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Abenaki, Eastern
[aaq] Maine, Androscoggin-Kennebec and Penobscot valleys. Penobscot dialect survived to the late 20th century near Bangor. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 90 Abenaki in the United States (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Abenaki, Eastern Abnaki Dialects: Penobscot. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki Comments: Last speaker died in 1993 (Golla 2007).

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Abenaki, Western
[abe] Vermont, Lake Champlain north end. No known L1 speakers in United States. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki

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Achumawi
[acv] Northeastern California. 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Achomawi, Pitt River Dialects: Originally 9 dialects. Classification: Palaihnihan Comments: Both Achumawi and Atsugewi [atw] are heritage languages of the Pit River Tribe.

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Afro-Seminole Creole
[afs] Bracketville, Texas. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Afro-Seminole, Black Seminole, Seminole Dialects: Mexico Afro-Seminole, Texas Afro-Seminole. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern

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Ahtena
[aht] Alaska, Copper river above Eyak river mouth; upper Susitna and Nenana drainages, Chickaloon and Cantwell, 8 total communities; Washington. 80 (Golla 2007). 35 (2000 census): 10 in Alaska, 20 in Washington. Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ahtna, Atna, Copper River, Mednovskiy Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan Comments: Growing interest in use among the population.

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Alabama
[akz] Southeast Texas; Alabama, Coushatta Reservation near Livingston. 250 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 460 (2000 census) in Alabama and Texas. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alibamu Dialects: Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Koasati [cku]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Apalachee-Alabama-Koasati, Alabama-Koasati

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Aleut
[ale] Western Aleut dialect: Aleutian chain, Atka island; Eastern Aleut dialect: east Aleutian Islands, Pribilofs, and Alaskan peninsula. Also in Russian Federation. 150 in United States (Krauss 2007). Population total all countries: 500. Ethnic population: 1,030 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Eastern Aleut (Pribilof Aleut, Unalaskan), Western Aleut (Atka, Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Unangany). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut Comments: Copper Island Aleut is mixed Aleut-Russian language, or pidgin, spoken on Mednyj Island. Many school texts have been produced.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Also in Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominica, El Salvador, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Singapore, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, U.S. Virgin Islands, Zimbabwe. No accurate census figures available that distinguish language use from audiological deafness. 100,000–500,000 primary users (Van Cleve 1986) out of nearly 2,000,000 profoundly deaf persons in the United States (1988), Below 1% of the population. Population total all countries: 7,050. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ASL Dialects: Black American Sign Language, Tactile ASL (TASL). Some lexical variation across the United States and much of Canada, but intelligibility is high among all dialects called ASL. Black American Sign Language developed in schools for African-American deaf people due to segregation in the southern United States. It contains some distinctive vocabulary and grammatical structure. Tactile ASL (TASL) is used throughout the United States by and with deaf-blind people, especially those with Usher’s Syndrome, concentrations of which are found in Louisiana and Seattle. TASL uses ASL vocabulary and grammar, except (1) the deaf-blind person receives signs through touch by feeling signs in the palms, and (2) minor syntactic modifications to compensate for the deaf-blind person’s lack of access to the signer’s facial expressions. Some deaf-blind people learn Braille for reading English. Dialects or closely-related languages derived from ASL, are used in many other countries. Lexical similarity: 57% between modern ASL and French Sign Language (LSF) [fsl] on a comparison of 872 signs. Although the 2 are related, ASL has undergone substantial creolization (Woodward 1975, 1976). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: American Sign Language is different from Signed English, which refers to a range of signing registers that reflect some influence from English. At the extreme end are Signing Exact English (SEE) and Seeing Essential English (SEE2), artificially-constructed systems that attempt to match English word and morpheme order exactly. English-influenced signing that does not follow English grammar exactly is generally called contact signing or Pidgin Signed English. Deaf schools and interpreters in mainstream settings may use any one of these registers.

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Angloromani
[rme] 100,000 in United States. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: English Romani, Romani English, Romanichal, Romanis Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani

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Apache, Jicarilla
[apj] Northern New Mexico, Dulce area. 300 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,100 (Golla 2007). All Apache varieties: 13,270 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache

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Apache, Kiowa
[apk] Western Oklahoma, Caddo county. 3 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache

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Apache, Lipan
[apl] New Mexico, Mescalero Reservation. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Lipan Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache

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Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua
[apm] New Mexico, Mescalero Reservation; some Chiricahua at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. 1,500 (Golla 2007). 1,500 Mescalero in New Mexico, 3 Chiricahua in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: More than 3,000 Mescalero (Golla 2007). 175 Chiricawa, including 149 in New Mexico (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Chiricahua, Mescalero. Little dialectal variation between Chiricahua and Mescalero. Mostly a distinction in tribal identity (Golla 2007). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache

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Apache, Western
[apw] East central Arizona, several reservations. 14,000 (Golla 2007). 6,000 on San Carlos, 7,000 on Fort Apache Reservation (White Mountain Apache Tribe); smaller numbers at Tonto, Camp Verde, and Fort McDowell reservations (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 20,157 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Coyotero Dialects: Cibecue, San Carlos, Tonto, White Mountain. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache

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Arapaho
[arp] Wind River Reservation, Wyoming; also associated with Cheyenne in western Oklahoma. 1,000 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,940 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arrapahoe Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Arapaho Comments: No L1 speakers in Oklahoma.

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Arikara
[ari] North Dakota, Fort Berthold Reservation, eastern segment, mostly White Shield and Parshall. 10 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 94 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arikaree, Arikari, Arikaris, Ree, Ris Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee, Proto-Pawnee Comments: Reportedly a group Lewis and Clark met in 1804 in North Dakota. 30,000 were reduced to 6,000 due to smallpox.

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Assiniboine
[asb] Fort Belknap and Fort Peck reservations, Montana. 150 L1 speakers in both countries; 3,500 ethnic population for both countries (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Assiniboin, Hohe Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota

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Atsugewi
[atw] Northeast California. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). 1,350 with Achumawi (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Palaihnihan Comments: No known speakers since 1998 (Golla 2007). Heritage language of 2 of the 11 bands that constitute the Pit River Tribe.

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Barbareño
[boi] South California, near Santa Barbara. Last speaker died in 1965. Status: 8b (Reintroduced). Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash

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Blackfoot
[bla] Blackfeet Reservation, Montana. 100 in United States (2001 I. Goddard), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,000–8,000 in the United States (2001 I. Goddard). 1,604 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Blackfeet, Pikanii Dialects: Piegan (Peigan). Classification: Algic, Algonquian Comments: In Missoula, Montana, summer language classes are offered in Blackfoot.

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Caddo
[cad] Western Oklahoma, Caddo county. 25 (Golla 2007). No monolinguals (2000 B. Levy). Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Caddoe, Kado, Kadohadacho Dialects: Related to Pawnee [paw], Wichita [wic], and 2 extinct languages: Kitsai [kii] and Adai. Classification: Caddoan Comments: The tribes are Cahinnio, Hasinai, Kadohadacho, Nanatsoho, Upper Nasoni, Upper Natchitoches, and Upper Yatasi.

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Cahuilla
[chl] Southern California, San Gorgonio Pass and Mohave Desert areas. 35 (2009 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 (Hinton 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cahuilla

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Catawba
[chc] Near Rock Hill, South Carolina. Ethnic population: 500 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Reintroduced). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Catawban Comments: The last speaker died before 1960.

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Cayuga
[cay] Western New York, Cattaraugus Reservation. 10 in United States (1991 M. Kinkade), decreasing. Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock Comments: The dialect in Oklahoma is extinct.

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Chamorro
[cha] California, Texas, and Washington. 18,000 in United States (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chamorro

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Chehalis, Lower
[cea] Washington southwest coast. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Quinault Comments: Not well documented but some sound recordings were made around 1940.

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Chehalis, Upper
[cjh] Washington, south of Puget Sound. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 0 (2000 census); 200 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chehalis, Kwaiailk Dialects: Separate from Lower Chehalis [cea]. Different from Halkomelem [hur] on Chehalis river, British Columbia. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Quinault Comments: The last speaker died in 2001 (Golla 2007).

