Viet Nam

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Akha
[ahk] Lào Cai, Lai Châu, and Diên Biên provinces, both sides of Viet Nam-Laos border. 1,260 in Viet Nam (1995 ISEAS). Ethnic population: Hà Nhì ethnic group 21,725 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Ikaw, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Ikor, Ko, Yani Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Part of Hà Nhì official ethnic group. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Arem
[aem] Quang Binh Province, Bo Trach district, Tan Trach, 1 or 2 families of Thuong Trach. Also in Laos. 20 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 40. Ethnic population: 100 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: A-Rem, Chombrau, Chomrau, Umo Dialects: Other dialects or ethnic names: Tu-vang, Pa-leng, Xo-lang, To-hung, Chà-cu, Tac-cui, Nhà Chút. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut Comments: Part of Chút official ethnic community, including Sách, Mày Ruc, and Arem.

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Bahnar
[bdq] Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Binh Dinh, and Phu Yen provinces, central highlands. Also in United States. 158,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bana Dialects: Alakong (A-La Cong), Bahnar Bonom (Bomam), Golar, Jolong (Gio-Lang, Y-Lang), Kontum, Krem, Tolo. Other dialects or ethnic names: Roh, Kpang Cong. Most similar to Alak [alk], Tampuan [tpu], and Lamam [lmm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric Comments: Ba Na is an official ethnic community 227,715 (2009 census) that also includes Rengao [ren]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Brao
[brb] Kon Tum Province, Cambodia-Laos border area. 310 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 400 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Braou, Brau, Brou, Lave, Laveh, Love, Proue, Rawe Dialects: Palau. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet Comments: Brâu is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bru, Eastern
[bru] Quang Binh, Quang Tri, and Dac Lac provinces. 55,600 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brou, Bru, Quang Tri Bru, Van Kieu Dialects: Mangkong, Tri. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Bru Vân Kiêu is an official ethnic community of 74,506 (2009 census) that also includes Khua [xhv]. ‘Bru’, mountain people. Ethnic autonym: ‘Bru’ by So people in Laos. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cao Lan
[mlc] San Chay mainly in Tuyen Quang, Bac Kan, and Thai Nguyen provinces; scattered in Yen Bai, Vinh Phuc, Phu Tho, Bac Giang, and Quang Ninh provinces. 169,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cao, Caolan, Lan-Sán Chi, “Mán” (pej.), “Man Cao-Lan” (pej.), San Chay, San Chi, Sán-Chi Dialects: Maintain some features from Northern Tai [nod]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Sán Chay is an official ethnic community. Possibly came from China in the 19th century. May speak a form of Yue Chinese [yue]. Traditional religion.

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Cham, Eastern
[cjm] Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan, and Dong Nai provinces; Ho Chi Minh City. Also in United States. 72,900 in Viet Nam (2002). All Cham: 250,000 (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 73,790. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bhamam, Chiem, Chiem Thành, Tjam Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Comments: Part of official Cham 161,729 (2009 census) ethnic community which includes Western Cham [cja] and Haroi [hro]. Remnants of a once-powerful kingdom. Austro-Asiatic influences. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Cham, Western
[cja] An Giang and Tay Ninh provinces; Ho Chi Minh City. 25,000 in Viet Nam. All Cham: 250,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, Chiem, New Cham, Tjam Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Comments: Part of the official Cham 161,729 (2009 census) ethnic community which includes Eastern Cham [cjm] and Haroi [hro]. Differs a bit from Eastern Cham [cjm] of central Viet Nam. Muslim.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Soc Trang, Can Tho, Vinh Long, Tra Vinh, Dong Nai, and Kieng Giang provinces; Ho Chi Minh, Hanoi, and Haiphong cities; north Viet Nam-China border regions. 862,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinese Nung, Ha Xa Phang, Hai Nam, Han, Hoa, Kién, Liem Chau, Lowland Nung, Minh Huong, Nung, Phúc, Quang Dong, Samg Phang, Suòng Phóng, Trièu Chau Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Part of the official Hoa 823,071 (2009 census) ethnic community. Renowned fighters. Came from Canton, China as railroad workers and soldiers several decades ago. Distinct from Nung in the Tai family or Tibeto-Burman Nung (Nu) of China and Myanmar. Daoist, Christian.

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Chrau
[crw] Dong Nai and Ba Ria-Vung Tau provinces. Tamun dialect: Tay Ninh and Binh Long provinces. 7,000 (1995 census), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 26,900 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chauro, Choro, Ro, Tamun Dialects: Chalah, Chalun, Dor (Doro), Jro, Mro, Prang, Tamun, Vajieng, Voqtwaq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau Comments: Cho Ro is an official ethnic community. ‘Chrau’, mountain dweller. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chru
[cje] Lam Dòng and Binh Thuan provinces, inland from Phan Rang, Malam area. Also in France, United States. 19,300 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cadoe Loang, Choru, Chrau Hma, Chu, Chu Ru, Churu, Cru, Kru, Seyu Dialects: Noang (La-Dang), Rai. Similar to Cham. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern Comments: Chu Ru is an official ethnic community.

