Thailand

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Aheu
[thm] Sakon Nakhon Province, Song Daw district, Thavung, 3 villages. 450 in Thailand (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 700. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Phon Soung, So, Sotawueng Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung Comments: Glossonym: So in Thailand.

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Akeu
[aeu] Chiang Rai Province, Mae Suay and Wiang Papao districts. 400 in Thailand (2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aki, Akui Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Akha
[ahk] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, and Mae Hong Son provinces. 250 villages. 56,600 in Thailand (Bradley 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ban Khor Sign Language
[bfk] East central, Maha Sarakham Province; a few villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not related to original sign languages of Thailand, but reportedly some similarities. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Bisu
[bzi] Chiang Rai Province, Doi Chomphu and Pui Kham villages. Ethnic population: 700 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lawa, Lua, Mbisu, Mibisu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid Comments: The terms ‘Lawa’ and ‘Lua’ generally refer to Waic language varieties in Thailand: sometimes outsiders have classified unrelated languages such as Bisu in this category. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Blang
[blr] Chiang Rai Province, north border area, Mae Sai; Mae Chan area; some west of Bangkok. 1,200 in Thailand (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulang, Hkawa, K’ala, Kawa, Khon Doi, Kontoi, K’wa, Plang, Pula, Pulang, Sen Chun, Wa Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang Comments: Buddhist (Hinayana), Christian.

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Bru, Western
[brv] Ubon Ratchathani, Mukdahan, Nakhon Phanom, and Sakon Nakhon provinces. 20,000 in Thailand (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baru, B’ru, Bruu Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Eastern Bru [bru]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Cham, Western
[cja] Ban Khrue, Bangkok. 4,000 in Thailand. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, New Cham, Tjam Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Comments: Austro-Asiatic influences. Thought to be remnants of Cham who fought in the Thai army about 200 years ago. Muslim.

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Chiangmai Sign Language
[csd] Chiang Mai Province. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chiengmai Sign Language Dialects: None known. Related to sign languages in Laos and Viet Nam (Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City). Distinct from Thai Sign Language [tsq]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Cities. 58,800 in Thailand (1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hakka Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Bangkok, provincial towns, and south in Kra peninsula. 5,880 in Thailand (1984). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Ho (Cin Haw, Haw, Hui, Hui-Tze, Hwei, Panghse, Pantha, Panthe, Pathee, Western Mandarin, Yunnanese). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim (Hui).

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Min Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Cities. 1,080,000 in Thailand (1984). 1,060,000 Chaochow (18%), 17,600 Fujian (less than 1%), 5,880 Hainanese (less than 1%) (1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan Dialects: Hainan, Hokkien (Fujian, Fukien), Shantou (Swatow), Teochew (Chaochow, Chaozhou, Techu, Teochow, Tiuchiu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] 29,400 in Thailand (1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chong
[cog] Chanthaburi Province, northwest of Par, 4 villages. 500 Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chawng, Shong, Xong Dialects: None known. Related to Somray [smu] in Cambodia. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong

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Hmong Daw
[mww] Phetchabun, Tak, Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Nan, Chiang Rai, Phitsanulok, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet, Phrae, Phayao, Uttaradit, and Lampang provinces. 32,400 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Chuan Miao, Hmong Der, Hmoob Dawb, Meo Kao, Pe Miao, Peh Miao, White Hmong, White Lum, White Meo, White Miao Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Miao Lai, Striped Hmong), Petchabun Miao. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Mae Hong Son, Tak, Phayao, Nan, Phrae, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaengphet, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, and Phetchabun provinces. 60,000 in Thailand (Hattaway 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian

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Iu Mien
[ium] Chiang Rai, Phayao, Lampang, Kamphaeng Phet, and Nan provinces; possibly in Chiang Mai and Sukhothai provinces. 159 villages. 40,000 in Thailand (1999). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Highland Yao, Mian, Mien, Myen, Pan Yao, Yao, Yiu Mien, Youmian Dialects: Chiangrai. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: All Yao and Mien in Thailand are Iu Mien. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Jehai
[jhi] Southern, Southwest Narathiwat Province. Ethnic population: 150 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern

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Karen, Phrae Pwo
[kjt] Northeastern area; Phrae, Lampang, and Chiang Rai provinces. 6,000 (Dawkins and Phillips 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Pwo Karen, Phrae, Prae, Pwo Phrae Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Pwo Karen languages. Lexical similarity: 87% with Northern Pwo Karen [pww] of Thailand, 67%–71% with other Pwo Karen varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral