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Cherokee
[chr] East and northeast Oklahoma, Cherokee Reservation; Great Smokey Mountains; western North Carolina. 10,400 (2010 census). 130 monolinguals. Spoken by 10,000 of the 122,000 member Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma, by 1,000 of the 10,000 Eastern Band of Cherokees in North Carolina, by a high percentage of the 7,500 members of the United Keetoowah Band of Oklahoma and Arkansas (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 139,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tsalagi, Tslagi Dialects: Elati (Eastern Cherokee, Lower Cherokee), Kituhwa (Middle Cherokee), Otali (Overhill Cherokee, Upper Cherokee, Western Cherokee), Overhill-Middle Cherokee. Classification: Iroquoian Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chetco
[ctc] South coast, Oregon. 5 (Chafe 1962), decreasing. Ethnic population: possibly 100 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tolowa-Chetco

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Cheyenne
[chy] Northern Cheyenne Reservation, southeastern Montana; associated with Arapaho in western Oklahoma. 2,100 (Golla 2007). Spoken by 1,700 in Montana, 400 in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 in Montana (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Algic, Algonquian

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Chickasaw
[cic] Mainly south central Oklahoma, from Byng or Happyland (near Ada) north, Davis or Ardmore west, to Fillmore and Wapanucka east. Some in Los Angeles, California. 600 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000–37,000 (1999 Chickasaw Nation). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Choctaw [cho] find Chickasaw unintelligible. Classification: Muskogean, Western Muskogean

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Chimariko
[cid] Northwest California. No remaining speakers. No ethnic group members left (1997 K. Turner). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Last speaker died around 1950 (Golla 2007). Chimariko descendants consider both Hupa [hup] and Chimariko to be heritage languages but emphasize Hupa for cultural revitalization.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] New York, Pennsylvania. 800 in United States (2000 census). Identified as Fuchow in census. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Min Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Wu
[wuu] California and New York. 1,820 in United States (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinook
[chh] Washington, Yakima Reservation; Oregon, Warm Springs Reservation. 7 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 140 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kiksht, Lower Chinook Dialects: Clackama, Kiksht, Klatsop (Tlatsop). Classification: Chinookan

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Chinook Wawa
[chn] Formerly Pacific Northwest; now probably scattered. 640 in United States (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 120, including 30 in Oregon (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin, Tsinuk Wawa Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian

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Chippewa
[ciw] Upper Michigan west to North Dakota. 5,000. Ethnic population: 104,000 in the United States (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ojibway, Ojibwe, Southwestern Ojibwa Dialects: Central Minnesota Chippewa, Minnesota Border Chippewa, Red Lake Chippewa, Upper Michigan-Wisconsin Chippewa. Turtle Mountain in North Dakota shares features with Central Minnesota. Red Lake includes Northwest Angle on shore of Lake of the Woods. Nett Lake on the Minnesota border is closely related to Lac la Croix (Rainy River Ojibwa of Northwestern Ojibwa [ojb]) in Ontario. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi

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Chitimacha
[ctm] Southern Louisiana. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Last speaker died in 1940 (Golla 2007).

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Choctaw
[cho] Southeast Oklahoma, McCurtain county; east central Mississippi; some in Louisiana and Tennessee. 10,400 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 120,400 including 111,400 in Oklahoma (1998 Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma). 20,000 in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Choctaw find Chickasaw [cic] unintelligible. Classification: Muskogean, Western Muskogean Comments: The Houma are 12,000 racially mixed descendants of a Choctaw subgroup in southern Louisiana who speak a dialect of Cajun French [frc], and no longer speak Choctaw.

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Clallam
[clm] Washington, northeast Olympic Peninsula, Port Angeles. 5 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: Several thousands (1997 T. Montler). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Klallam, Na’klallam, S’klallam Dialects: Similar to the Saanich dialect of Straits Salish [str]. Classification: Salish, Central Salish

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Cocopa
[coc] Arizona, Lower Colorado river south of Yuma. 150 in United States (Golla 2007). 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 700 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cocopah, Cucapá, Delta River Yuman, Kikima, Kwikapa Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California

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Coeur d’Alene
[crd] Northern Idaho, Coeur d’Alene Reservation. 2 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). Ethnic population: 80 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern

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Columbia-Wenatchi
[col] North central Washington, Colville Reservation. 40 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). 25 Columbia speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 230 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chelan, Columbian, Moses-Colombia, Moses-Colombia Salish, Wenatchee, Wenatchi, Wenatchi-Columbia Dialects: Columbia (Columbian, Sinkiuse), Wenatchi (Chelan, Entiat, Wenatchee). Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern

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Comanche
[com] Western Oklahoma. 100 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Timbisha [par]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central

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Coos
[csz] South Oregon coast. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Hanis Classification: Coosan Comments: Last speaker died in 1972 (Golla 2007).

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Coquille
[coq] Southwest Oregon, formerly on upper Coquille river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mishikhwutmetunee, Upper Coquille Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tututni-Chasta Costa-Coquille

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Cowlitz
[cow] Southwest Washington. 110 (2010 census). No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (1990 M. Kinkade). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Lower Cowlitz Classification: Salish, Tsamosan

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Cree, Plains
[crk] North central Montana, Rocky Boy Reservation. 100 in United States (2001 I. Goddard), decreasing. Ethnic population may include Chippewa [ciw]. Ethnic population: 1,560 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Western Cree Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais

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Crow
[cro] Southern Montana. 3000 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apsaalooke Dialects: Similar to Hidatsa [hid]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Missouri River Siouan

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Cruzeño
[crz] Southern California, near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Island Chumash, Isleño Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects. Classification: Chumashan, Island Chumash

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Cupeño
[cup] Southern California, near the Pala Reservation, north of Valley Center. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 700 (2000 A. Yamamoto); 20 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cahuilla Comments: Last speaker died in 1987 (Golla 2007).

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Dakota
[dak] Several widely dispersed reservation communities in Minnesota, eastern Nebraska and the Dakotas; South Dakota, Yankton and Crow Creek reservations; North Dakota, northern Standing Rock Reservation, Devils Lake and Fort Peck reservations. Also in Canada. 18,800 in United States (2010 census), decreasing. 31 monolinguals (1990 census). 25,000 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 103,000 (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 20,460. Ethnic population: 5,000 Yanktonais (1997 D. Parks); 20,475 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sioux Dialects: Dakota (Dakhota, Santee, Santee-Sisseton), Nakota (Nakoda, Yankton, Yankton-Yanktonais). Lexical similarity: 83%–86% with Stoney [sto], 89%–94% with Assiniboine [asb], 90%–95% with dialects. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota

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Degexit’an
[ing] Alaska, Shageluk, Anvik, and Athapaskans at Holy Cross, below Grayling on the Yukon river. 40 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 280 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Deg Xinag, Deg Xit’an, “Ingalik” (pej.), “Ingalit” (pej.) Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Delaware
[del] Population total all countries: 7. Comments: Member languages are: Munsee [umu] (Canada), Unami [unm]

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Delaware, Pidgin
[dep] Middle Atlantic region. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian

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English
[eng] 225,000,000 in United States (2010 census). Many regional and social dialects. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: African American Vernacular English (AAVE). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Esselen
[esq] Central California coast near Carmel. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 80 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate

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Eyak
[eya] Alaska, Copper river mouth. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan Comments: Last speaker died January 2008.

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French
[fra] Massachusetts, Woonsocket, Rhode Island, Maine, Connecticut, Manchester, New Hampshire, and Vermont. 1,300,000 in United States (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Acadian (Acadien), Québécois. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Considered threatened. Christian.

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French, Cajun
[frc] Southern Louisiana, west of the Mississippi to Avoyelles, Evangeline, Allen, and Calcasieu parishes. 25,600 (2010 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acadian, Cadien, Cajan, Cajun Dialects: Big Woods French, Marsh French, Prairie French. Reportedly Cajun speakers can partially understand standard French [fra]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Ancestors came from French Canada in the 18th century. Christian.

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Galice
[gce] Formerly southwest Oregon. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan Comments: Last speaker died in the 1960s (Golla 2007).

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German, Hutterite
[geh] 128 colonies in the United States, with about 95 per colony. 10,800 in United States (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Carinthian German, Hutterian German, Tirolean, Tyrolese Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian Comments: Christian.