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Chut
[scb] Quang Binh Province, Thuong Hoa, Hoa Son, Dan Hoa communes, near Laos border at the same latitude as Mu Gia Pass. Also in Laos. 1,050 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). 450 May, 95 Ruc, 500 Sach (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 1,250. Ethnic population: 6,020 (2009 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang Dialects: May, Ruc (Kha Mu Gia, Tac Cui), Sach. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut Comments: Chút is an official ethnic community which includes Arem, Mày, Sách, and Ruc. Traditional religion.

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Côông
[cnc] Lai Chau Province, Muong Te district, east of Sila, south of Mang. Ban Nam Luong, 4 villages; Kan Ho commune, Bo Lech; Nam Khao commune; Muong Toong commune, Ban Bo village; Dien Bien Province, Muong Nhé district, Nam Ke and Pa Thom communes, near the Lao border. 2,030 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khoong, “Xa Coong” (pej.), “Xa Xam” (pej.), “Xa Xeng” (pej.) Dialects: Quite different from Akha [ahk], Lahu [lhu], and Sila [slt] of this location. North and south varieties in Viet Nam are different, but mutually intelligible. Bisu [bzi], Pyen [pyy], and Mpi [mpz] are closely related. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Cong is an official ethnic community.

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Cua
[cua] Quang Ngai and Quang Nam provinces. 12,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bòng Mieu, Bong Miew Dialects: Kol (Co, Col, Cor, Dot, Kor, Yot), Traw (Dong, Tràu). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Cua-Kayong Comments: Part of the Co official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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En
[enc] Cao Bang Province, Ho Quang district, Noi Thon village, 20 km east of Ho Quang city. 200 (1998 J. Edmondson). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nung Ven Dialects: Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Laha [lha], Qabiao [laq] (Laqua), Lachi [lbt], Gelao [giq], Hlai [lic]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra

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Gelao, Green
[giq] Ha Giang Province, Yen Minh district, Dong Van district, Pho La and Dong Van communes. Also in China (Hagei). 300 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cape Draping Gelao, Hakhi, Hoki Gelao, Klau, Qau Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra Comments: Part of the Co Lao 2,636 (2009 census) official ethnic community. Not mutually intelligible with Red Gelao (2002 J. Edmondson). Traditional religion.

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Gelao, Red
[gir] Ha Giang Province, Yen Minh district. Also in China. 20 in Viet Nam. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Vandu Gelao, Voa Dê Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra Comments: Part of the Co Lao 2,636 (2009 census) official ethnic community. Not mutually intelligible with White Gelao [giw] (2002 J. Edmondson). Traditional religion.

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Gelao, White
[giw] Ha Giang Province, Yen Minh district, Pho La and Dong Van. 20 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Southwestern Gelao, Telue, Tú Du Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra Comments: Part of the Co Lao 2,636 (2009 census). Not mutually intelligible with Red Gelao [gir] (2002 J. Edmondson). Traditional religion.

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Giáy
[pcc] Lao Cai, Hà Giang, and Lai Chau provinces. 49,100 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 58,600 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bo-I, Bouyei, Bo-Y, Buyi, Chang Chá, Chung Cha, Cùi Chu, Dang, Dioi, Giai, Giang, Giáy, Nhaang, Niang, Nyang, Pau Thin, Pú Nà, Pui, Pu-I, Pu-Nam, Puyi, Sa, Trong Ggia, Tu-Dìn, Xa Chung Chá, Yai, Yay Dialects: Nhang, Pú Nà, Tu-Dí. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: Giáy and Bo Y are both official ethnic communities. Traditional religion, Daoist.

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Haiphong Sign Language
[haf] Hai Phong. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Related to sign languages in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Halang
[hal] Kon Tum Province. Also in Laos (Salang). 13,500 in Viet Nam (2000). Population total all countries: 17,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Koyong, Salang Dialects: Similar to Jeh [jeh]. Salang [scb] in Laos may be a different but related language. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang Comments: Part of the Xo Dang 165,501 (2009 census) official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

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Halang Doan
[hld] Kon Tum Province, between Sedang [sed] and Cua [cua] language areas. Also in Laos. 2,000 in Viet Nam (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 4,350. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Doan, Duan, Halang Duan Dialects: May be intelligible of Takua [tkz], Kayong [kxy], Halang Daksut [hal], and Rengao [ren]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan Comments: Other: Part of the Xo Dang 165,501 (2009 census) official ethnic community.

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Hani
[hni] North, Lai Chau and Lao Cai provinces. 1 variety is east, 1 west of Muong Te city. 17,500 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 21,700 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ha Nhi, Hànhì, Haw, U Ní, Uni, Xá U Ní, Xauni Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Hà Nhì is an official ethnic community in Viet Nam and China. 2 similar varieties in Viet Nam differ only in phonology and lexicon. Traditional religion.

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Hanoi Sign Language
[hab] Hanoi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Related to sign languages in Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Haroi
[hro] Binh Dinh and Phu Yen provinces. 35,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aroi, Bahnar Cham, Hoi, Hroi, Hroy, Hrway Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal Comments: Part of the Cham official ethnic community.