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Karen, Pwo Northern
[pww] Northwest; Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son, Lamphun, and Tak provinces; Mae Sarieng town, Mae Ngaw along Salween river, 15–25 villages, Hot to Mae Sarieng. 60,000 (1983 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Phlong Dialects: Mae Ping, Mae Sarieng, Omkoi (Hod). Dialects mutually intelligible. Pwo Karen of Phrae [kjt], Kanchanaburi, and Hua Hin are not intelligible with these. Lexical similarity: 87% with Phrae Province Pwo Karen [kjt] of Thailand, 68%–73% with other Pwo Karen. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Karen, Pwo West-Central Thailand
[kjp] Phetchaburi, Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, and Uthai Thani provinces; Kanchanaburi dialect is north, Ratchaburi-Phetchaburi dialect is south. 50,000 in Thailand (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Phlou, Southern Pwo Karen Dialects: Kanchanaburi Pwo Karen, Ratchaburi Pwo Karen (Phetchaburi Pwo Karen). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral

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Karen, S’gaw
[ksw] Tak, Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Kanchanaburi, and Kamphaeng Phet provinces, near Myanmar border. 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Burmese Karen, Kanyaw, Karen, Paganyaw, Pwakanyaw, S’gau, S’gaw, S’gaw Kayin, White, Yang Khao Dialects: Palakhi (Palachi), Panapu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kayah, Eastern
[eky] Mae Hong Son Province, east of Salween river. 18,000 in Thailand (2000). 2 camps of 15,000 refugees from Myanmar. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karennyi, Kayah, Kayay, Red Karen, “Yang Daeng” (pej.) Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central Comments: Strong feeling that all Kayah are the same ethnic group. Upper Eastern Kayah is north of Mae Hong Son provincial capital; Lower Eastern Kayah is south. Karieng Daeng means Red Karen in Central Thai. “Yang Daeng”, Red Karen in Northern Thai, is pejorative.

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Kensiu
[kns] South Yala, Phattaloong, Satun, and Narathiwat provinces, Thai-Malay border. 300 in Thailand. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Belubn, Kense, Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Maniq, Mawas, Mengo, Meni, Menik, Moni, Monik, Moniq, Mos, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar, Sakai, Tiong Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western Comments: Negrito pygmies, nomads, small bands. Traditional religion.

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Khmer, Northern
[kxm] East, mainly Surin, Buriram, Sisaket, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces; also in Chanthaburi Province southeast of Bangkok. 1,400,000 (2006 Mahidol University), decreasing. Very few monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khmer Lue, Thailand Khmer Dialects: Buriram, Sisaket, Surin. Different from Central Khmer [khm]. Dialects mutually intelligible. Many local varieties. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Khmu
[kjg] Chiangrai, Nan, Phayao, and scattered throughout Thailand. 31,400 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Kha Khmu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Kmhmu, Luu, Mou, Pouteng, Tmooy Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khün
[kkh] Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces. 6,280 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gon Shan, Hkun, Khuen, Khun Shan, Tai Khun Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Different from Khuen [khf], a Mon-Khmer language of Laos. Buddhist.

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Kintaq
[knq] Southern Yala Province. 1 in Thailand (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kenta, Kintaq Bong, Kintk Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western Comments: Negrito pygmies, nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Kuy
[kdt] Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces. 400,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Population total all countries: 452,800. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cuoi, Khamen-Boran, Kui, Kui Souei, Kuoy, Kuuy, Soai, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi Dialects: Chang (Suai Chang), Kuay, Nheu. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu Comments: Kuy villages often intermingled with those of Northern Khmer [kxm], Lao [lao]. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Lahu
[lhu] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Mae Hong Son, and Kamphaeng Phet provinces; 119 known villages. 32,000 in Thailand (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lohei, Muhso, Muhsur, Musser, Musso, Mussuh Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Loheirn, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Luhishi, Luhushi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] Chiang Rai, Lampang, and Chiang Mai provinces; near Pua and Nan; separate enclaves in Tak and Phayao provinces. 15,000 in Thailand (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Distinct from Kuy [kdt], which is Mon-Khmer.

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Lamet
[lbn] Language of Laos, no attested speakers in Thailand; perhaps in Chiang Rai. 100 in Thailand. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamet, Kha Lamet, Khamet, Lemet Dialects: Lower Lamet, Upper Lamet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic Comments: Glossonym: Khamet in Thailand, Lamet in Laos. Traditional religion.

