[abq] Central; Eskisehir, Samsun, Yozgat, Adana, and Kayseri provinces. 10,000 in Turkey (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ahuwa, Tapanta Dialects: Ashkaraua (Ashkar), Bezshagh, Tapanta. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin Comments: Muslim.
[abk] Northeast, Artvin Province; also Coruh, Bolu, and Sakarya subprovinces. 4,000 in Turkey (1980). Ethnic population: 39,000 (Johnstone 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abxazo Dialects: Abzhui, Bzyb, Samurzakan. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
[ady] Central and western Anatolia, Kayseri, Tokat, Karaman Maras, and many other provinces. 278,000 in Turkey (2000). 6,410 monolinguals (1965 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adygey, Cherkes, Circassian Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
[als] Edirne, Istanbul, Kirklareli, and Tekirdag provinces; center is Arnavut; otherwise scattered throughout western Turkey. 15,000 in Turkey (1980). 1,100 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shqip Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[hye] Many in Istanbul; and in east Turkey, Kars Province, scattered elsewhere. 40,000 in Turkey (1980). 1,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 70,000 (1980). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian Comments: Hemshin are Armenian Muslims, living near the Laz [lzz] language area. Christian, Muslim.
Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bgx] Surguch dialect in Edirne Province. 327,000 in Turkey (Johnstone 1993). 7,000 Surguch (1965) and 320,000 Yuruk. Population total all countries: 331,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balkan Turkic Dialects: Gajol, Gerlovo Turks, Karamanli, Kyzylbash, Surguch, Tozluk Turks, Yuruk (Konyar, Yoruk). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Distinct from Gagauz [gag] of Moldova, Bulgaria, and Romania. Christian.
[bul] Scattered in Edirne and other western provinces. 300,000 in Turkey (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Refugees from Bulgaria. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Pomak Dialects: Pomak. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
[crh] Ankara Province, Polatli district, Karakuyu, several villages. 2,000 in Turkey. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish Dialects: Central Crimean, Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.
[rmt] Mainly west; widespread. 28,500 in Turkey (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gypsy, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene Dialects: Beludji, Karachi, Marashi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: 500,000 Gypsies in Turkey speak Domari or varieties of Romani (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Muslim.
[kat] North and northwest Anatolia, Artvin, Ordu, Sakarya, and other provinces. 40,000 in Turkey (1980). 4,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 91,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gruzin, Kartuli Dialects: Imerxev. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
[hrt] Southeast, most likely Mardin Province; otherwise scattered. 1,000 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Hértevin Proper (Arton), Jinet, Umraya. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Christian (Chaldean).
[kmr] Widespread, especially east and southeast. 15,000,000 in Turkey (McCarus 2009), decreasing. Very provisional figures for Northern Kurdish speaker population. Population total all countries: 20,222,890. 3,000,000 monolinguals. Especially in Hakkari and Shirnak provinces. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kermancî, Kirmancî, Kurdi, Kurdî, Kurmancî, Kurmanji Dialects: Ashiti, Bayezidi, Boti (Botani), Hekari, Marashi, Mihemedî, Shemdinani, Shikakî, Silivî. Dialect differences but all use the same written form. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Alevi), Yezidi.
[lad] Mainly Istanbul; some in Izmir Province. 10,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dzhudezmo, Haketia, Hakitia, Judeo Spanish, Judezmo, Sefardi, Spanyol Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: Jewish.
[lzz] Northeast, Rize, Kemer, Atin, Artasen, Vitse, Arkab, Hopa, and Sarp; Artvin, Sakarya, Kocaeli, and Bolu provinces. 20,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 22,000. Ethnic population: 92,000 (1980). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chan, Chanuri, Chanzan, Laze, Zan Dialects: None known. Officially considered a single language with Mingrelian [xmf], called, Zan, although not mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Kartvelian, Zan Comments: Muslim.
[syc] Southeast, Sanliurfa Province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ancient Syriac, Classical Syriac, Lishana Atiga, Suryaya, Suryoyo Dialects: Eastern Syriac, Western Syriac. Syrian churches: Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), and Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed Neo-Syriac although not directly descended from Syriac. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern Comments: Christian.
[tur] Widespread as L1 or L2. 66,500,000 in Turkey (European Commission 2006). Population total all countries: 70,890,130. L2 users: 350,000 in Turkey (European Commission 2006). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1982, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Anatolian, Türkçe, Türkisch Dialects: Danubian, Dinler, Edirne, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Karamanli, Razgrad, Rumelian, Urfa. Danubian is west; other dialects east. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Muslim.
Turkish Sign Language
[tsm] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: TID, Türk Isaret Dili Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Presence of deaf people using sign languages is documented from Hittite times (2000 to 1200 BCE). During the Ottoman Empire (15th to 18th centuries), deaf and other sign language users, called Dilsiz ‘speechless’, served as royal servants, although there is no evidence that Ottoman Sign Language is related to modern TID. A one-handed fingerspelling system for Arabic script was used in the 19th and early 20th centuries until the alphabet revolution in 1928 that introduced Latin script for writing Turkish [tur], at which time a two-handed fingerspelling system for Latin script came into use. (Kemaloglu and Kemaloglu 2012).
[tru] Southeast, Sirnak and Mardin provinces. 3,000 in Turkey (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 62,000. Ethnic population: 50,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Surayt, Süryani, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani Dialects: Anhil, ’Iwardo, Kfarze, Midin, Midyat, Raite. Turoyo subdialects divided between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: Glossonym: Tûrôyo, known among scholars almost exclusively; Suryoyo, is popular. Western Syriac, refers to the Classical Western Syriac [syc] liturgy and orthography used by Turoyo speakers. Christian (Jacobite).
[kiu] Sivas Province, Zara, Imranli, Kangal, and Divrigi subprovinces; Tunceli Province, Tunceli merkez, Hozat, Nazmiye, Pülümür, and Ovacik subprovinces; Bingol Province, Kigi and Karkiova subprovinces; Erzurum Province, Erzincan and Cayirli subprovinces; Elazig Province, Elazig merkez and Karakoqan subprovinces; Mush Province, Varto subprovince; Malatya Province; at least 83 total villages. 140,000 in Turkey. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alevica, Dersimki, Dimilki, Kirmanjki, Northern Zaza, So-Bê, Zaza, Zonê Ma Dialects: Tunceli, Varto. Lexical similarity: 70% with Southern Zazaki [diq]. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Ethnonym for Alevi-Zaza: Kirmanj (Kirmanc), Kizilbash-Zaza. Muslim (Alevi).
[diq] East-central, Diyarbakir, Elazig and Bingö provinces. Mainly Cermik, Gerger, Egil, Siverek, Dicle, Palu, Bingöl, and Hani cities. 1,500,000 (Paul 1998), decreasing. A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000,000 (Paul 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimili, Dimli, Southern Zaza, Zaza, Zazaca Dialects: Dersimki, Dumbuli (Dumbeli), Eastern Zazaki (Central Zazaki), Hazzu (Hazo), Kori, Motki (Moti), Sivereki. Dialects differ slightly, but mutually intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Muslim (Sunni).