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German, Pennsylvania
[pdc] Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Florida, Oklahoma, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin, and new communities in other states. Also in Canada. 118,000 in United States (2010 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 133,000. Ethnic population: 200,000 (Kloss and McConnell 1974–1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pennsylvania Deitsh, Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanish Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German (Plain Pennsylvania German), Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Non-Plain Pennsylvania German, Pensylvanisch Deitsch). Blending of several German dialects, primarily Rhenish Palatinate (Pfalzer) German, with syntactic elements of High German and English. Mostly incomprehensible to those from the Palatinate (Kloss and McConnell 1974–1998). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German Comments: Separate orthographies for Pennsylvania and Ohio dialects. Christian.

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Gros Ventre
[ats] North central Montana, Fort Belknap Reservation, Milk river. 10 (Golla 2007), decreasing. No fully fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ahahnelin, Ahe, Ananin, Atsina, Fall Indians, Gros Ventres, White Clay People Dialects: Intelligible with Arapaho [arp]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Arapaho

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Gwich’in
[gwi] Northeast Alaska on Yukon river and tributaries, Fort Yukon, Chalkyitsik, Birch Creek, Venetie, Circle, and Arctic village. 300 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Krauss 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kutchin Dialects: Arctic Red River, Arctic Village Gwich’in, Fort Yukon Gwich’in, Western Canada Gwich’in (Loucheux, Takudh, Tukudh). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Haida, Northern
[hdn] Alaska panhandle south tip, south half of Prince of Wales island, Hydaburg, Kasaan, Craig, and Ketchikan. 15 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 600 in the United States (1995 M. Krauss); 130 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Masset Classification: Haida

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Halkomelem
[hur] Washington State. 25 in United States (1997 B. Galloway), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,270 (1997 B. Galloway). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Holkomelem Dialects: Chiliwack, Cowichan, Musqueam, Nanaimo. Classification: Salish, Central Salish

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Han
[haa] Alaska, Yukon river near Alaska-Canada border, Eagle. Also in Canada. 12 in United States (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 19. Ethnic population: 50 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan Comments: There is a Han textbook with tapes for teaching the language.

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Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai
[yuf] Central and northwest Arizona. Walapai dialect: Grand Canyon south rim; Havasupai dialect: Grand Canyon bottom. 1,600 (Golla 2007). 500 Havasupai, 1,000 Walapai, 100 to 150 Yavapai (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,860 including 570 Havasupai, 1,870 Walapai, 1,420 Yavapai (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Upland Yuman, Upper Colorado River Yuman Dialects: Havasupai, Walapai (Hualapai, Hualpai, Hwalbáy), Yavapai. 78%–98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–95% among dialects. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Pai

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Hawai’i Pidgin
[hwc] Hawaiian Islands, United States mainland (especially the west coast, Las Vegas, and Orlando). 600,000 (2012 J. Grimes). 100,000–200,000 with low proficiency in standard English (1986 M. Forman). Another 100,000 on the United States mainland. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hawai’i Creole, Hawai’i Creole English, HCE, Pidgin Dialects: The basilect is barely intelligible with standard English (McKaughan and Forman 1982). Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Hawai’i Pidgin Sign Language
[hps] Hawaiian Islands. A few users from about 6,000 profoundly deaf people in Hawaii (1987 Honolulu Star-Bulletin), 72,000 deaf or hard-of-hearing people in Hawaii (1998 Honolulu Advertiser). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Pidgin Sign Language Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Not a pidgin sign language.

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Hawaiian
[haw] Hawaiian Islands, mainly Ni’ihau island, Island of Hawai’i, some on all other islands; some in every state. 2,000 (Wurm 2007). 500 with Ni’ihau Island connections, another 500 in their 70s or 80s (1995 L. Wong). 8,000 can speak and understand it (1993 K. Haugen). In 1900 there were 37,000 L1 speakers (1995 Honolulu Advertiser). 2000 census lists 27,200. Ethnic population: 237,000 in Hawaii (1996 Hawaii State Department of Health), 19% of the population (1990 Hawaii State Department of Health), and 99,000 ethnic Hawaiians on the United States mainland (1990 census), including 24,300 in California. Ethnic Hawaiians include 8,300 pure Hawaiian, 72,800 between 50% and 99% Hawaiian, 127,500 fewer than 50% Hawaiian in Hawaii (1984 Office of Hawaiian Affairs). In 1778 there were believed to have been more than 500,000 pure Hawaiians (1995 W. Harada). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Hawaii (1978, Hawaii Constitution, Article 15(4)), co-official with English. Alternate Names: ’Olelo Hawai’i, ’Olelo Hawai’i Makuahine Dialects: Lexical similarity: 79% with Rarotongan [rar], 77% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 76% with Tahitian [tah] (Elbert), 71% with Maori [mri] (Schütz), 70% with Marquesan [mqm], 64% with Rapa Nui [rap]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Hidatsa
[hid] North Dakota, Fort Berthold Reservation. 200 (Golla 2007). 6 monolinguals. 25–50 semifluent speakers. Ethnic population: 1,200 (1986 SIL); 603 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hinatsa, Hiraca, Minitari Dialects: Similar to Crow [cro]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Missouri River Siouan

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Ho-Chunk
[win] Central Wisconsin scattered; eastern Nebraska, Winnebago Reservation. 250 (Golla 2007). 230 reported in 1997 (1997 V. Zeps). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 V. Zeps). 1,654 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hocák, Hocak Wazijaci, Hocank, Hochank, Winnebago Dialects: Nebraska, Wisconsin. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Chiwere-Winnebago Comments: The name is written with a hook under the, a, of Hocák, representing a nasalized vowel. The official name for the people is Hocák Nation. Glossonym: Winnebago by the Algonquin.

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Holikachuk
[hoi] Alaska, lower Yukon river, Grayling village. 6 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Hopi
[hop] Northeast Arizona, several villages; a few in Utah and New Mexico. 6,780 (2010 census), decreasing. 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,350 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan

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Hupa
[hup] Northwest California, Hoopa Valley Reservation. 8 (1998 J. Brook), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Hinton 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hoopa Dialects: Whilkut. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan

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Ineseño
[inz] Southern California, near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash

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Inupiaq
[ipk] Population total all countries: 5,580. Comments: Member languages are: North Alaskan Inupiatun [esi], Northwest Alaska Inupiatun [esk]

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Inupiatun, North Alaskan
[esi] Alaska, Norton Sound and Point Hope. Also in Canada (North Alaskan Inuktitut). May include Northwest Alaska Inupiatun [esk]. All Inupiatun: 3,000 (includes [esk]) (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,420 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Eskimo” (pej.), Inupiak, Inupiat, North Alaskan Inuktitut, North Alaskan Inupiat Dialects: Anaktuvik Pass Inupiatun, North Slope Inupiatun (Point Barrow Inupiatun), Point Hope Inupiatun, West Arctic Inupiatun. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq

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Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska
[esk] Alaska, Kobuk and Noatak rivers, Seward Peninsula, and Bering Strait. 5,580 (2010 census), decreasing. All Inuit languages: 75,000 out of 91,000 in the ethnic group (1995 M. Krauss). Census lists this as Eskimo. All Inupiatun: 13,500 (includes [esi]) (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: All Inupiatun: 13,500 (includes [esi]) (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Eskimo” (pej.), Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska Inupiat Dialects: Coastal Inupiatun, King Island Inupiatun (Bering Strait Inupiatun), Kobuk River Inupiatun, Kotzebue Sound Inupiatun, Northern Malimiut Inupiatun, Seward Peninsula Inupiatun, Southern Malimiut Inupiatun. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq

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Iowa-Oto
[iow] Formerly north central Oklahoma; northeast Kansas, Iowa Reservation. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,150 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Iowa (Baxoje, Ioway), Niutaji (Missouri, Missouria, Nyut’chi), Oto (Chiwere, Jiwele, Jiwere, Otoe). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Chiwere-Winnebago Comments: Last fluent speakers of Iowa and Oto died in 1996. Others have some knowledge of the language (1997 J. GoodTracks). Iowa and Oto were 1 language, with some family variations cross-cutting tribal affiliations. Missouri dialect has been extinct for many years. Language preservation activities taking place in Oklahoma.