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Hmong Daw
[mww] North; others resettled in Dak Lak Province south. 1,068,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Mán Tráng, Meo Kao, White Lum, White Meo Dialects: Hmong Xi (Meo Do). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Part of the H’mông official ethnic community. Largely intelligible with Hmong Njua [hnj]. No significant difference between White and Striped (Thailand) Hmong. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hmong Dô
[hmv] Ha Giang Province, Dong Van and Meo Vae districts; Lao Cai Province, Bac Ha district. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Largely intelligible with Hmong Daw [mww]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Hmong Daw [mww]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hmong Don
[hmf] Ha Giang Province, Hua Binh, YenBai, and Nghia Lo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Part of the H’mông official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mong Leng Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian

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Ho Chi Minh City Sign Language
[hos] Ho Chi Minh City. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Related to sign languages in Hanoi, Hai Phong, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Hre
[hre] Quang Ngai and Binh Dinh provinces. 94,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 127,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cham-Re, Chom, Davach, Davak, Moi, Moi Da Vach, Moi Luy, Tachom Dialects: Creq (Kare, Kre), Hre, Rabah (Tava). Most similar to Sedang [sed]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang Comments: Hrê is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hung
[hnu] Nghe An Province, Tuong Duong district, Tam Thai commune, Pong; Con Cuong district, Mon Son and Luc Da communes, Dan Lai and Ly Ha. 700 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cuói, K’katiam-Pong-Houk Dialects: Dan Lai, Ly Ha, Pong (Khong Kheng, Phong, Pong 1, Pong 2, Poong, Tay Pong, Toum Phong, Xa La Vang). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi Comments: Part of the Tho official ethnic community.

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Iu Mien
[ium] Widespread in north highland regions; Dac Lak Province south. 350,000 in Viet Nam (1999 H. Purnell). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dao Do, Dao Thanh Phan, Dìu, “Dong” (pej.), Highland Yao, Kim Mien, “Mán” (pej.), Mien, Myen, Red Dao, “Trai” (pej.), “Xá” (pej.), Yao, Yao Kimmien, Yao Ogang, Yu Mien Dialects: Cham, Dao Do, Dao Lan Tien, Dao Lo Gang, Deo Tien, Quan Chet, Quan Trang. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: Part of the Dao 751,067 (2009 census) official ethnic community along with Kim Mun. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Jarai
[jra] Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces; some in Dac Lac Province. Also in Cambodia, United States. 242,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 262,800. Ethnic population: 411,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chor, Cho-Rai, Chrai, Djarai, Gia-Rai, Gio-Rai, Jorai, Mthur Dialects: Aráp, Chuty, Golar, Habau (Ho-Bau), Hodrung (Hdrung), Jhue, Pleikly, Puan, Sesan, To-Buan. Cambodian dialects are all very similar, all displaying some significant differences with dialects in Vietnam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands Comments: Gia Rai is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Jeh
[jeh] Kon Tum and Quang Nam provinces. Also in Laos. 15,200 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 25,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Die, Gie, Yeh Dialects: Jeh Bri La (Bri-La), Jeh Mang Ram. Related to Halang [hal]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang Comments: Part of the Gié Triêng offical ethnic community (50,962, 2009 census) which includes Triêng [stg].

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Katu, Eastern
[ktv] Quang Nam and Thua Thien provinces. 50,500 (1999 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: High Katu Dialects: Western Katu [kuf] is a different language with a different orthography in Laos. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: Part of the Co Tu official ethnic community (61,588, 2009 census) which includes Phuong [phg]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Katua
[kta] Kong Tum Province, Mang Buk area, west of Kayong [kxy] language area. 4,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ca Tua Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community (165,501, 2009 census).

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Kayong
[kxy] Cong Tum Province, remote mountains. 25,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ca Giong, Kagiuong, Katang Dialects: Similar to Takua [tkz] and Cua [cua]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Cua-Kayong Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community (165,501, 2009 census).

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Kháng
[kjm] North, Son La, Dien Bien, and Lai Chau provinces. 13,800 (2009 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bren, Hang, Khaang, Ksakautenh, Pouteng, Putenh, Quang Lam, Tay Hay, Tayhay, Teng, Theng, Xa, Xa Ai, Xa Bung, Xa Dang, Xa Don, Xa Hoc, Xá Khao, Xa Xua Dialects: Kháng Ai (Sakau, Xa Cau, Xa Khao), Kháng Clau. Related to Puoc [puo] and Phong-Kniang [pnx] in Laos. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul Comments: Kháng is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

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Khao
[xao] Northwest; Son La and Dien Bien provinces, near ra River, north of Pa Ma. 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Related to Bit [bgk] in Laos and China. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao Comments: Part of the Xinh Mun official ethnic community (23,278, 2009 census).

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Khmer, Central
[khm] Hau Giang, Tra Vinh, Vinh Long, Kien Giang, An Giang, Bac Lieu, Ca Mau, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Binh Phuoc, and Tay Ninh provinces; Ho Chi Minh City. 1,060,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 1,260,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cambodian, Cu Tho, Cur Cul, Khmer Nam Bo, Kho Me, Khome, Krom, “Viet Goc Mien” (pej.) Dialects: Central Khmer, Southern Khmer. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer Comments: Kho Me is an official ethnic community. Buddhist, Christian.

