ethnonym: Mina.

More Information

Ginyanga
[ayg] Central Region, Blitta prefecture, west and south of Blitta town. 12,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 12,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agnagan, Anyanga, Genyanga Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Ethnic autonym: Anyanga or Agnagan. Gikyode [acd] (Ghana) language materials not well understood. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Gourmanchéma
[gux] Northeast corner, Savannes Region, Kpendjal prefecture into east Tone prefecture, Mandouri subprefecture, mostly in Korbongou and Mandouri. 121,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Ifè
[ife] Northeast Plateaux Region, north Ogou, Anie and Est-Mono prefectures, mostly in Atakpamé, Kamina, Dadja, and Ese-Ana. Also in Benin. 102,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 182,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ana, Ana-Ifé, Baate Dialects: Dadja, Djama, Tschetti. Ede language subgroup member. Lexical similarity: 78% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 87%–91% with Ede Nago [xkb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Igo
[ahl] Plateaux Region, far northwest Danyi prefecture, Bogo-Ahlon canton, Sassanou village area. 6,000 (1995 H. Gblem). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achlo, Ago, Ahlõ, Ahlon, Ahlon-Bogo, Ahonlan, Anlo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Official name: Ahlon. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ikposo
[kpo] Plateaux Region, Amou, Wawa, and Ogou prefectures, west of Atakpamé, mostly in Amlamé, Amou-Oblo, and Atakpamé. Also in Ghana (Akposo). 155,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 162,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akposo, Akposso, Kposo Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kabiyè
[kbp] Widespead. Kara Region, mostly Kozah and Binah prefectures; Central and Plateaux regions, Sotouboua, Blitta, Kloto, Ogou, Amlame, Wawa, and Haho prefectures. Also in Benin, Ghana. 700,000 in Togo (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 730,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye Dialects: Boufale, Kewe, Kijang, Lama-Tissi. Lexical similarity: 60% between Kabiye [kbp], Lama [las], Tem [kdh], and Lukpa [dop]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Konkomba
[xon] Kara Region, Dankpen prefecture, north of Kabou, Ghana border, mostly in Guérin-Kouka, Nawaré, and Kidjaloum. 50,100 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kpessi
[kef] Central Region, East Mono prefecture, Kpessi and Nyamassila cantons; southeast Blitta prefecture, Langabou canton. 4,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpesi, Kpési, Kpetchi, Kpétsi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Lama
[las] Kara region, Kéran and Doufelgou prefectures; Central and Plateaux regions, Sotouboua, Ogou, and Haho prefectures; important minority in Lomé. Also in Benin, Ghana. 117,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 177,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso Dialects: Defale, Kadjala (Kadjalla), Kande (Kante). Similar to Tem [kdh] and Kabiye [kbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Lama. Lamba is the French name. Losso refers to people on the Losso Plain, including the Nawdeba (Nawdm). Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Lukpa
[dop] Kara Region, Binah prefecture along Benin border; Central Region, a few villages. 13,600 in Togo (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Different from Logba [lgq] of Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Miyobe
[soy] Kara Region, Binah prefecture, into Doufelgou prefecture, northeast of Pagouda, mostly in Kouyoria and Sola; isolated groups in Kounacire. 1,700 in Togo (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kuyobe, Kyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bijobe, Sola is a village name.

More Information

Moba
[mfq] Northwest Savanes Region, Tandjoare prefecture, into Tone and Oti prefectures, mainly Dapaong and Bombouaka towns. Also in Burkina Faso. 189,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 190,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ben, Moa, Moab, Moare Dialects: Ben, Lok, Natchaba, Yanbann. Related to Bimoba [bim] in Ghana, but limited intelligibility. Diverse dialect situation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Mòoré
[mos] Savanes Region, Cinkassé prefecture, vCinkassé, Timbou, and Tabi villages north of Dapaong. 19,700 in Togo (1991). 7,160 in Moore, 7,910 in Yanga dialect (1981 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi Dialects: Yanga (Jaan, Timbou, Yaan, Yam, Yan, Yana). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest

More Information

Nago, Northern
[xkb] Central Region, Tchamba prefecture, Kambolé town area. 40,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kambolé, Southwest Ede Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Nawdm
[nmz] Kara Region, Doufelgou prefecture, Niamtougou area; Central and Plateaux regions, Sotouboua, Ogou, and Haho prefectures; important minority in Lomé. Also in Ghana. 146,000 in Togo. 5% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Losso, Losu, Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam Dialects: Central Nawdm (Bana’, Tenega), East Nawdm (Siou Canton), West Nawdm (Baga, Koka, Niamtougou). Similar to Yom [pil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm Comments: Exonym: Losso. L1 speakers may use this term with outsiders. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Ngangam
[gng] Savanes Region, Oti prefecture, Gando-Namoni, Mogou, Koumongou, and Kountouri areas. Also in Benin. 46,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 66,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dye, Gangam, Gangum, Migangam, Mijiem, Nbangam, Ngangan Dialects: Koumongou, Motiem (Mogou). Similar to Konkomba [xon], Ntcham [bud], Moba [mfq], and Gurmanchema [gux]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Anufo villages also in the area. Gando is considered the center of economic and religious life. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Ntcham
[bud] West central Kara Region, Bassar and eastern Dankpen prefectures, Kabou, Kalanga, Bitchabe, Dimori, and Bangeli areas. Also in Ghana. 100,000 in Togo (1993 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 157,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Ncham, Tobote Dialects: Ceemba, Dipiitil, Ntaapum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Tem
[kdh] Central Region, Tchaoudjo and Sotouboua prefectures, mostly in Bafilo, Sokode, and Sotouboua; Plateaux Region, northern Agou prefecture near Badou. Also in Benin, Ghana. 204,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 307,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Wudu
[wud] Plateaux Region, Amou prefecture, a small population near Atakpame. 2,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information