Uganda

Print
Acholi
[ach] North; Kitgum; Gulu, Amuru, Lamwo, Nwoya, Adjumani, and Pader districts. Also in South Sudan. 1,170,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 12,100 speakers of Dhopaluo (Ladefoged, Glick, and Criper 1972), 20,600 ethnic Chope (2002 census). Population total all countries: 1,197,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Log Acoli, Lwo, Lwoo, Shuli Dialects: Dhopaluo (Chope, Chopi), Nyakwai. Reported intelligibility with Lango [laj], Kumam [kdi], Dhopadhola [adh], but percentages unknown. Lexical similarity: with Lango [laj], Kumam [kdi], Dhopadhola [adh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Adhola
[adh] East, in Tororo District. 360,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhopadhola, Ludama Dialects: Most distinct of Western Nilotic languages in Uganda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Adhola Comments: Ethnic autonym: Jopadhola; their Bantu neighbors call them Badama and their language Ludama.

More Information

Alur
[alz] North West districts of Nebbi, Zombo, Arua, Nyadri, and Yumbe north of Lake Albert. 617,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 86,700 ethnically identified with Jonam (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Dho Alur, Jo Alur, Lur, Luri Dialects: Jokot, Jonam, Mambisa, Wanyoro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Amba
[rwm] Ruwenzori mountains, Bundibugyo District, Democratic Republic of the Congo border area south of Lake Albert, Beni District, Watalinga and Bawisa subcounties. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 35,600 in Uganda (2002 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 40,100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bulebule, Hamba, Humu, Kihumu, Kuamba, Ku-Amba, Lubulebule, Lwamba, Ruwenzori Kibira, Rwamba Dialects: Kyanzi (Kihyanzi), Suwa (Kusuwa). Similar to Bera [brf], Bila [bip], Komo [kmw], and Bhele [bhy]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bera [brf], 57%–59% with Bila [bip], Kaiku [kkq], Komo [kmw], and Bhele [bhy], 25% with Nande [nnb], 34% with Talinga-Bwisi [tlj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kwamba. Glossonym: KiHumu in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Aringa
[luc] Northwest, Yumbe District, north of Lugbara, west of Ma’di. 300,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Low Lugbara Dialects: Intelligible with Lugbara [lgg]. Lexical similarity: with Lugbara [lgg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central Comments: Aringa speakers consider theirs a separate language, related to Lugbara [lgg] and Ma’di [mhi]. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Bari
[bfa] North West Nile, Koboko-Yumbe district border. 60,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Includes 34,700 Kuku speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri Dialects: Kuku, Mondari (Mandari, Mundari), Nyangbara (Nyambara, Nyangwara), Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Fadjulu, Fajelu, Fajulu, Pajulu). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari

More Information

Chiga
[cgg] Extreme southwest, Kabale, Kanungu, Kisoro, Ntungamo, and Rukungiri districts; Kibaale, Kyenjojo, Kamwenge, and Kyegegwa districts. 1,580,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ciga, Kiga, Nkore-Kiga, Oluchiga, Orukiga, Rukiga, Runyankore-Rukiga Dialects: RuHimba, RuNyaifwe-Hororo, RuNyangyezi, RuSigi. 72% intelligible with Nyankore [nyn]. Lexical similarity: 84%–94% with Nyankore [nyn], 77% with Nyoro [nyo], 75% with Zinza [zin], 72% with Nyambo [now], 70% with Haya [hay], 68% with Tooro [ttj], 63% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.14) Comments: Standardized form of the western varieties (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara. It is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Ethnic groups: Bachiga, Bahororo. Christian.

More Information

English
[eng] Widespread. Most learn a local language before English. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

More Information

Fumbira
[kin] Southwest border with Rwanda, Kisoro (mainly), some in Kabale, and Ntungamo districts. 449,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ruanda, Rufumbira, Runyarwanda, Rwanda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (D.61) Comments: Akin to Kinyarwanda [kin] in Rwanda, which probably no longer exists in Uganda, or if so, is known as Fumbira.

