[ami] Between Hualien and Taitung, valley plains and east coast by the sea. 138,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 138,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ami, Amia, Bakurut, Lam-Si-Hoan, Maran, Pagcah, Pangcah, Pangtsah, Sabari, Tanah Dialects: Central Amis (Haian Ami, Hsiukulan Ami), Chengkung-Kwangshan, Northern Amis (Nanshi Amis), Southern Amis (Hengch’un Amis, Peinan, Taitung), Tavalong-Vataan (Kuangfu, Kwangfu). Chengkung-Kwangshan dialect is most similar to Central Amis dialect. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Central Comments: Ethnic autonym: Amis. Ethnonym: Ami in Chinese. Traditionally matrilineal. Many migrating to cities and industrial areas.
[ais] Hualien area and north of Fenglin. 5 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nataoran, Natawran, Tauran Dialects: Cikosowan, Kaliyawan (Kaliyuawan), Nataoran, Natawran, Pokpok, Ridaw, Sakizaya (Sakiray, Sakiraya). Not generally understood by other Amis. Sakizaya dialect is even more divergent from Central Amis [ami]. In recent years dialects converged. Lexical similarity: 50% with Central Amis. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Central
[tay] Northeast mountains, south of Ketagalan [kae] language area. 84,300 (CIP-EY 2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ataiyal, Attayal, Bonotsek, Shabogala, Taijyal, Taiyal, Takonan, Tangao, Tayal, Tyal, Yukan Dialects: Sqoleq (Squliq), Ts’ole’ (Ci’uli’). Mayrinax is a Ci’uli’ subdialect. Classification: Austronesian, Atayalic
[bzg] West central coast and inland, Tatu and Choshui rivers and beyond. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 35. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Babusa, Favorlang, Favorlangsch, Jaborlang, Poavosa Dialects: Poavosa, Taokas. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains Comments: Sinicized.
[byq] North, Tam Shui to Kungliao area, Fengtzulin, Taipei, Sangchung, and northeast Suao and east of Ilan area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Basai, Kawanuwan Dialects: Linaw-Qauqaul, Trobiawan. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern Comments: Sinicized. Older people remember a few words.
[bnn] East central plain, south of the Sediq (Taroko) [trv] language area. 38,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 38,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bubukun, Bunan, Bunti, Bunum, Vonun, Vunum, Vunun, Vunung Dialects: Central Bunun (Takbanuao, Takevatan, Takivatan), North Bunun (Takebakha, Taketodo, Takibakha, Takitudu), Randai, Shibukun (Sibucoon, Sibukaun, Sibukun, Sivukun), South Bunun (Ishbukun), Takopulan, Tondai. Classification: Austronesian, Bunun
[hak] Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Pingtung counties. Shi Xien in north and south; Hi-Lu in central, north central. 2,370,000 in China–Taiwan (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Hailu (Hi-Lu, Hoilluk, Hoiluk), Sanhsien (Shi Xien, Shigen, Shixien). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Settled in Taiwan for 200 years. Sanhsien closely resembles Yuetai of Mainland China. Hailu closely resembles Yong-Ting or Yuqui of Mainland China.
[cmn] Mainly Taipei and 5 provincial cities. 4,320,000 in China–Taiwan (1993). L2 users: 15,000,000 in China–Taiwan. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Guoyu, Kuoyu, Mandarin, Putonghua Dialects: Taibei Mandarin. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.
Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Tainan, Penghu Archipelago, east coast cities, western plain. 15,000,000 in China–Taiwan (1997 A. Chang). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan Dialects: Taiwanese (Amoy, Chaenzo, Hokkien, Sanso). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Taiwanese people are called Hoklo or Holo. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.
[xnb] Central, Sanmin Township, Kaohsiung County, Minchuan village area. 4 (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). A few other semi-speakers who have passive knowledge of the language (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). Ethnic population: 250 ( UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kanabu, Kanakanavu Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic
[ckv] Northeast coast, above Toucheng to Ilan, nearly to Suao, and inland to Atayal [tay] language area. No longer spoken in the original area; a few migrants to the east coast, Hsishe village, Fengpin Township, Hualien County. 24 (2000 P. Li). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tsukida 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cabaran, Kabalan, Kabaran, Kamalan, Kavanan, Kavarauan, Kbalan, Kibalan, Kiwaraw, Kiwarawa, Kuvalan, Kuvarawan, Kuwarawan, Kvalan, Shekwan Dialects: Kareovan (Kareowan). Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern Comments: Sinicized.
[ppu] North central coast around Lishui, Chingshui, Shalu, and inland to Taichung. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bupuran, Hinapavosa, Papola, Vupuran Dialects: Hoanya, Papora. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains Comments: Sinicized.