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Khmu
[kjg] Dien Bien, Son La, Lai Chau, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, and Yen Bai provinces. 56,500 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 72,900 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cam Mu, Kha Cau, Khamu, Kho Mu, Khomu, Kmhmu, Mun Xen, Xa Cau Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: Kho Mú is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khua
[xhv] West central; southeast of Giap Tam. Also in Laos. 3,000 in Viet Nam (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 5,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Related to Bru [bru]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Part of the Bru Vân Kieu official ethnic community (74,506, 2009 census). Distinct from Cua [cua].

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Kim Mun
[mji] 170,000 in Viet Nam (1999 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coc Mun, Dao Ao Dai, Dao Lam Dinh, Dao Quan Trang, Dao Thanh Y, Great Tunic Yao, Jinmen, Lan Ten, Lanten, Lantin, Lowland Yao, “Man Lan-Tien” (pej.), Mun, Red Trouser Yao Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: Part of Dao official ethnic community (751,067, 2009 census). Lao Cai variety northwest of Lao City and Ha Giang at Na Khe village are very different phonetically.

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Koho
[kpm] Lam Dòng, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan, and Khanh Hoa provinces. Also in United States. 166,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caho, Co Ho, Coho, Kohor Dialects: Chil (Kil), Kalop, Kodu (Co-Don), Lac (Lach, Lat), Laya, Nop (Tu-Lop, Xre Nop), Pru, Rion, Sop, Sre, Tala (To La), Tring (Trinh). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre Comments: Co Ho is an official ethnic community. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kucong
[lkc] Lai Chau Province, Muang Te district. Also in China. 6,870 in Viet Nam (2007). Population total all countries: 46,870. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cosung, Lahlu Dialects: Most similar to Lahu [lhu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Part of the La Hu official ethnic community (9,651, 2009 census).

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Lachi
[lbt] Hà Giang Province, west of Hà Giang in upper Clear River Valley (Riviere Claire) on China border. Black Lachi in Manyou, Long-Haired Lachi in Manpeng. Also in China. 5,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). 3,990 women, in 1,450 households (Liang Min 1990), including Black Lachi 2,500 in 550 households, Long-Haired Lachi 4,500 in 900 households. 10,800 for all La Chi in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 5,200. Ethnic population: 7,860 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cù Te, Cu-Tê, La Chi, Lachí, Laji, Lati, Lipulio, Mia, Tai Lati, Y, Y Pí, Y Póng, Y To Dialects: Lipupi (Long-Haired Lachi), Liputiõ (Black Lachi). Related to Gelao. Lexical similarity: Long-Haired Lachi of Viet Nam: 80% with Flowery Lachi [lbt] of China, White Lachi [lwh] of Viet Nam: 30%–40% with the others, and should be considered a separate language, 36% with Gelao, 33% with Qabiao [laq], 22% with Dong [doc], 23% with Laka, 25% with Hlai [lic]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra Comments: Part of the La Chí official ethnic community (13,158, 2009 census) which includes White Lachi [lwh]. ‘Red’, ‘Flowery’, refer to clothing color or other features of physical appearance. Traditional religion.

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Lachi, White
[lwh] North, south of Maguan in China, Hà Giang Province, Manbang and Manmei. 1,600 (Liang Min 1990). 300 households. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Lipupõ, White Lachi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 30%–40% with other Lachi. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra Comments: Part of the La Chí official ethnic community (13,158, 2009 census) which includes White Lachi [lwh].

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Laghuu
[lgh] Northwest; Lao Cai Province, Sa Pa district, Nam Sa village; 15 km south and east of Sa Pa City, in the valley below the highest mountain in Viet Nam, Phan Si Pan (3,198 m). 300 (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laopa, Xá Phó Dialects: Unknown relationship to Laopang [lbg] (Laopa) of Myanmar, also in the Lolo group. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Laha
[lha] Lao Cai and Son La provinces, along Red and Black rivers. 5,690 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 8,180 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khlá, Khlá Don, Khlá Dung, Khlá Phlao, Klá Dong, La Ha, La Ha Ung, Liik, Xá Chien, Xá Khao, Xá Lay Dialects: Similar to Qabiao [laq]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra Comments: La Ha is an official community who live together with the Thai and Kháng. Traditional religion.

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Lahu
[lhu] Northwest border with Laos. Black Lahu north of Muong Te City near China border, at Ban Kiem Tra, Phu Nam Ma, Phu Nam Cau, and Phu Nam Ha; White Lahu in Muong Te, east of Nha Ca, 1 village. 9,650 in Viet Nam (2009 census). 6,870 all Lahu (Yellow, Black, White) in Viet Nam (1999 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaixien, Lahuna, Laku, Launa, Lohei, Mooso, Muhso, Mussar, Musso, Mussuh, Namen Dialects: Lahu Phung (White Lahu), Na (Black Lahu, Khucong, Musser Dam), Nyi (Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: La Hu is an official ethnic community. Distinct from Lahu Shi (Yellow Lahu) [lhi]. One source called them White Lahu. It is not clear if these are the same as Red Lahu, Black Lahu. Traditional religion.