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Lawa, Eastern
[lwl] North, Chiang Mai Province, Hot district, Bo Luang and Bo Sali subdistricts; 16 villages. 7,000 (Nahhas 2007). Ethnic population: 8,000. L2 users: Some who marry into the community learn to speak it. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo Luang Lawa, “Lua” (pej.) Dialects: Bo Luang, Bo Sangae. Not intelligible with most Mae Hong Son Lawa dialects [lcp]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Lawa

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Lawa, Western
[lcp] Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Son provinces. 8,000 (Nahhas 2007). Ethnic population: 8,500. L2 users: Some who marry into the community learn to speak it. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lava, Lavüa, “Lua” (pej.), Luwa, L’wa, Mae Hong Son Lawa, Mountain Lawa, Omphai Lawa Dialects: La-up, Northern Western Lawa, Omphai. Each village has a distinct accent. Ban Kok Luang, a village of the Northern group, has the most distinct dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Lawa Comments: Orthography and literature based on Ban La-up dialect. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Lisu
[lis] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Mae Hong Son, Tak, Phayao, and Kamphaeng Phet provinces. 40,000 in Thailand (Bradley 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Li-Hsaw, Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Liso, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jen Dialects: Lu Shi Lisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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[khb] Phayao and Nan provinces; scattered in north. 83,000 in Thailand (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Pai-Yi, Shui-Pai-I, Tai Lu, Tai Lue, Thai Lu Dialects: Yong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Lua’
[prb] Nan Province, east of Pua district; Laos-Thailand border. 6,280 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: East Pua Pray, Pray 2 Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai Comments: Distinct from Mal [mlf], Prai [prt], and Pray 3 [pry]. Christian.

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Mal
[mlf] Nan Province, east of Pua district and Chiang Kam, valley near northern Laos border. 3,000 in Thailand (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ht’in, Khatin, Thin, Tin, T’in Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai Comments: Ethnic autonym: T’in in Thailand.

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Malay, Pattani
[mfa] North, Songkhla Province, Chana region, south through Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala, Saiburi, and Tak Bai. 1,000,000 (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baso Jawi Dialects: None known. Different from Kedah Malay [meo] and Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Preferable ethnonym: Jawi or Jawi-Malay. Ethnic authonym: oré Jawi. Muslim.

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Malay, Satun
[meo] A few villages near Satun. Isolated. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kedah Malay Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: More people in the area speak Thai than Pattani [mfa]. Most outside contacts in Thai centers of Songkhla, Phattalung, and Haad Yai; with west coast Malay states of Perlis and Kedah. Culturally Malay. Muslim.

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Mlabri
[mra] Phayao, Nan, Phrae, Utaradit, Phitsanuloke, Loey, and perhaps other provinces. Laos border area. 130 in Thailand (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 154. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Luang, Ma Ku, Mabri, Mla, Mla Bri, Mrabri, Phi Thong, Yellow Leaf, Yumbri Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri Comments: Mlabri are different from the Kha Tong Luang (Phi Tong Luang, Yellow Leaf) in Laos, who are Western Viet-Muong (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sometimes employed by the Hmong. Some nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Mok
[mqt] Lampang Province; east northeast of Chiang Mai, on Wang river. 7 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amok, Hsen-Hsum, Muak, Muak Sa-aak Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic

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Moken
[mwt] South, west coast, Phuket, Phangnga, Krabi, and Ranong. 2,000 in Thailand (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Basing, Chau Ko’, Mawken, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung Dialects: Jadiak, Moklen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen Comments: Primarily live on boats, but occasionally settle on area islands. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Moklen
[mkm] South, west coast, Phuket and Phangnga. 1,500 (1984 D. Hogan). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chau Pok Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen Comments: Heavy Thai and Mon-Khmer influence. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Mon
[mnw] Kanchanaburi, Pathum Thani, Ratchaburi, Samut Sakhon, Nakhon Pathom, and Kanchanaburi provinces. 108,000 in Thailand (2000). 70,000–120,000, total population (Bauer 1984). 1983 census estimated 100,000; about 50,000 L1 speakers (Foster 1972; Smalley 1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aleng, Mun, Peguan, Takanoon, Talaing, Taleng Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic Comments: Many seemingly integrated with the Thai; in other areas they are separate. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Mpi
[mpz] North, Phrae Province, Ban Dong east of provincial capital; Nan Province, Ban Sakoen, east of Phayao Province border. 2 villages. 900 (Nahhas 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Nahhas 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kaw Dialects: Ban Dong, Ban Sakoen. Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen Mpi are mutually intelligible (based on self-report of Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen residents). Lexical similarity: 86% between Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Kaw is used in Ban Sakoen. Possibly some in China who refer to their language as Pu Kaw. Buddhist.