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Jemez
[tow] North central New Mexico. 1,790 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007), decreasing. 6 monolinguals (1990). 2,009 listed as Towa in 2000 census. Ethnic population: 1,940 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Towa Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan Comments: Traditional Pueblo law forbids writing Jemez or teaching it to outsiders. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalapuya
[kyl] Northwest Oregon. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lukamiute, Santiam, Wapatu Dialects: Santiam. Classification: Takelman Comments: The last speaker (Santiam dialect) died in the 1950s (Golla 2007).

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Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille
[fla] Northeast Washington, Kalispel Reservation; northwest Montana, Flathead Reservation. 64 (2005 T. Pete), decreasing. 58 in Salish and Pend d’Oreille; 4 in Kalispel (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,800 (1997). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Flathead-Kalispel” (pej.), “Kalispel-Flathead” (pej.), Salish Dialects: Bitterroot Salish, Flathead, Kalispel, Pend D’oreille. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern, Kalispel Comments: Spokane [spo] is a coordinate language variety.

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Kansa
[ksk] North central Oklahoma. No known L1 speakers. No fluent speakers since the early 1980s; 12 people claim to know Kansa (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,700 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kanze, Kaw, Konze Dialects: Similar to Omaha [oma], Osage [osa], Ponca [oma], and Quapaw [qua]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan, Omaha-Ponca

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Karok
[kyh] Northwest California, along Klamath river. 12 (Golla 2007). 30 have some L2 fluency (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,900 (2000 A. Yamamoto); 335 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Karuk Dialects: No significant dialect differences. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Standard writing system adopted in 1980s.

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Kashaya
[kju] 45 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Southwestern Pomo Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern Comments: Separate from other Pomo varieties.

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Kato
[ktw] Northwest California, Laytonville Reservation. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1960s. A few have fragmentary memories of the language (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 92 (1982 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Batem-Da-Kai-Ee, Cahto, Kai Po-Mo, Tlokeang Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan

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Kawaiisu
[xaw] California, south, Mojave Desert, Tehachapi-Mojave area. 5 (2005 J. Turner). Ethnic population: 150 to 250 (2005 J. Turner). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern

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Keres, Eastern
[kee] North central New Mexico, Zia, Santa Ana, San Felipe, Santo Domingo, and Cochiti pueblos. 6,680 (Golla 2007). Population includes 500 Zia speakers, 390 Santa Ana, 2,340 San Felipe, 2,850 Santo Domingo, 600 Cochiti (Golla 2007). 2000 census lists 11,200 as Keres. Ethnic population: 8,100 including 1,200 Cochiti, 2,600 San Felipe, 650 Santa Ana, 2,850 Santo Domingo, 800 Zia (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Keres Pueblo, Rio Grande Keresan Dialects: Cochiti, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Santo Domingo, Zia. Classification: Keresan Comments: Outsiders are discouraged from learning the language.

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Keres, Western
[kjq] New Mexico, north central. 3,990 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007). 1,930 Acoma, 2,060 Laguna (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007); 2000 census lists 11,200 as Keres. Ethnic population: 10,700 including 3,860 Acoma, 6,870 Laguna (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Western Keres Pueblo Dialects: Acoma, Laguna. Classification: Keresan Comments: The pueblo sponsors a language preservation project.

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Kickapoo
[kic] Northeast Kansas, Horton; central Oklahoma, McCloud and Jones; Texas, Nuevo Nacimiento. Also in Mexico. 400 in United States (Golla 2007), decreasing. 6 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 510. Ethnic population: 820 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kikapoo, Kikapú Dialects: Possibly intelligible with Meskwaki [sac]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Fox

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Kiowa
[kio] Oklahoma, west central. 400 (Golla 2007). 1,100 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan

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Kitsai
[kii] Oklahoma, west central, Caddo county, among Caddo [cad] language speakers. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 S. DeLancey). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kichai Dialects: More similar to Pawnee [paw] than to Wichita [wic]. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee Comments: The last speaker died in 1940 (Golla 2007).

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Klamath-Modoc
[kla] Oregon, south central, areas east and north of Klamath and Agency lakes; Modoc directly south. No known L1 speakers. 6 adult L2 speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 170 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Most similar to Molale [mbe]. Classification: Language isolate Comments: The last speaker died in 2003 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). Active language programs and materials development in Modoc.

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Koasati
[cku] Near Elton, Louisiana, Koasati Reservation; near Livingston, Texas, Alabama-Koasati Reservation, others elsewhere; 1 family in Oregon. 200 (2000 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 220 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coushatta Dialects: Koasati and Alabama [akz] grammars are significantly different. Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Alabama [akz]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Apalachee-Alabama-Koasati, Alabama-Koasati Comments: Christian.

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Koyukon
[koy] Alaska, Koyukuk and middle Yukon rivers. 300 (Golla 2007). 300 (1995 M. Krauss); 100 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,300 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ten’a Dialects: Central Koyukon, Central Koyukuk River, Lower Koyukon, Upper Koyukon. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Kumiai
[dih] Southern California east of San Diego; some in Imperial Valley. 150 in United States (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Campo, Diegueño, Digueño, Kamia, Kumeyaay Dialects: Ipai, Kumeyaay, Tipai. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California

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Kuskokwim, Upper
[kuu] Central Alaska, Nikolai, Telida, McGrath, and Upper Kuskokwim river. 40 (Golla 2007). 3 households (1997). Ethnic population: 160 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kolchan, Mcgrath Ingalik Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan Comments: Formerly regarded as part of Degexit’an [ing].

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Kutenai
[kut] Northern Idaho, Flathead Reservation; Montana. 6 in United States (2002), decreasing. Ethnic population: 360 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kootenai, Ktunaxa Classification: Language isolate

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Lakota
[lkt] South Dakota, Cheyenne River, Lower Brule, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Sisseton, and Southern Standing Rock reservations; substantial off-reservation communities particularly in Rapid City, Minneapolis, and other urban centers in the upper Midwest. Also in Canada. 6,000 in United States (1997 R. Pustet), decreasing. 25,000 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 103,000 (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 6,190. Ethnic population: 20,000 (1997 R. Pustet). 103,255 ethnic Sioux in the United States (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lakhota, Lakotiyapi, Teton Dialects: Brulé. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota

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Louisiana Creole French
[lou] Louisiana, Saint Martin Parish, Saint Martinville, Breaux Bridge, and Cecilia; New Roads and Edgard; east Texas; some in Sacramento, California. 70,000 (Neumann-Holzschuh 1985). Ethnic population: 4,000,000 (1997 M. Melançon). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Different from standard French [fra], Cajun French [frc] (also spoken in Louisiana), Haitian [hat], and other creoles of the Caribbean. Classification: Creole, French based

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Luiseño
[lui] Southern California. 5 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Ajachemem, Juaneño (Acgachemem, Agachemem, Ajachema, Ajachemem), Luiseño. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic

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Lumbee
[lmz] Southern North Carolina, into South Carolina and Maryland. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Croatan Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Unclassified Comments: Racially mixed descendants of a Pamlico group. Still a distinct ethnic group.

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Lushootseed
[lut] Washington, Puget Sound area. 10 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007), decreasing. Population evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. Ethnic population: 18,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Northern Lushootseed, Southern Lushootseed. Northern Lushootseed includes subdialect Swinomish. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed

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Maidu, Northeast
[nmu] California, northern Sierras, Plumas and Lassen counties. 1 (1994 L. Hinton). Only a few semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 110 Mountain Maidu (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mountain Maidu Classification: Maiduan, Maidu

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Maidu, Northwest
[mjd] California, Butte, and Yuba counties, Feather river, Oroville area. Ethnic group is scattered. 3 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Concow, “Digger” (pej.), Holólupai, Konkau, Konkow, Maiduan, Meidoo, Michopdo, Nákum, Secumne, Sekumne, Tsamak, Yuba Dialects: A separate language from other Maidu varieties. Classification: Maiduan

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Maidu, Valley
[vmv] California, between Sacramento and the Sierra foothills. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maiduan, Maidu

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Makah
[myh] Washington Olympic Peninsula northern tip, opposite Vancouver Island. 12 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,220 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kweedishchaaht, Kwe-Nee-Chee-Aht Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan, Nootkan

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Malecite-Passamaquoddy
[pqm] Maine, Pleasant Point and Indian Township. Malecite dialect: mainly Canada; Passamaquoddy dialect: mainly Maine. 100 in United States (Golla 2007), decreasing. 960 Passamaquoddy (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,500 to 3,000 (1997 K. Teeter). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian

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Mandan
[mhq] North Dakota, Fort Berthold Reservation. 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 130 in the United States (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan

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Maricopa
[mrc] Near Phoenix, Arizona, associated with Pima [ood] language speakers on Gila River and Salt River reservations. 100 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 160 in Arizona (2000 census). Ethnic population: 800 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cocomaricopa, Piipaash Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Mohave [mov], 58% with Havasupai [yuf], 57% with Walapai [yuf] and Yavapai [yuf]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave

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Mattole
[mvb] Northern California. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan Comments: The last speaker died in the 1950s. A few individuals retain some memory of the language (Golla 2007).