More Information

Ganda
[lug] Southeast, primarily Buganda province, Lake Victoria northwest shore to Lake Kyoga and Tanzania border. 4,130,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Luganda Dialects: Diopa (Ludiopa), Kooki (Olukooki), Sese (Olusese), Vuma (Luvuma). Lexical similarity: 71%–86% with Soga [xog], 68% with Gwere [gwr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.15) Comments: Vuma dialect is moribund. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Gungu
[rub] West, in Buliisa, Hoima, and Masindi districts, Lake Albert northeast shore; down the Rift valley and hills above. 49,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lugungu, Rugungu Dialects: 58% or lower inherent intelligibility with Tooro [ttj]. Nyoro [nyo] is most similar. Lexical similarity: 75% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.101) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Gwere
[gwr] East, Budaka and Kibuku districts; some in Pallisa District. 409,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lugwere, Olugwere Dialects: Mutually intelligible with Lamoogi-Siginyi [xog] and Kenye [lke]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Ganda [lug], 82% with Lamooji [xog], 79% with Lusiginyi [xog], 77% with Kenye [lke], 64% with Lutenga [xog]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.17) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Ik
[ikx] Northeast, Kaabong District, Dodoth county, Kamion subcounty. 10,000 (2002 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Icetod, Icietot, Ng’ateus, Ng’ateuso, Ngulak, Teus, Teuso, Teuth Dialects: Very different from other Eastern Sudanic languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ik Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kakwa
[keo] Northwest Nile corner, Koboko District. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan. 130,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 190,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kwakwak Dialects: Dialects of Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda differ little (Nida 1972). Very different from other Eastern Nilotic languages of Uganda. Lexical similarity: close with Bari [bfa]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Kenye
[lke] Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga basin, Buyende, Kaliro, Pallisa, Serere, and Mayuge districts; pockets in Kamuli, Kaberamaido, Kayunga, Bugiri, and Busia districts. 62,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kenyi, Lukenhe, Lukenye, Lukenyi Dialects: Lukenye-Ludebede, Lukenye-Lukooli. Kenye, Lamogi [xog], Siginyi [xog], and Gwere [gwr] are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 81% with Soga [xog], 71%–86% with Ganda [lug], 64% with Gwere [gwr], 58% with Saamia [lsm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.10) Comments: Politically distinct from Ganda [lug]. Some Kenye people claim to be a displaced people of Ganda origin.

More Information

Konzo
[koo] Southwest, Ruwenzori mountains, Kasese and Bundibugyo districts. Olhughendera dialect in Bundibugyo District. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 609,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Konjo, Lhukonzo, Olukonjo, Olukonzo, Rukonjo Dialects: Lusongora, Olhughendera, Rukonzo (Rukonjo), Sanza (Ekisanza). Nande [nnb] (Kinande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Konzo [koo] (Lukonzo) in Uganda are 2 varieties of the same language. Nande [nnb] is influenced by French [fra] and Swahili [swh]; Konzo [koo] by Tooro [ttj]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Nande [nnb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo (D.41) Comments: Konzo (Bakonzo) in Uganda and Nande (Banande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo both feel very much 1 people, ethnic autonym: Bayira. They believe they originated from the Rwenzori Mountains–the mountains belong to them and they to the mountains. This plays a very important role in their traditions and identity. Lusongora is most important dialect. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kumam
[kdi] Kaberamaido District, south of Lake Kwania. 174,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akokolemu, Akum, Ikokolemu, Ikumama, Kuman, Kumum Dialects: Mutually intelligible with Lango [laj] and Acholi [ach]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Acholi [ach], 81% with Lango [laj]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Kuman Comments: Ladefoged, Glick and Criper (1972) and Bender (1988 M. Bender) classify Kumam as Southern Luo; some linguists classify it in the Dinka group. Kumam oral tradition gives a Teso descent. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Kupsapiiny
[kpz] East: Kapchorwa, Kween, and Bukwo districts at Kenya border. 181,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuksabin, Kupsabiny, Sabiny, Sapei, Sebei Dialects: Kongasis, Kween (Sor), Mbai. Mutually intelligible with Saboat [spy]. Lexically similarity: with Saboat [spy] in Kenya. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Elgon Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Lango
[laj] Apac, Lira, Oyam, Amolatar, Dokolo, Alebtong and Otuke districts, north of Lake Kyoga. 1,490,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Apac, 6 other districts north of Lake Kyogo. Alternate Names: Langi, Leb-Lango, Lwo, Lwoo Dialects: Lexical similarity: distinct from Acholi [ach] (Lwo), Lango [lno] of Sudan (related to Lotuko), or Lango [did] (Didinga) of Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Lugbara
[lgg] West Nile, Arua, Nyadri, Koboko, Nebbi, and Yumbe districts. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 797,000 in Uganda (2004), increasing. 90,800 in Vurra, 171,000 in Ayivu, 146,000 in Maracha, 158,000 in Terego, 95,500 in Madi Okollo, 42,400 in Arua Municipality, 93,800 in Koboko. Population total all countries: 1,637,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: High Lugbara Dialects: Arua (Standard Lugbara), Maracha, Terego (Omugo). Lexical similarity: 93% with Maracha and Terego dialects, 87% with Arua and Terego dialects, 80% with Arua dialect and Ogoko Southern Madi [snm], 76% with Arua dialect and Okollo Southern Madi [snm] (1992 SIL Survey). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central Comments: Christian.