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Nyahkur
[cbn] Central, northeast side, foot of Phetchabun mountains; mainly in Chaiyaphum Province; also in Bueng Kan, Sakon Nakhon, and Kalasin provinces; possibly in Phitsanulok and Phetchabun. 1,500 (2006 C. Shimmin), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000 (Thongkum 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chao Dong, “Chaobon” (pej.), “Chaobun” (pej.), Chaodon, “Chaubun” (pej.), Lawa, Niakuol, Niakuoll, Nyakur Dialects: Chaiyaphum users say they understand Petchabun only with difficulty, if at all. At least 91% lexical similarity among all dialects (Diffloth 1984). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Southern Monic Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Nyaw
[nyw] Sakon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, Udon Thani, Bueng Kan, Maha Sarakham provinces; isolated area on Cambodia border, Sa Kaeo Province. 50,000 (Diller 1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jo, Nyo, Nyoh, Yo Dialects: Reportedly similar to Northeastern Thai [tts] and the Luang Prabang dialect of Lao [lao]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Maw may be an alternate name. Buddhist.

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Nyeu
[nyl] Sisaket. 200 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yeu, Yoe Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Yoe

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Palaung, Pale
[pce] Chiang Mai Province. 5,000 in Thailand (1989). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Pale, Silver Palaung, Southern Palaung, Ta-Ang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung Comments: Distinct from Shwe Palaung [pll] and Rumai Palaung [rbb].

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Pa’o
[blk] Mae Hong Son Province. 740 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Pa Oh, Pa’0, Pa’o Karen, Pa-U, Taungtu Dialects: Southern Pa’o. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral

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Phu Thai
[pht] Northeast; Sakon Nakhon, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Nakhon Phanom, Udon Thani, Yasothon, Amnat Charoen, and Roi Et provinces; possibly also in China. 470,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Population total all countries: 866,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phutai, Phuu Thai, Putai, Puthai Dialects: Little dialect differentiation. Reportedly similar to Tai Dam [blt] and Tai Don [twh]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist.

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Phuan
[phu] Phetchabun, Phichit, Chaiyaphum, Lop Buri, Prachin Buri, Chachoengsao, Nakhon Nayok, and Sara Buri provinces; isolated area, Bueng Kan Province; 1 village south of Bangkok. 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Population total all countries: 307,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Northern Tai [nod], Tai Dam [blt], Thai Song [soa], and Lao [lao]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Strong sense of identity. Socially prominent group. Relocated to Thailand 1827–1890. The name is also used for Lao speakers in Thailand. Buddhist.

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Prai
[prt] North, Nan Province, Thung Chang, Chalerm Prakiat, Chiang Klang, Bo Klua, and Pua districts. 20,000 in Thailand (2001). Possibly 3,000 Ban Wen dialect speakers. Population total all countries: 41,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thin Dialects: Ban Wen, Prai, Southern Prai. The main dialect of Prai has 2 subvarieties referred to as, R and Y, which are reportedly minimally different. Ban Wen dialect shares cognates with both Mal [mlf] and Prai, but is unintelligible to Mal speakers. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai Comments: Distinct from Mal [mlf]. Lua is a self-reported language name for many Prai and Mal. The Southern dialect is called Longhouse (Jordan-Diller and Diller 2004). About 12 villages, mostly in Bo Klua District, with a few villages in Pua District. Ban Wen dialect speakers live in 10–15 villages, primarily in Bo Klua District, with some in Chalerm Prakiat District.

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Pray 3
[pry] Nan Province; interspersed in Thung Chang and Pua districts among the Mal [mlf]. 38,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Separate from Phai [prt] and Lua [prb]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai

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Saek
[skb] Northeast; Nakhon Phanom Province; 5 villages. 11,000 in Thailand (Johnstone 1993). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sek, Tai Sek Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: Buddhist.

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Shan
[shn] North, Mae Hong Son, Maehongson, Myuang Haeng, Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Maesai, and Tak provinces, on northwest border. 95,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Great Thai, “Ngeo” (pej.), “Ngiao” (pej.), “Ngiaw” (pej.), “Ngio” (pej.), “Ngiow” (pej.), Sam, Sha, Tai Luang, Tai Shan, Tai Yay, Thai Yay Dialects: Mae Hong Son. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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[sss] Northeast, both sides of Mekong river; Nakhon Phanom and Sakon Nakhon provinces; Nong Kai and Kalasin. 53 villages. 70,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha So, Thro Dialects: So Makon, So Phong, So Slouy, So Trong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Came from Laos, where the same dialect is spoken. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Loei Province, Ban Na Pa Nat village. 700 in Thailand (2004). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Tai, Jinping Dai, Tai Noir, Thai Den Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Arrived in Thailand in 1885.