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Lamam
[lmm] Viet Nam border with Cambodia. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lmam Dialects: Related to Bahnar [bdq], Tampuan [tpu], and Alak [alk]. Perhaps identified with Kaco’ [xkk]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric Comments: Kacho’ [xkk] is possibly the same or a closely related language in Cambodia. Lamam is a common clan name amongst both Jarai and Kaco’ in Cambodia.

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Lao
[lao] 10,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 14,900 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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[khb] North, Lai Chau Province, Tam Duong district, Ban Hon and Binh Lu communes. 4,960 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 5,600 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Duon, Lue, Nhuon, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I, Tai Lu Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Lu is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Maa
[cma] Lam Dòng, Dong Nai provinces, widely scattered. 33,300 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 41,400 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chauma, Che Ma, Ma, Ma Krung, Ma Ngan, Ma To, Ma Xop, Maaq Dialects: Sometimes considered a Koho [kpm] dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre Comments: An official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maleng
[pkt] Ha Tinh Province, Huong Khe district, Huong Lien commune; 2 or 3 villages bordering Laos, another southeast. Malieng dialect: Tuyen Hoa district, Thanh Hoa and Lam Hoa communes; Dan Hoa dialect: north Quang Binh Province, Minh Hoa district. 200 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malang, Malieng Dialects: Dan Hoa, Kha Phong (Kha Nam Om, Maleng Bro, Maleng Kari), Malieng (Pa Leng). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut

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Mang
[zng] Lai Chau Province, Muong Te and Sin Ho districts, triangle-shaped area between Song Da (Black River) and the Nam Na: Nam Nghe, Nam Xung, Nam Ban, Ban Nam Voi, and others. Also in China, Thailand. 2,660 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 3,165. Ethnic population: 3,700 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ba’e, Chaman, Lá Vàng, Manbu, Mang U, Nieng Ó, Xá, Xá Mang, Xá Ó Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang Comments: M ang is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

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Mantsi
[nty] Hà Giang Province, Meo Vac and Dong Van districts. 1,100 (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Black Lolo, Flowery Lolo, Lolo, Red Mantsi Dialects: Called Southeast Vernacular, type of Yi. May be related to what is called Southeastern Yi or Guizhou Yi [yig] in China. Not intelligible with Sichuan Yi [iii] (Nosu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Part of the Lô Lô official ethnic community (4,541, 2009 census).

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Mnong, Central
[cmo] Mainly Dak Nong and west Dak Lak provinces, southwest of the Rade. Also in Cambodia. 32,500 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 70,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Budang, Budong, Phanong, Pnong Dialects: Biat (Bhiét), Bu Dang, Bu Nar, Bu Rung, Dih Bri (Di-Pri), Préh (Pre). Biat may be a separate language related to Eastern Mnong [mng]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong Comments: Part of the Mnông official ethnic community (102,741, 2009 census) which includes Eastern Mnong [mng] and Southern Mnong [mnn]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mnong, Eastern
[mng] Dak Lak and Lam Dòng provinces, southeast of the Rade. Also in United States. 30,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Chil, Mnong Gar (Gar), Mnong Kwanh, Mnong Rolom (Ralam, Rlam, Rolam, Rolom). Biat may be more similar to Eastern Mnong than to Central Mnong [cmo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Eastern Mnong Comments: Part of the Mnông official ethnic community (102,741, 2009 census) which includes Central Mnong [cmo] and Southern Mnong [mnn].

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Mnong, Southern
[mnn] Mostly Binh Phuoc Province, south of Central Mnong [cmo], north of Stieng [stt] language areas. 30,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong Comments: Part of the Mnông official ethnic community (102,741, 2009 census). Ra-Ong, Bu Sre, Bu Dip, and Kuenh are possibly subgroups.

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Monom
[moo] East Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces. 6,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bonom, Menam, Monam Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community (165,501, 2009 census).

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Muong
[mtq] Mostly north central mountains, Hoa Bình, Thanh Hóa, Phu Tho, Yen Bai, Son La, and Ninh Binh provinces. 1,140,000 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 1,270,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ao Tá (Au Tá), Boi Bi (Moi Bi), Moi 1, Mol, Mual, Thang, Wang. Related to Chut [scb], May [scb], Ruc [scb], Arem [aem], Aheu [thm], and Bukitan [bkn]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong Comments: Muong is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ná-Meo
[neo] Northwest Lang Son Province, Trang Dinh district, Cao Minh and Khuoi Phu Dao villages, Khanh Long hamlet; Thach An district, Ca Liec village. 1,200 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Unclassified Comments: Possible immigrants from Guangxi Province in China.