More Information

Ma’di
[mhi] West and East Nile regions, Moyo and Adjumani districts, near Nimule, north Sudan border. Also in South Sudan. 296,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Numbers probably include Southern Madi speakers. Population total all countries: 314,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ma’adi, Ma’di Ti Dialects: Adjumani (Oyuwi), Moyo. Lexical similarity: 89% with Moyo and Oyuwi Ma’di dialects, 85% with Oyuwi and Ogoko Southern Ma’di [snm], 80% with Moyo and Ogoko Southern Ma’di, 78% with Moyo and Aringa [luc], 76% with Oyuwi and Aringa, 64% between Moyo and Okolli Southern Ma’di, and 59% between Oyuwi and Okollo Southern Ma’di (Boone and Watson 1999). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Ma’di, Southern
[snm] West Nile, Arua District, Madi-Okollo county, west Nile river bank. 60,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Ma’di Dialects: Ogoko, Okollo, Rigbo. More similar to Lugbara [lgg] than to Ma’di (Moyo) [mhi], which they do not understand. Ogoko and Rigbo dialects are more similar to Lugbara [lgg] than Okollo; intelligibility testing needed. Okollo considered most pure. Southern Ma’di dialects in Rigbo, Ogoko, and Okollo areas, should be considered Lugbara dialects (SIL 1992 Moru-Ma’di Survey Report). Lexical similarity: 85% between Ogoko dialect and Adjumani Ma’di [mhi], 83% between Okollo and Ogoko, 80% between Ogoko and Arua Lugbara, 80% between Ogoko and Moyo Ma’di, 78% between Ogoko and Moyo Ma’di, 76% between Okollo dialect and Arua Lugbara [lgg], 64% between Okollo and Moyo Ma’di, 59% between Okollo and Adjumani Ma’di [mhi] (Boone and Watson 1999). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Masaaba
[myx] East, Mbale, Manafwa, Budua, and Sironko districts, Mount Elgon area. 1,120,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gisu, Lugisu, Lumasaaba, Masaba Dialects: Lubuuya (Buuya), Ludadiri (Dadiri), Lufumbo, Luteza, Luwalasi, Luyobo. Intelligibility of Dadiri and Buuya 83%. Central and Southern varieties of Buuya 93%. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saamia [lsm], 52% with Isukha [ida], 50% with Logooli [rag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (E.31) Comments: Ludadiri is the main Northern variety; Lubuuya is the main Central or Southern variety. Christian.

More Information

Ndo
[ndp] Northwest. Mahagi is center. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 33,800 in Uganda (2002 census). Population total all countries: 133,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebu, Ndu, Oke’bu Dialects: Avari (Avere, Aviritu), Membi, Oke’bu (Kebu, Kebutu, Ndo Oke’bu). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe

More Information

Ndrulo
[led] Nebbi and Zombo districts, northwest of Lake Albert. 11,100 in Uganda (2002 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Lendu” (pej.) Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu Comments: Lendu speakers in Uganda call themselves Ndrukpa, and their language Ndrulo, which is quite dissimilar to other Lendu dialects. Christian.

More Information

Ng’akarimojong
[kdj] East and northeast, Kotido, Napak, Moroto, Nakapiripirit and Kaabong districts. 260,000 (2002 census), increasing. 260,000 Karamojong, 147,000 Jie and 329,000 Dodoth (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karamojong, Karimonjong, Ng’akaramojong, Ng’akarimojong Dialects: Bokora, Dodoth (Dodoth), Jie (Jiye), Matheniko, Napore, Pian. Dialects correspond with sub-tribes of Karimojong and have very high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% between dialects, 85% with Turkana [tuv], 75% with Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Comments: The people are pastoralist and seminomadic but much less so recently due to disarmament and forced settlement. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Nubi
[kcn] Mostly larger population areas, eg., Bombo, Arua, Koboko, Yumbe, and Kumi. Also in Kenya, United States. 26,100 in Uganda (2002 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 41,730. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinubi, Ki-Nubi Dialects: Conflicting reports of intelligibility with Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga]. 90% of the lexicon comes from Arabic. Classification: Creole, Arabic based Comments: Came from Sudan and originally settled near Bombo town, but now have dispersed. Muslim.