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Menominee
[mez] Northeast Wisconsin, former Menomini Reservation. 35 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 65 semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 800 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Menomini Classification: Algic, Algonquian

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Meskwaki
[sac] Tama, Iowa. Mesquakie dialect: eastern Kansas-Nebraska border and central Oklahoma; Sac and Fox dialects: Sac and Fox Reservation. 200 (2001 I. Goddard). 200 Mesquakie in Iowa, more than 50 Sac and Fox in central Oklahoma, a few Nemaha Sauks on the Kansas-Nebraska border (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 760 Fox (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mesquakie, Sac and Fox, Sauk-Fox Dialects: Fox, Mesquakie, Sac. Kansas and Oklahoma groups closely related to Kickapoo [kic] of Oklahoma and Mexico. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Fox

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Miami
[mia] Miami dialect: north central Indiana; Miami and Peoria dialects: northeast Oklahoma; Illinois dialect: Illinois and Iowa. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Illinois, Miami-Illinois, Miami-Myaamia Dialects: Miami, Peoria. Classification: Algic, Algonquian

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Michif
[crg] North Dakota, Turtle Mountain Reservation. Also in Canada. 75 in United States (2010 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 725. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: French Cree, Mitchif Dialects: Most similar to Plains Cree [crk]. Several varieties in Canada. Classification: Mixed language, French-Cree Comments: Spoken by some descendants of the children of Indian women and French fur traders.

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Micmac
[mic] North Maine near Fort Fairfield; Boston, Massachusetts, and scattered elsewhere in the United States. 230 in United States (2010 census). 8,150 L1 speakers in Canada and the United States(Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 20,000 in both Canada and the United States (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mi’gmaw, Miigmao, Mi’kmaw, Restigouche Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian

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Mikasuki
[mik] The dominant language in 4 Seminole reservations: Big Cypress, Immokalee, Hollywood, Tampa in Florida. 190 (2010 census). 35 monolinguals. Spoken by most of the 400 members of the Miccosukee Tribe as well as by many of the 2,700 members of the Seminole Tribe (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hitchiti, Miccosukee, Mikasuki Seminole Dialects: Hitchiti, Mikasuki. Not intelligible with Muskogee [mus], Alabama [akz], or Koasati [cku]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Hitchiti-Mikasuki

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Miwok, Central Sierra
[csm] California, upper valleys of the Stanislause and Tuolumne rivers. 12. Eastern Central Sierra: 6, Western Central Sierra: 6 (1994 L. Hinton); 2000 census lists 50 Sierra Miwok which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Ethnic population: Possibly 5,000 all Miwok (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Eastern Central Sierra Miwok, Western Central Sierra Miwok. Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok

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Miwok, Coast
[csi] California, coast from San Francisco Bay to Bodega Bay. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Bodega, Huimen, Marin Miwok. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Western Miwokan Comments: Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Became extinct in 1960s or 1970s. Bodega and Marin Miwok dialects were possibly separate languages.

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Miwok, Lake
[lmw] California, Clear Lake basin. 1 (1994 L. Hinton). 2–3 semispeakers only, not actively using language (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Western Miwokan

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Miwok, Northern Sierra
[nsq] North central California, Jackson Rancheria near Westpoint. No known L1 speakers. 2000 census lists 50 Sierra Miwok which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok Comments: Extensive documentation including numerous audio recordings and videotapes of speakers.

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Miwok, Plains
[pmw] California, deltas of San Joaquin and Cosumnes rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Valley Miwok Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan Comments: The last speaker died in the late 1990s (Golla 2007).

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Miwok, Southern Sierra
[skd] California, headwaters of the Merced and Chowchilla rivers and Mariposa Creek. 7 (1994 L. Hinton). 2000 census lists 50 Sierra Miwok which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Meewoc, Mewoc, Me-Wuk, Miwoc, Miwokan, Mokélumne, Moquelumnan, San Raphael, Talatui, Talutui, Yosemite Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok

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Mohave
[mov] California-Arizona border, Fort Mohave and Colorado River reservations. 100 (Golla 2007). 30 to 35 at Fort Mohave, 35 to 50 at Colorado River. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mojave Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Maricopa [mrc], 63% with Walapai and Havasupai [yuf], 62% with Yavapai [yuf]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave Comments: Language materials, programs for children.

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Mohawk
[moh] Northern New York, Saint Regis Reservation. 3,000 in United States (Golla 2007). 1,300 (2000 census), which also lists 190 Iroquois. Ethnic population: 6,000 (1997); 1,303 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanien’kéha Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida

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Mohegan-Pequot
[xpq] New York, Connecticut. No known L1 speakers. 1,400 ethnic population of Mohegan-Pequot and Narragansett [xnt] (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Similar to Wampanoag [wam]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian

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Mokilese
[mkj] 450 in United States (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Ponapeic

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Molale
[mbe] Washington and Oregon, Deschutes river valley, west in Molala and Santiam river valleys, to Umpqua and Rogue rivers’ headwaters. No remaining speakers. Last speaker died in 1958 (Golla 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Molala, Molalla, Molele Classification: Language isolate

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Mono
[mnr] East central California, Sierra Nevada west side, between Yosemite National Park and King Canyon National Park; Sierra Nevada east side, Owens Valley, Lone Pine north to Big Pine. 37 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. More than 20 speakers and 100 semispeakers of Western Mono. Under 30 speakers of Eastern Mono (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 Eastern Mono (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Monachi Dialects: Eastern Mono, Western Mono. Related to Northern Paiute [pao]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western Comments: Each of the communities has sponsored language revival programs.

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Muskogee
[mus] East central Oklahoma, Creek and Seminole, south Alabama Creek; Florida, Seminole of Brighton Reservation. 4,000 (Golla 2007). 45 monolinguals. Spoken by 4,000–6,000 residents of the former territory of the Muscogee Nation and Seminole Nation in Oklahoma and by fewer than 200 of the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 52,000 (1997 C. Pye). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Creek Dialects: Creek, Seminole. Similar to Mikasuki [mik] in Florida. Dialects are very similar. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Creek-Seminole

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Nanticoke
[nnt] Southern Delaware and eastern Maryland. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 400 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Nanticoke-Conoy

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Narragansett
[xnt] Connecticut and Rhode Island. No known L1 speakers. 1,400 ethnic population of Narragansett and Mohegan-Pequot [xpq] (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian

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Natchez
[ncz] Originally Mississippi and Louisiana (Taensa dialect); now among the Creeks and Cherokees in Oklahoma. 6 (2011 H. Fields). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Taensa. Classification: Language isolate

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Navajo
[nav] Northeast Arizona, northwest New Mexico, southeast Utah; a few in Colorado. 171,000 (2010 census). 7,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 266,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Navaho Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean Comments: Ethnonym: Diné, preferred.

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Nez Perce
[nez] Upriver dialect: North central Idaho, Nez Perce Reservation, Kamiah and Lapwai; eastern Washington, Colville Reservation. Downriver dialect: Oregon, Umatilla Reservation. 200 (1997 H. Aoki), decreasing. Spoken fluently only by a handful of elders on Nez Perce and Colville Reservations. 30–40 semispeakers, mostly in Idaho (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,700 (1997 H. Aoki); 612 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nuumiipuutimt, Nuumiipuutímt Dialects: Downriver, Upriver. Classification: Sahaptian Comments: Conversational Nez Perce taught in Nespelem, Washington. There is a formal program of Nez Perce language instruction at Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston, Idaho as well as an independent program run by the tribe itself on the Idaho reservation, in Lapwai, Kamiah, and Orofino, Idaho.