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Tai Ya
[cuu] Chiang Rai Province. 400 in Thailand (Dawkins and Kirkland 2008), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huayaodai, Ya Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Some desire to preserve Tai Ya language. Christian.

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Thai
[tha] Central, centered in Bangkok. Khorat dialect: Ratchasima. 20,200,000 in Thailand (2000). 400,000 Khorat. 4,700,000 mother-tongue Thai are ethnic Chinese, or 80% of the Chinese (1984). Population total all countries: 20,396,930. L2 users: 40,000,000 in Thailand (2001 A. Diller). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Central Tai, Siamese, Standard Thai, Thaiklang Dialects: Khorat Thai (Korat, Thaikorat). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Ethnonym: Siamese. Buddhist, Christian.

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Thai Sign Language
[tsq] Major regional centers and Bangkok. 51,000 profoundly, prelingually deaf people in Thailand (1997 C. Reilly). 20% of deaf children go to school to learn it. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Signs used at the deaf school at Tak are reportedly very different. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Buddhist.

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Thai Song
[soa] Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, and Phetchaburi provinces; Pitsanulok, Nakorn Sawaan; possibly in Suphan Buri Province. 32,300 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lao Song, Lao Song Dam, Song Dialects: Slight dialect differences. Reportedly similar to Tai Dam [blt]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Thai, Northeastern
[tts] Northeast; 33 provinces. Kalerng subdialect: Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom. 15,000,000 (1983 SIL). At least 1,000,000 in Bangkok. Kalerng has a few thousand speakers (1990 A. Diller). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in east, northeast provinces. Alternate Names: Esarn, Isaan, Isan, Issan, Thai Isaan Dialects: Central Isan (Kalerng, Kaleung, Kaloeng), Korat, Northern Isan, Southern Isan. Korat dialect is quite different, and may be a separate language. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist.

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Thai, Northern
[nod] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang, Mae Hong Son, Sukhothai, Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Uttaradit, Tak, and Kamphaeng Phet provinces. 6,000,000 in Thailand (1983 SIL). Population total all countries: 6,029,500. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in northern provinces. Alternate Names: Kam Mu’ang, Kammüang, Kammyang, Khon, Khon Meang, Khon Myang, La Nya, Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Mu’ang, Mung, Myang, Northern Thai, Payap, Phayap, Phyap, Tai Nya, Tai Yon, Tai Yuan, Western Laotian, “Yuan” (pej.) Dialects: Bandu, Nan, Tai Wang. Nan dialect is more distinct. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Yuan is their term for Vietnamese. The name ‘Phyap’ (Phayap) is Sanskrit, north. Buddhist.

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Thai, Southern
[sou] Surat Thani, Chumphon, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Songkhla, Phatthalung, Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Pattani, Yala, and Satun provinces; Muslim Thai dialect. 4,500,000 (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in southeasternmost 15 provinces. Alternate Names: Dambro, Pak Tai, Pak Thai, Paktay Dialects: Tak Bai (Tai Tak Bai), Thai Malay (Tai Islam). A group of dialects more distantly related to other Tai languages. Border dialects are quite distinct from others. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Muslim.

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Tonga
[tnz] South; Trang, Satun, and Phatthalung, and Songkhla provinces. 180 in Thailand (2007). Population total all countries: 195. Ethnic population: 300 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mos Dialects: Satun. Probably similar to Kensiu [kns]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga

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Ugong
[ugo] Suphan Buri Province, Kok Chiang village; Uthai Thani Province, Khok Khwai village. 80 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 500. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gong, Lawa, Ugawng, ’Ugong Dialects: Kok Chiang, Suphanburi. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Unclassified Comments: Distinct from Lawa [cbn] in the Palaung-Wa branch of Mon-Khmer. Relocated due to dam construction.

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Urak Lawoi’
[urk] Krabi and Satun provinces; west coast, Phuket and Langta islands. 5,000 (2012 S. Pattemore). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chaw Talay, Chawnam, Lawoi, Lawta, Orak Lawoi’ Dialects: Adang, Phuket Old Peoples, Phuket Young Peoples. Aboriginal Malays with a unique Malay language. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wa, Parauk
[prk] Scattered; probably north, northwest. 6,700 in Thailand (2008 P. Hopple). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa

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Yong
[yno] Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces. 12,600 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nyong Dialects: None known. Phonology reportedly similar to Lü [khb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist.

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Yoy
[yoy] Sakon Nakhon Province; small border enclave, Nakhon Phanom Province. 5,000 in Thailand (Diller 1990). Population total all countries: 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dioi, Jui, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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