More Information

Nyang’i
[nyp] East, Kaabong District, Dodoth county, Karenga subcounty along Nyang’ia mountains west side. 20 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 15,000 Nyangia (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gyangiya, Ngangea, Ngapore, Ngiangeya, Niporen, Nipori, Nuangeya, Nyangeya, Nyang’ia, Nyangiya, Nyuangia, Upale Dialects: A separate language from Ik [ikx]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ngangea-So Comments: Some effort at language documentation. Traditional religion.

More Information

Nyankore
[nyn] Southwest, mostly Mbarara, Bushenyi, Isingiro, Kiruhura, Ibanda, Ishaka, Rubirizi, and Ntungamo districts. 2,330,000 (2002 census), increasing. 142,000 Hororo, 1,643,000 Hima. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Bushenyi, Mbarara, Ntungamo districts. Alternate Names: Nkole, Nyankole, Olunyankole, Runyankole, Ulunyankole, Ulunyankore Dialects: Hima, Hororo. Hima may be a separate language similar to Tuku [ttj] and Hema [nix] in DRC. Lexical similarity: 78%–96% between Nyankore, Nyoro [nyo], and their dialects; 84%–94% with Chiga [cgg], 75%–86% with Tooro (Nyoro) [nyo], 81% with Zinza [zin], 78% with Nyambo [now], 74% with Haya [hay], 68% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.13) Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Ethnic groups: Bahima, Bairu. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Nyole
[nuj] East, Butaleja and Tororo districts. 341,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lunyole, Nyule, Nyuli Dialects: Hadyo (Luhadyo), Menya (Lumenya), Sabi (Lusabi), Wesa (Luwesa). Lexical similarity: 70%–80% with Saamia [lsm], 82% with the Lugwe dialect of Saamia, 67% with Ganda [lug], 61% with Nyore [nyd] of Kenya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (E.35)

More Information

Nyoro
[nyo] West, Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Kyankwanzi, Kiryandongo, and Buliisa districts, east of Lake Albert. 667,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Orunyoro, Runyoro Dialects: Orunyoro (Nyoro), Rutagwenda. 73% inherent intelligibility with Gungu [rub]. Hema-Sud [nyo] (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is quite different. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% with Tooro [ttj], 77% with Nyankore [nyn] and Chiga [cgg], 67% with Nyambo [now] and Zinza [zin], 66% with Haya [hay], 62% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.11) Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara. It is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Pökoot
[pko] East central, Amudat District. 70,400 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pakot, Pokot, Suk Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Pokot Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Ruuli
[ruc] Central, west of Lake Kyoga area, Nakasongola (mainly), Masindi, Luwero, and Kayunga districts. 160,000 (2002 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 140,000 Baruli, 21,000 Banyara (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Luduuli, Ruli, Ruluuli, Ruluuli-Runyala, Rurulim Dialects: Runyala. Nakasongola (east) influenced by Ganda [lug], in Kiryandongo (west) by Nyoro [nyo]; Nyala dialect influenced by Soga (xog). Lexical similarity: 71% with Nyoro [nyo], 70% between Eastern Ruli and Ganda [lug]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.10) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Saamia
[lsm] East, Busia, Tororo districts near Kenya border; Lake Victoria is southern boundary. Also in Kenya (Olusamia). 335,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 280,000 Basaamia and 75,300 Bagwe (2002 census). Population total all countries: 460,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagwe, Bassamia, Saamia Dialects: Gwe (Lugwe), Saamia (Samia), Songa. Lexical similarity: 88% with Oluwanga [lwg], 80% with Olunyole [nyd], 62% with Masaba [myx] (Uganda), 59%–61% with Ganda [lug] (Uganda), 52% with Luidakho-Luisukha-Lutirichi [ida], 51% with Gwere [gwr] (Uganda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (E.34) Comments: Part of Luyia macrolanguage. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Soga
[xog] East central, between lakes Victoria and Kyoga: Jinja, Kamuli, Luuka, Iganga, Buyende, Bugiri Mayuge, and Namayingo districts; Lulamogi dialect: Kaliro District; Lusiginyi and Lukono dialects: Namutumba District. 2,060,000 (2002 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 185,000 Lulamogi speakers; 169,000 Lusiki (Busoga Cultural Research Centre). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Iganga, 4 other districts. Alternate Names: Lusoga, Olusoga Dialects: Diope (Ludiope), Gabula (Lugabula), Gweri (Lugweri), Kigulu (Lukigulu), Lamogi (Lamoogi, Lulamogi, Lulamoogi), Lukono, Luuka, Nholo (Lunholo), Siki (Lusiginyi, Siginyi), Tembé (Lutembe), Tenga (Lutenga). Lamogi (Lamoogi)and Siki (Siginyi) dialects are mutually intelligible of Gwere [gwr] and Kenye [lke]. Lexical similarity: Lutenga dialect; 82%–86% with Ganda [lug], 77%– 81% with Kenye [lke], 69%–78% with Lulamoogi [xog], 64% with Gwere [gwr], 58% with Saamia [luy]. Lulamoogi dialect; 89%–92% with Lusiginyi; 83%–88% with Kenye [lke], and 81%–82% with Gwere [gwr]. Lusiginyi dialect; 83%–84% with Kenye [lke], and 79%–82% with Gwere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.16) Comments: Welmers (1973) and Ladefoged (1971) list Soga [xog], Gwere [gwr], and Kenyi (Kenye) [lke] separately. Kenye and Gwere may be dialects of Soga, Gwere being the most geographically distant. Only Tenga, the major and widely held standard dialect, has development in progress. Lamoogi and Siginyi dialects are largely undescribed and still unwritten. Speakers of Lamoogi and Siginyi consider themselves different ethnic groups, though loosely part of the wider Soga Kingdom. These varieties are all very similar and largely intelligible.