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Nguôn
[nuo] Western Quang Binh Province, 11 villages: Kwi-dat, An Duk, Ba nuong, Than long, Tan kieu; Ko liem, Bok tho (An tho), Kim bang, Tan li, and An lak. 1,000 (1995 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ngouan Dialects: Diffloth (1992) groups Nguôn as a separate language similar to Vietnamese [vie], but Tran (1996) and Ferlus (1996) group it with Muong [mtq]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong

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Nung
[nut] Mainly Cao Bang and Lang Son provinces; Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Lam Dòng, and Dak Lak. Also in Canada, Laos, United States. 969,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Ethnic population: 969,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bu-Nong, Highland Nung, Nong, Tai Nung, Tay, Tày Nùng Dialects: Giang, Khen Lài, Nùng An, Nùng Cháo, Nùng Inh, Nùng Lòi, Nùng Phan Slình (Nùng Fan Slihng), Nùng Qúy Rin (Guiren), Xuòng. Similar to Tày [tyz]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Different from Chinese Nung [yue] (Cantonese). Nùng is an official ethnic community.

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O’du
[tyh] Nghe An Province, Tuong Duong district, Nga My commune. Also in Laos. 300 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 950. Ethnic population: 380 (2009 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Haat, Hat, ’Iduh, O Du, “Tay Hat” (pej.) Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: Official ethnic community. Call themselves O Du. Traditional religion.

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Pa Di
[pdi] Lao Cai Province, Muong Khuong district. 300 in Viet Nam. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Padi Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Pa-Hng
[pha] Tuyên Quang and Hà Giang provinces. 6,810 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baheng, Bahengmai, Pa Hng, Pà Hung, Pà Then, Paheng Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Pa-hng Comments: Pà Then is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

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Pacoh
[pac] Quang Tri and Thua Thien Hua provinces. Also in Laos. 16,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 32,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bo River Van Kieu, Paco, Pokoh Dialects: Ka’do, Kanah, Pahi (Ba-Hi). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: Part of the Tà Ôi official ethnic community (43,886, 2009 census). ‘Koh’ in Pacoh, mountain.

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Phu Thai
[pht] North. 209,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phutai, Putai, Puthai, Puthay Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of Thái official ethnic community.

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Phula
[phh] Lao Cai Province, near Lao Cai City; Hà Giang Province, Xin Mun district, 1 village; Lai Chau and Son La provinces. Also in China (Phukha). 5,000 in Viet Nam (Pelkey 2008). Population total all countries: 10,000. Ethnic population: 11,000 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fu Khla, Phu Kha, Phu Khla, Phu La Dialects: Related to Laghuu [lgh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Phù Lá is an official ethnic community.

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Phuong
[phg] Quang Nam-Da Nang, Gia Lai-Cong Tum provinces, southeast of Pacoh [pac] language area. 15,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phuang, Phuong Catang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: Part of Katu official ethnic community.

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Puoc
[puo] North, Lai Chau and Son La provinces, Laos border area. Also in Laos. 18,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 26,570. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha Puhoc, Ksing Mul, Mun, Pua, Puhoc, Puok, Sing, Xin Mul, Xinh Mul, Xinh-Mun Dialects: Related to Kháng [kjm] and Phong-Kniang [pnx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul Comments: Part of the Xinh Mun official ethnic community (23,278, 2009 census).

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Qabiao
[laq] Hà Giang Province, Viet Nam-Yunnan-Kwangsi border, upper Clear river valley, Dunshi, Pugao, Pula, Pubang, and Manong; Yên Minh and Mèo Vac districts; Dông Van district, Phô Là and Sung Chang villages. Also in China. 690 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Most of the ethnic group use the language (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 708. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bendi Lolo, Ka Bao, Ka Biao, Laqua, Lolo, Pen Ti, Pu Péo, Pubiao, Pupeo Dialects: Lexical similarity: 38% with Gelao, 33% with Lachi [lbt], 30% with Northern Zhuang, 29% with Dong, 26% with Hlai [lic], 10% with Hmong, 7% with Iu Mien [ium]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra Comments: Pu Péo is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

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Rade
[rad] Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa provinces, Banmethuot area. Also in United States. 177,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 331,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: De, E-De, Edeh, Raday, Rde, Rhade Dialects: Adham (A-Dham), Bih, Blo, Kodrao (Kdrao), Krung 1, Ndhur (Mdhur), Rde Kpa (Kpa). Bih (L1 pop. 1,000) may be a separate language. Krung 1 dialect is different from the Bahnaric language Kru’ng 2 [krr], in Cambodia. Other dialect or ethnic group names are: Ktul, Dlie, Rue, E-pan, Dong Kay, Arul, Kah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands Comments: Ê Dê is an official ethnic community. Christian, traditional religion.

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Rengao
[ren] Kon Tum Province, northwest of Dak to southeast of Kontum city between Sedang and Bahnar. 18,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ro-Ngao Dialects: Bahnar-Rengao, Sedang-Rengao, Western Rengao. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Rengao Comments: Part of the Ba Na official ethnic community (227,716, 2009 census).

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Roglai, Cacgia
[roc] Ninh Thuan Province, northeast of Phan Rang on the coast. 3,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ra-Glai Dialects: Considerably different from other Roglai varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham

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Roglai, Northern
[rog] Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Khanh Hoa, and Lam Dòng provinces, in the mountains west and south of Nhatrang; some near Dalat. 52,900 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adlai, La-Oang, Noang, Radlai, Ra-Glai, Rang Glai, Rayglay Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham Comments: Part of the Ra Glai official ethnic community (122,245, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Roglai, Southern
[rgs] South, Binh Thuan and Ninh Thuan provinces. 41,000 (1999 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rai Dialects: Rai. Similar to Chru [cje] and Northern Roglai [rog]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham Comments: Part of the Ra Glai official ethnic community (122,245, 2009 census). Traditional religion.