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Nisenan
[nsz] Central California, scattered, foothills of the Sierras. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Neeshenam, Nishinam, Pujuni, Southern Maidu, Wapumni Dialects: Distinct from other Maidu varieties. Classification: Maiduan

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Nomlaki
[nol] California, Grindstone Rancheria, Paskenta, and Round Valley reservation. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Central Wintun, Wintu, Wintun Dialects: Similar to Patwin [pwi] and Wintu [wnw]. Classification: Wintuan

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Nooksack
[nok] Northwest Washington State. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,600 (1997 B. Galloway). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nootsack Classification: Salish, Central Salish Comments: Last speaker died about 1988.

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Nottoway
[ntw] Southampton County, Virginia. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway Comments: Extinct around 1958.

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Obispeño
[obi] California, near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan Comments: Revitalization efforts underway.

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Ohlone, Northern
[cst] North central California, Monterrey and San Benito counties. Subdialects of East Bay were Huchiun (Juichun), Niles (Chocheño), San José, San Lorenzo. Soledad may be transitional between Northern and Southern Ohlone. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Costanoan” (pej.) Dialects: East Bay, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Soledad. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Costanoan Comments: Last fluent speakers in the 18th or early 19th centuries.

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Ohlone, Southern
[css] North central California, Monterrey and San Benito counties. No known L1 speakers. Status: 8b (Reintroduced). Alternate Names: “Costanoan” (pej.) Dialects: Mutsun (San Juan Bautista), Rumsen (Carmel, Runsien, San Carlos). Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Costanoan Comments: Became extinct in the 1950s.

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Okanagan
[oka] Washington State, Colville Reservation. 400 in United States (Golla 2007). 400 on Colville Reservation, plus a few dozen elsewhere (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan Dialects: Colville, Lake, Sanpoil, Southern Okanogan. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern

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Omaha-Ponca
[oma] Omaha dialect: southeastern Nebraska, Macy and Walthill; Ponca dialect: south central Oklahoma, Red Rock area. 85 (Golla 2007). Fewer than 50 Omaha speakers, 35 Ponca speakers. Additional semispeakers of Omaha (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 365 Omaha and 160 Ponca (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mahairi, Ponka, Ppankka, Umanhan Dialects: Omaha, Ponca. Ponca and Omaha are completely mutually intelligible, Similar to Osage [osa], Quapaw [qua], and Kansa [ksk]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Mormon, Baha’i.

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Oneida
[one] Central New York, east Wisconsin. 12 in United States (Golla 2007). 6 monolinguals. No reliable estimates for number of speakers in New York state (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 11,000 at Green Bay, Wisconsin (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida

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Onondaga
[ono] Central New York, south of Syracuse. 12 in United States (Golla 2007). 45 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,600 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Onandaga Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock

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Osage
[osa] North central Oklahoma. 10 (Golla 2007), increasing. Ethnic population: 11,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Reintroduced). Alternate Names: Wazhazhe Dialects: Similar to Omaha [oma], Ponca [oma], Quapaw [qua], and Kansa [ksk]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan

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Ottawa
[otw] Lower Michigan, upper Michigan near Sault Sainte Marie. 10 monolinguals. 330 Ottawa, 5,070 Ojibwa in the United States (1990 census). Ethnic population: 8,350 Ojibwa, 559 Ottawa (2000 census); 20,000 (Ottawa and Chippewa) in the United States (1991 M. Kinkade). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chippewa, Eastern Ojibwa, Odawa, Ojibwe Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi

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Paiute, Northern
[pao] North Nevada and adjacent areas of Oregon, California, and Idaho. About 20 reservations spread over 1,610 square km. 700 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Plus 400 semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Paviotso Dialects: Bannock, North Northern Paiute (Mcdermitt), South Northern Paiute (Yerington-Schurz). Related to Mono [mnr]. Most reservations have their own dialect. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western

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Pangasinan
[pag] California, Hawaii, Ohio, and Washington. 2,140 in United States (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran

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Patwin
[pwi] California, Rumsey, Cortina, and Grindstone. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Southern Wintun, Wintu Dialects: Similar to Nomlaki [nol] and Wintu [wnw]. Classification: Wintuan

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Pawnee
[paw] North central Oklahoma. 10 (Golla 2007). 79 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Skiri (Skidi), South Band. Similar to Arikara [ari], but not inherently intelligible with it. Kitsai [kii] is between Pawnee [oma] and Wichita [wic], but more similar to Pawnee. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee, Proto-Pawnee Comments: Extensive documentary materials archived at American Indian Studies Research Institute.

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Piscataway
[psy] Maryland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Conoy Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Nanticoke-Conoy

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Plains Indian Sign Language
[psd] Great Plains and neighboring regions. Also in Canada. No monolinguals. Mostly elderly hearing people and some deaf people. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Plains Sign Language Dialects: North Central Plains Indian Sign Language. Some variation by ethnic group and region, but dialect differences do not impede communication among different tribes. Comparisons between different historical sources of lexical data on PISL range from 80% to 92%. Comparison of these sources with American Sign Language [ase] show 50% similarity. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Hillsboro, Kansas; Reedley, California; and Corn, Oklahoma. 12,000 in United States (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Christian.

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Pomo, Central
[poo] Northern California, Clear Lake area. 2 (1997 M. Mithun). Several speakers in the Hopland area and at Manchester and Point Areana on the coast (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,770 (1997 M. Mithun). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ballo-Kai-Pomo, Cabanapo, Habenapo, H’hana, Kábinapek, Khabenapo, Khana, Kulanapan, Kulanapo, Venaambakaia, Venambakaiia, Yokaia Dialects: Hopland, Point Arena, Ukiah. Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern

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Pomo, Eastern
[peb] Northern California, Clear Lake area. Speakers on the west side of Clear Lake (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Clear Lake Pomo Classification: Pomoan

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Pomo, Northeastern
[pef] California, Story Creek, Coast range valley; Sacramento river tributary. No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker died in 1961. Ethnic population: 1 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Salt Pomo Classification: Pomoan

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Pomo, Northern
[pej] California, Sherwood Valley area. 1 (Golla 2007). One elderly speaker at Sherwood Rancheria, near Willits (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Guidiville, Sherwood Valley. Classification: Pomoan, Western

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Pomo, Southeastern
[pom] California, Clear Lake eastern shores. No remaining speakers. Last speaker died in the 1990s (Golla 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lower Lake Pomo Classification: Pomoan

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Pomo, Southern
[peq] California, Cloverdale and Geyserville. Speakers in the Cloverdale and Geyserville areas. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gallinoméro Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern

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Potawatomi
[pot] Southwest and north Michigan, north Wisconsin and northeast Kansas. Also in Canada. 50 in United States (1995 Potawatomi Language Institute). 50 L1 speakers in the United States and Canada, most in the United States. Ethnic population: 25,000 (1997 L. Buszard-Welcher). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pottawotomi Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi Comments: 85% have varying degrees of language retention.

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Powhatan
[pim] Tidewater Virginia. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Virginia Algonkian, Virginia Algonquian Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian

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Purepecha
[tsz] Alabama, California, Illinois, North Carolina, and Missouri. 15,000 in United States (2005 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tarascan

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Purisimeño
[puy] Southern California, near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash

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Quapaw
[qua] Northeast corner of Oklahoma. 34 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 160 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Alkansea, Arkansas, Capa, Ogaxpa Dialects: Similar to Kansa [ksk], Omaha [oma], Osage [osa], and Ponca [oma]; all called Dhegiha. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan

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Quechan
[yum] Southeast corner of California, Fort Yuma Reservation. 150 (Golla 2007). 360 Delta River Yuman and 400 Yuma (2000 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kechan, Quecl, Yuma Dialects: Similar to Maricopa [mrc] and Mohave [mov]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave

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Quileute
[qui] Formerly Washington, Pacific side of Olympic Peninsula, Quileute and Lower Hoh River reservations. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1999 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: Fewer than 500 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Hoh, Quileute. Classification: Chimakuan

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Quinault
[qun] Washington State, west coast of the Olympic Peninsula, Quinault Reservation, centered on the Taholah Community. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Lower Chehalis. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan Comments: Some who heard it as children have good pronunciation.