[dru] South central mountains, Ping Tung area, 11 villages; Taitung area, 2 or 3 villages; west of the Puyuma [pyu]. 10,500 (CIP-EY 2002). Some monolingual older adults. Ethnic population: 10,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banga, Bantalang, Bantaurang, Drukai, Drukay, Dukai, Dyokay, Kadas, Rutkai, Sarisen, Taloma, Tsalisen, Tsarisen Dialects: Budai, Labuan, Maga, Mantauran, Tanan, Tona. Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent. Classification: Austronesian, Rukai Comments: Some linguists classify it as Paiwanic. Paiwanic influence.
[sxr] West central mountains, south and southeast of Minchuan, along Laonung River. 10 (2012 C. Pan). Ethnic population: 300 (2000 UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hla’alua, La’alua, La’arua, Lha’alua, Pachien, Paichien, Rarua, Saarua, Saroa, Shishaban, Sisyaban Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kanakanabu [xnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic
[xsy] Western mountains, west of the Atayal [tay] language area, Nanchuang Township, Miaoli County and Wufong Township, Hsinchu County. 4,750 (CIP-EY 2002). Tungho: more active use. Taai: a few speakers; nearly assimilated into Atayal [tay]. Ethnic population: 7,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amutoura, Bouiok, Saiset, Saisett, Saisiat, Saisiett, Saisirat, Saisyet, Saisyett, Seisirat Dialects: Taai (North Saiset), Tungho (South Saiset). Dialect differences are mainly phonological and lexical (1978 P. Li). Classification: Austronesian, Northwest Formosan
[fos] Southwest, Tainan area, Peimen to Hengchun to Tapu. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baksa, Formosan, “Pepohoan” (pej.), “Pepo-Hwan” (pej.), Sideia, Sideis, Sideisch, Siraia, Siraiya Dialects: Lamai, Makatao (Makattao, Takaraya, Tta’o), Pangsoia-Dolatok, Siraya, Taivoan (Tevorang). Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Southwest Comments: Still spoken in 1908 and some current semi-speakers. Sinicized.
Taiwan Sign Language
[tss] Scattered. 20,000 (2004), decreasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Taiwan Ziran Shouyu Dialects: Kaohsiung, Tainan, Taipei. 2 major dialects. Sources from which the sign language developed were indigenous sign systems before 1895, Japanese occupation and education 1895–1946, Mainland Chinese Sign Language brought by refugees in 1949 and some from Hong Kong since. Lexical similarity: 50% with Japanese Sign Language [jsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Quite different from (Mainland) Chinese Sign Language [csl]; only a few signs the same or similar. Not related to Taiwanese languages. Some signs borrowed from Chinese characters, e.g. by drawing on the palm with a finger. There is also a Signed Mandarin (Wenfa Shouyu). 1,540 special education schools in Taiwan in 2002, which includes schools for the deaf.
[trv] Central, east, and coast; mountains north, Puli area; coast south of Hualien, south of the Atayal [tay]. 20,000 (2008 R. Covell). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bu-Hwan, Che-Hwan, Daiya-Ataiyal, Hogo, Iboho, Paran, Saediq, Sazek, Sedek, Sedeq, Sediakk, Sedik, Seedek, Seedeq, Seedik, Seediq, Sejiq, Shedekka, Taruku, Toda, Toroko, Truku Dialects: Tekedaya (Paran, Tkdaya), Teruku (Truku), Te’uda (Tuuda). Dialects differ mainly in phonology and lexicon, some in grammar. Classification: Austronesian, Atayalic Comments: ‘Taroko’, person, used by the coastals; ‘Sediq’, person, used by those in the mountains.
[ssf] Central, Sun Moon Lake southeast shore, Te-hua village, and Ta-p’ing-lin 14 km away. 5 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 300 (Tsukida 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chui-Huan, Chuihwan, Sao, Sau, Shao, Suihwan, Vulung Dialects: Brawbaw, Shtafari. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Thao Comments: Cooperation with the Bunun [bnn], intermarriage with Bunun women, loanwords from Bunun.
[tsu] West central mountains southeast of Chiayi, Alishan (Mt. Ali) area. 2,130 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 2,130. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Namakaban, Niitaka, Tibola, Tibolah, Tibolak, Tibolal, Tso, Tsoo, Tsuou, Tsu-U, Tsu-Wo, Tzo Dialects: Duhtu, Iimutsu, Luhtu, Tapangu, Tfuea. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic Comments: Some linguistic work done.
[tao] Orchid Island, Botel Tobago (Lanyu) Island, southeast coast. 3,380 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 3,380. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Botel Tabago, Botel Tobago, Lanyu, Tao, Tawu Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to northern Philippines Ivatan [ivv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Yami Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Tao. Traditional religion.