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Romam
[rmx] Viet Nam-Cambodia border. 250 (1993 D. Van). Ethnic population: 440 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ro Mam Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric Comments: Ro Mam is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

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Sedang
[sed] Kon Tum, Quang Nam, and Quang Ngai provinces. Also in Laos. 97,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 97,520. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cadong, Dang, Hadang, Hdang, Hotea, Hoteang, Kmrang, Rotea, Roteang, Tang, Xa, Xodang Dialects: Central Sedang, Dak Sut Sedang, Greater Sedang, Kon Hring Sedang, Kotua Sedang. Most similar to Hre [hre]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community (169,501, 2009 census). Sakau or Xa Cau may be an alternate name. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sila
[slt] Lai Chau Province, Muong Tè district, Kan Ho commune, Ban Xeo Hai village; Dien Bien Province, Muong Nhé district, Chung Chai commune. 710 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Most members of the ethnic group speak the language (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sida Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Si La is an official ethnic community who say they came from Laos. Traditional religion.

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Sinicized Miao
[hmz] Ha Giang Province. 3 villages. 2,000 in Viet Nam (Hattaway 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hmong Shua Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Stieng, Budeh
[stt] Binh Phuoc and Tay Ninh provinces, south Stieng area. 40,000 (2009 census). Part of the Xtiêng 85,436 (2009 census) official ethnic community which includes Bulo Stieng [sti]. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lower Stieng, Southern Stieng Dialects: Different enough from Bulo Stieng [sti] that intelligibility is not functional. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric Comments: Part of the Xtiêng official ethnic community (85,436, 2009 census) which includes Bulo Stieng [sti].

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Stieng, Bulo
[sti] Binh Phuoc, Lam Dòng, and Tay Ninh provinces. Also in Cambodia. 45,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Part of the Xtiêng 85,436 (2009 census) official ethnic community which includes Budeh Stieng [stt]. Population total all countries: 51,540. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Budíp, Northern Stieng, Rangah, Upper Stieng, Xa-Dieng, Xtieng Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau Comments: Part of the Xtiêng official ethnic community (85,436, 2009 census) which includes Budeh Stieng [stt]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Sui
[swi] Tuyen Quang Provimce, Chiem Hoa district. 120 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Lived in Viet Nam more than 150 years.

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Tai Daeng
[tyr] North central, Thanh Hoa Province, south of Sam Nuea. Also in Laos, Thailand, United States. 80,000 in Viet Nam (1995 census). Population total all countries: 105,000. Ethnic population: 100,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daeng, Môc-Châu, Red Tai, Tai Deng, Tai Rouge, Táy-Môc-Châu, Thai Dang, Thai Do Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of the Thái official ethnic community (1,550,423, 2009 census). Speakers in Viet Nam tend to identify with Tai Dam [blt] and deny they are Red Tai.

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Tai Dam
[blt] North, along Red and Black rivers; south, Lam Dòng Province, Tung Nghia; Dac Lac Province, Tho Thanh; Gia Lai Province, Pleiku; elsewhere. Also in Australia, China, France, Laos, Thailand, United States. 699,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 763,754. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Tai, Tai Do, Tai Noir, Táy-Dam, Thái Den Dialects: Táy Mu’ò’i (Meuay, Tai Mueai). Similar to Thai Song [soa] and Tai Dón [twh], but not inherently intelligible of Tai Dón. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of Thái official ethnic community (1,550,423, 2009 census), which also includes Tai Dón [twh] and Tai Daeng [tyr]. Officially included under Dai in China. Traditional religion.

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Tai Do
[tyj] North. 300 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tay Muoi, Tay Quy Chau, Tay Yo, Tay-Jo Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai

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Tai Dón
[twh] North, along Red and Black rivers; some in the south, mainly Lam Dòng Province, Tung Nghia. Also in China, France, Laos. 280,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 495,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Blanc, Tai Kao, Tai Lai, Táy Khao, Thái Tráng, White Tai Dialects: Not intelligible of Tai Dam [blt]. Lao [lao] influenced the speech of some Tai Dón. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of the Thái official ethnic community (1,550,423, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tai Hang Tong
[thc] North. 10,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hàng Tong, Tày Muòng Dialects: Related to White Thai [twh], Tai Dam [blt], and Tay Thanh [tmm]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of Thái official ethnic community.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] Northern. 70,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 95,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Tai Thanh
[tmm] North, Thanh Hoa and Nghe An provinces. 20,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Man Thanh, Táy Thanh, Thanh Dialects: Related to White Thai [twh], Tai Dam [blt], and Tai Hang Tong [thc]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of Thái official ethnic community.

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Takua
[tkz] Quang Nam and Quang Ngai provinces. 6,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langya, Quang Tin Katu Dialects: Most similar to Cua [cua] and Kayong [kxy]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Takua Comments: Other Part of the Co official ethnic community (33,817, 2009 census) which includes Cua [cua].