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Russian
[rus] All states. 882,000 in United States (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Russki Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East

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Salinan
[sln] California, central coast. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: hundreds (1997 K. Turner). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Formerly 2 dialects, Antoniano and Migueleño. A few linguists have posited a relationship to Hokan. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Last speakers died in the early 1960s (Golla 2007). Interest in language revival.

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Salish, Southern Puget Sound
[slh] Washington State, south end of Puget Sound. 210 (2010 census). 5 monolinguals. Census (2000) does not distinguish between Southern Puget Sound [slh] and Straits [str]. Ethnic population: 1,300 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Duwamish, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Puyallup, Snoqualmie, Southern Lushootseed, Suquh. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed

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Salish, Straits
[str] Washington State. Samish dialect: San Juan Islands; Lummi dialect: mainland south of San Juan Islands. 5 in United States (Golla 2007). 5 speakers but mixed with other dialects and do not form a distinct speech community. No L1 speakers of Lummi (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Northern Straits Salish, Straits Dialects: Lummi, Samish, Semiahmoo, Songish, Ts’ooke. Classification: Salish, Central Salish

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Sea Island Creole English
[gul] Coastal region from Jacksonville, North Carolina to Jacksonville, Florida; Sea Islands off Georgia coast; New York City, Detroit. 350 (2010 census). 7,000–10,000 monolinguals. 10,000 in New York City (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 250,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Geechee, Gullah Dialects: Intelligibility with other English-based creoles is undetermined. Similar to Bahamas Creole English [bah] and Afro-Seminole [afs]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Afro-Seminole [afs]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern Comments: Linguistic influences from Fula [fub], Mende [men], upper Guinea coast, and Gambia River area (Hancock 1987).

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Seneca
[see] Western New York, Tonawanda, Cattaraugus, and Allegheny reservations. 100 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,240 (1997 W. Chafe): 900 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock

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Serrano
[ser] Southern California, San Bernardino and San Gorgonio Pass area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic

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Shasta
[sht] Northern California. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 12 (1990 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Sastean, Shastan Dialects: Formerly 4 dialects. Classification: Language isolate Comments: The people have merged their identity with the Karuk Tribe and consider Karuk [kyh] to be their heritage language.

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Shawnee
[sjw] Central and northeast Oklahoma. 200 (2002 B. Pearson), decreasing. 2,000 members of the Absentee Shawnee Tribe around Shawnee town (more than 100 speakers); 1,500 members of Eastern Shawnee Tribe in Ottawa County (a few elderly speakers). 8,000 members of the Loyal Shawnee in Cherokee region of Oklahoma around Whiteoak (fewer than 12 speakers) (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 11,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Algic, Algonquian

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Shoshoni
[shh] Central to northeast Nevada; Idaho, Fort Hall Reservation. Northern Shoshoni dialect: Wind River Reservation, Wyoming; Gosiute dialect: west Utah. 1,000 (Golla 2007). Also 1,000 speakers who are not fluent. Ethnic population: 7,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shoshone Dialects: Gosiute (Goshute), Northern Shoshoni, Western Shoshoni. Wind River Shoshoni is a subdialect of Northern Shoshoni, spoken at Wind River Reservation. Similar to Comanche [com] and Timbisha [par], which are not inherently intelligible of Shoshoni. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central, Shoshoni-Goshiute

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Siuslaw
[sis] South Oregon coast. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 100 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate Comments: No speakers by the 1970s (Golla 2007). No speakers of Siuslaw for many years (1998 M. Kinkade).

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Skagit
[ska] Washington, Puget Sound east side. 100 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Swinomish Dialects: Northern Lushootseed. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed

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Snohomish
[sno] Northwest Washington, Tulalip Reservation. 10 (1998 J. Brook). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Northern Lushootseed (Northern Puget Sound Salish). Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed

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Spanish
[spa] Widespread. 34,200,000 in United States (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in State of New Mexico. Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Dialects: Chicano (Caló), Isleno (Isleño, Islenyo). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: Population increased 61% or more since 1970. About 40,000 Islenos in New Orleans speak Isleno, a distinct variety of Canary Island Spanish, which may now face extinction after Hurricane Katrina.

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Spokane
[spo] Northeast Washington. 2 (Golla 2007). A few semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Spokan Dialects: Similar to Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille [fla]. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern, Kalispel

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Tanacross
[tcb] East Alaska, near Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Healy Lake, Dot Lake, and Tok. 60 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 220 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Healy Lake, Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Little dialect variation. Mansfield-Ketchumstuck is most important politically and numerically. Most similar to Upper Tanana [tau], but with different tone systems. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan Comments: Recognized as a distinct language in the 1970s.

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Tanaina
[tfn] South Alaska, Cook Inlet and adjacent area. 75 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dena’ina, Kinayskiy Dialects: Coastal-Inland, Kenai Peninsula, Stoney River, Upper Inlet. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Tanana, Lower
[taa] Central Alaska, Tanana river below Fairbanks, Nenana, and Minto. 15 (Krauss 2007). Ethnic population: 400 (Krauss 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Tanana Dialects: Chena, Salcha-Goodpaster. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan Comments: Chena River dialect became extinct in 1976 and Salcha-Goodpaster in 1993.

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Tanana, Upper
[tau] East central Alaska, upper Tanana river area, Northway, Tetlin, Tot villages. Also in Canada. 100 in United States (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 110. Ethnic population: 300 in the United States (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nabesna Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Tenino
[tqn] Oregon, Warm Springs Reservation. 50 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Warm Springs Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin

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Tewa
[tew] New Mexico, North of Santa Fe, Santa Clara, San Juan, San Ildefonso, Nambe, Tesuque, and Pojoaque pueblos; Arizona, Hopi Reservation, Hano. 1,500 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 18 monolinguals (1990 census). 1,200 speakers in New Mexico, 300 in Arizona (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Hano, Nambe, Pojoaque, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Clara, Tesuque. Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan

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Tillamook
[til] Northwest Oregon. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Salish Comments: The last speaker died in 1970.

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Timbisha
[par] Southeast California, Owens Lake, Coso Range, southern Owens Valley area, southwest of Darwin; southern Eureka Valley, Little Lake area; Nevada southwest of Lida, Saline valley; eastern slopes of Inyo mountains, Argus range south of Darwin, northern Panamint valley; Panamint mountains; north and central Death Valley; Grapevine mountains; Funeral Range on California-Nevada border; west and southwest of Beatty, Nevada, Amargosa Desert, and Beatty area. 20 (Golla 2007). No monolinguals. No speakers who did not also learn English as children (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 100 (1998 J. McLaughlin). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Coso, Koso, Koso Shoshone, Panamint, Panamint Shoshone, Tümpisa Shoshoni Dialects: Similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Comanche [com] but not inherently intelligible with them. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central, Shoshoni-Goshiute

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Tiwa, Northern
[twf] North central New Mexico. 1,060 (Ichihashi-Nakayama, Yumitani, and Yamamoto 2007), decreasing. Picuris spoken by nearly all 230 members of the Picuris Pueblo. 800 Taos speakers out of 1,600 in the pueblo (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,830 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Picuris, Taos. Taos and Picuris are not mutually intelligible (Golla 2007). Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan, Tanoan

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Tiwa, Southern
[tix] New Mexico, Isleta and Sandia pueblos, north and south of Albuquerque. 1,600 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 1,500 Isleta, 100 Sandia speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,500, including 4,000 Isleta, 500 Sandia (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Isleta (Isleta Pueblo), Sandia. Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan, Tanoan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tlingit
[tli] Yakutat north to Ketchikan south; inland, Carcross-Tagish. Also in Canada. 500 in United States (Golla 2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 630. Ethnic population: 10,000 in the United States (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kolosch, Kolosh, Thlinget, Tlinkit Classification: Language isolate Comments: Rich documentation of Tlingit literature and oratory in publications by Nora and Richard Dauenhauer (Golla 2007).

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Tohono O’odham
[ood] South central Arizona. 60 villages on 7 reservations. Also in Mexico. 14,000 in United States (Golla 2007). 180 monolinguals (1990 census). Population total all countries: 14,094. Ethnic population: 33,000, including 20,000 Papago, 13,000 Pima (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nebome, Nevome, O’odham, O’othham, Papago-Pima, Upper Piman Dialects: Akimel O’odham (Pima), Tohono O’odam (“Papago” (pej.)). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic Comments: Different from Pima Bajo [pia] of Mexico.