More Information

Soo
[teu] East, Moroto District, Moroto, Napak, and Kadam mountains border. 50 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: So, Tepes, Tepeth Dialects: Kadam, Moroto, Napak (Mount Napak). Moroto and Napak dialects are more similar; Kadam is different. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ngangea-So

More Information

Swahili
[swh] 2,330 in Uganda (2000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Constitution Amendment Act, Article 3), included Swahili as a second official language. Alternate Names: Kisuaheli, Kiswahili Dialects: Shamba (Kishamba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42) Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Talinga-Bwisi
[tlj] Democratic Republic of the Congo border, Bundibugyo District, Bwamba county, southwest of Fort Portal, between Albert and Edward lakes. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 68,500 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 99,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bwissi, Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Lubwissi, Mawissi, Olubwisi Dialects: 68% inherent intelligibility with Tooro [ttj]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Tooro [ttj], 72% with Nyoro [nyo], 40% with Nande [nnb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (D.102) Comments: Glossonym: Bwisi in Uganda, Talinga in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Different from Bwisi of Congo and Gabon. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Teso
[teo] East, Kumi, Ngora, Soroti, Serere, Bukedea, Amuria, Katakwi, Kaberamaido, Pallisa, and Tororo districts. Also in Kenya. 1,570,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,909,000. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Tororo, 10 other districts. Alternate Names: Ateso, Bakedi, Bakidi, Elgumi, Etossio, Ikumama, Wamia Dialects: Orom (Rom). Limited intelligibility with other varieties in the Teso-Turkana group. The dialect in Ngora is considered standard. Lexical similarity: 76% with Turkana [tuv], 75% with Ng’aKarimojong [kdj]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso Comments: Ethnonym: Iteso. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Tooro
[ttj] West, south and southeast of Lake Albert, Kabarole, Ntoroko, Kibaale, Bundibugyo, Kamwenge, Kyenjojo Kyegegwa, and Kasese districts. 488,000 (1991 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 20,500 Batuku (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Kabarole and Kabale districts. Alternate Names: Orutoro, Rutooro, Rutoro, Toro Dialects: Rutuku, Tuku. Hema [nix] (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is slightly different. Tuku dialect is most likely a separate language. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.12) Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara, and is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Ugandan Sign Language
[ugn] Widespread, mainly in towns. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1995, Constitution, Article XXIV(d)). Alternate Names: USL Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Manual alphabet for spelling exists.

More Information