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Tolowa
[tol] California, Smith River Rancheria, near Crescent City. 1 (Golla 2007). One elderly semispeaker in 2001 but growing numbers of younger emerging speakers with limited competence (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Smith River Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tolowa-Chetco Comments: Chasta Costa was a separate tribe in Oregon; now extinct.

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Tonkawa
[tqw] Originally east Texas, later in Oklahoma. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: Fewer than 200 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate

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Tsimshian
[tsi] Tip of Alaska panhandle, Annette island, New Metlakatla; Ketchikan. 70 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,300 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chimmezyan, Sm’algyax, Tsimshean, Zimshian Classification: Tsimshian

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Tübatulabal
[tub] South central California, Kern county. 5 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan

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Tunica
[tun] Originally western Mississippi and northeast Louisiana. No known L1 speakers. Became extinct after 1950 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Heritage language of the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Marksville, Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana.

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Tuscarora
[tus] Tuscarora Reservation near Niagara Falls, New York; eastern North Carolina. 2 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,200 in the United States (1997 M. Mithun). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Skarohreh Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway

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Tututni
[tuu] Southwest Oregon. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tututni-Chasta Costa-Coquille Comments: The last fluent speaker died in 1983 (Golla 2007). Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation adopted Deene, a standardized form of Oregon Athabaskan based on Tolowa [tol] rather than Tututni, as the heritage language of the group.

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Twana
[twa] East of Puget Sound, Washington. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Skokomish Dialects: Quilcene, Skokomish. Classification: Salish, Central Salish Comments: The last fluent speaker died in 1980 (Golla 2007).

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Umatilla
[uma] South central Washington State, Yakima Reservation, Toppenish. 25 (Golla 2007). 25 to 50 Umatilla and Walla Walla [waa] speakers together. Ethnic population: 120 (1977 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Columbia River Sahaptin, Ichishkíin Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin

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Unami
[unm] Originally central and southern New Jersey, Delaware, and east Pennsylvania; most recently in Bartlesville, Moraviantown, and Andarko, Oklahoma. No known L1 speakers. 2000 census lists 310 who use it at home. Ethnic population: 13,500 (1997 J. Rementer). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Delaware, Lenape, Lenni-Lenape Dialects: Related to Munsee [umu] in Ontario. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Delaware

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Ute-Southern Paiute
[ute] Ute dialect: southwest Colorado, and southeast and northeast Utah; Southern Paiute dialect: southwest Utah, north Arizona, and south Nevada; Chemehuevi dialect on lower Colorado river, California. 920 (Golla 2007). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). 3 Chemehuevi on Chemehuevi Reservation, 10 on Colorado River Reservation (Hinton 1994). Ethnic population: Ute: 4,800; Southern Paiute: 1,430 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ute-Chemehuevi Dialects: Chemehuevi, Southern Paiute, Ute. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern

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Ventureño
[veo] Southern California, near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash

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Wailaki
[wlk] Northern California, Round Valley Reservation. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan

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Walla Walla
[waa] Oregon, Umatilla Reservation. 25 (Golla 2007). 25–50 Walla Walla and Umatilla [uma] speakers together (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 700 (1977 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ichishkíin, Northeast Sahaptin Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin

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Wampanoag
[wam] Southeast Massachusetts. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2006). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Massachusett, Massachusetts, Natick Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian

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Wappo
[wao] California, north of San Francisco Bay. 3 (Golla 2007). All speakers are elderly and none fully fluent (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Yukian

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Wasco-Wishram
[wac] North central Oregon, south central Washington. 58 (2010 census). 7 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 750 possibly (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Upper Chinook Classification: Chinookan, Upper Chinookan

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Washo
[was] California-Nevada border southeast of Lake Tahoe. 10 (1998 J. Brook). Several dozen fully fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Washoe Classification: Language isolate

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Wichita
[wic] West central Oklahoma, Caddo county, Anadarko. 1 (2008 B. Levy). Ethnic population: 2,100 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Tawakoni, Waco. Similar to Kitsai [kii] and Pawnee [paw]. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan

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Wintu
[wnw] Northern California, at the northern end of the Sacramento valley, north of Cottonwood creek, and into the mountains as far north as the headwaters of the Trinity river. Cities and towns: Redding, Hayfork, Weaverville, Trinity Center. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Northern Wintun, Wintun Dialects: Similar to Nomlaki [nol] and Patwin [pwi]. Classification: Wintuan

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Wiyot
[wiy] Northwest California. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 450 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Algic, Ritwan Comments: Last speaker died in 1962 (1975 K. Teeter).

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Wyandot
[wya] Northeast Oklahoma, Wyandotte. Also in Canada. No known L1 speakers in United States. Ethnic population: 3,600 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wendat, Wyandotte, Wyendat Dialects: Huron, Wyandot. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Huronian, Huron-Petun Comments: Last speaker died about 1960.

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Yakama
[yak] South central Washington State, Yakima Reservation, Toppenish. 25 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ichishkíin, Yakima Dialects: Klikitat. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin Comments: Together with Cowlitz [cow] and Klikitat, sometimes called Northwest Sahaptin.

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Yaqui
[yaq] Arizona, Tucson and Phoenix area. 430 in United States (2010 census). 2 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Cahitan

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] All states. 148,000 in United States (2009 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish

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Yokuts
[yok] California, San Joaquin river and Sierra Nevada slopes, San Joaquin Valley. 50 (Golla 2007). Wukchumne dialect: fewer than 10; Choinumne dialect: 6; Yowlumne dialect: 20–25 fluent and semispeakers; Chukchansi: a few semispeakers; Tachi dialect: a few speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Choinumne (Choinimne, Choynumne), Chukchansi (Northern Foothill Yokuts), Dumna, Gashowu, Southern Foothill Yokuts, Tachi, Valley Yokuts, Wukchumne, Yowlumne. Many subvarieties. Classification: Yokutsan

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Yuchi
[yuc] East central Oklahoma among Creek people, near Sapulpa, Hectorsville, and Bristow. 5 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Uchean Classification: Language isolate

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Yuki
[yuk] Northern California, Round Valley Reservation. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,200 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Yukian, Core Yukian Comments: The last speaker died around 1990 (Golla 2007).

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Yupik, Central
[esu] Alaska, Delta area, Nunivak Island, Unalakleet to Bristol Bay coast to Unalakleet on Norton Sound; inland along Nushagak, Kuskokwim, and Yukon rivers. Cup’ik used in Chevak, Alaska. 10,000 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 21,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Alaskan Yupik Dialects: Cup’ik, Kuskokwim Yupik (Bethel Yupik). 3 quite distinct dialects. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan Yupik

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Yupik, Central Siberian
[ess] Alaska, Saint Lawrence Island, Gambell, and Savoonga villages. Also in Russian Federation. 1,400 in United States (Golla 2007). 2000 census counts those who use the language in the home. Population total all countries: 1,910. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bering Strait Yupik, “St. Lawrence Island Eskimo” (pej.) Dialects: Chaplino. Chaplino and Naukan have 60%–70% mutual intelligibility. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik

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Yupik, Pacific Gulf
[ems] Prince William Sound area, Tatitlek, Chenega Bay, Cordova, a few in Valdez; Kenai peninsula southwest coast, Cook Inlet entrance, Nanwalek, Port Graham, and Seldovia. 300 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,900 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alutiiq, “Chugach Eskimo” (pej.), Koniag-Chugach, Pacific Yupik, “South Alaska Eskimo” (pej.), Sugcestun, “Sugpiak Eskimo” (pej.), “Sugpiaq Eskimo” (pej.), Suk Dialects: Chugach, Koniag. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan Yupik

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Yurok
[yur] Northwest California. 12 (Golla 2007). A few dozen semispeakers and passive speakers, middle-aged or older (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Algic, Ritwan

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Zuni
[zun] New Mexico, south McKinley County Reservation, south of Gallup. 9,650 (2000 SIL), increasing. Few, if any, monolinguals (2000). 2000 census lists 7,010 who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 9,650. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zuñi Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion.

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