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Ta’oih, Upper
[tth] Thua Thien-Hue and Quang Tri provinces. 19,000 in Viet Nam (2002). 70% monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kantua, Ta Hoi, Tà-Oi, Tau Oi, Toi-Oi, T-Oy Dialects: Ha’aang (Sa’ang), Kamuan’, Leem, Palee’n, Pasoom. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih Comments: Tà Ôi is an official ethnic community (43,886, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tày
[tyz] Central and northeast, near China border, Cao Bàng, Lang Son, Hà Giang, Tuye Quang, Bác Thái, Quang Ninh, Hà Bac, and Lam Dòng provinces; south in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Possibly in Laos. Also in France, United States. 1,630,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ngan, Phen, Tai Tho, “Thô” (pej.), Thu Lao, T’o Dialects: Central Tày, Eastern Tày, Northern Tày, Southern Tày, Tày Bao Lac, Tày Trung Khanh, Thu Lao. Similar to Nung [nut]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Tày is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tay Boi
[tas] Used in the major ports of French Indo-China. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Annamite French, Tay Boy, Vietnamese Pidgin French Classification: Pidgin, French based

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Tày Sa Pa
[tys] Lao Cai Province, Muong Khuong district. 300 (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Sa Pa Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Tày Tac
[tyt] Northwest, east Son La Province, Muong Tâc district. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Related to Tai Dam [blt], Tai Dón [twh], and Tai Daeng [tyr]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of the Thái official ethnic community. Women’s blouses similar to that worn by White Tai women of Lai Châu, but without silver buttons.

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Tho
[tou] North Nghe An Province, highland areas. Cuoi Cham dialect: Tan Ky district, Tan Hop commune. 68,400 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 75,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuoi, Cuoi Cham, Ho Muong Meridional, Keo Dialects: Cuoi Cham (Uy Lo), Mon. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi Comments: Tho is an official ethnic community. Associated culturally with other principal local ethnonyms Keo, Mon, Cuoi, Ho, Dan, Lai-Ly Ha, and Tay Poong.

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Thu Lao
[tyl] Central and northeast, near China border, Cao Bàng, Lang Son, Hà Giang, Tuyen Quang, Bác Thái, Quang Ninh, Hà Bac, and Lam Dòng provinces; south in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Possibly in Laos. 200 (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Todrah
[tdr] Kon Tum Province, northeast of Kon Tum city, Kon Hring to Kon Braih. 6,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Didra, Didrah, Kodra, Modra, Podra, Todrá Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community. Didra may be a separate language.

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Trieng
[stg] Mainly Kon Tum and Quang Nam provinces. 15,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dgiéh, Giang Ray, Gie-Trieng, Pin, Strieng, Talieng, Tareh, Ta-Rieng, Treng Dialects: May be related to Jeh [jeh] or Talieng [tdf] in Laos. May be the same language as Talieng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West Comments: Part of the Gié Triêng official ethnic community (50,962, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ts’ün-Lao
[tsl] Northwest, Lai Chau Province. 10,000 (1993 D. Van). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Lao is an official ethnic community (14,928, 2009 census), with associated names Lào Bóc and Lào Noi. Traditional religion.

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Vietnamese
[vie] Widespread. Also in Australia, Cambodia, Canada, China, Taiwan, Côte d’Ivoire, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Laos, Martinique, Netherlands, New Caledonia, Norway, Philippines, Russian Federation, Senegal, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, Vanuatu. 65,800,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 67,762,060. Ethnic population: 73,600,000 (2009 census). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Annamese, Ching, Gin, Jing, Kinh, Viet Dialects: Central Vietnamese (Hue), Northern Vietnamese (Hanoi, Tonkinese), Southern Vietnamese. Numerous dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese Comments: Kinh is an official ethnic community. Buddhist, Christian.

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Zhuang, Dai
[zhd] Lao Cai Province, Muong Khuong district. 200 in Viet Nam (2007). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Thu Lao, Tu, Tuliao, Tuzu, Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Daoist, Buddhist (Mahayana).

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Zhuang, Yang
[zyg] North, Cao Bang Province, Ha Quang district. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thu Lao, Tu, Tuliao, Tuzu, Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Officially classified within Nung nationality. Traditional religion, Daoist, Buddhist (Mahayana).

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Zhuang, Yongnan
[zyn] Cao Bang Province, Quang Ha district, Phuc Sen village; Doan Khon, Quoc Phong, Quoc Dan, Chi Thao, and Tu Do communes 37 km from Cao Bang city; Ha Quang district, Noi Thon commune; Ba Be district, Cao Che commune. 10,000 in Viet Nam (2000 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Long An, Long’an, Southern Zhuang, The Yongnan Vernacular of the Southern Dialect of the Zhuang Language, Zhuangyu nanbu fangyan Yongnan tuyu Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Part of the Nùng official ethnic community (968,800, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Daoist, Buddhist (Mahayana).

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Zhuang, Zuojiang
[zzj] Lang Son Province. 340,000 in Viet Nam (2000 census). About 50% monolingual. Ethnic population: Over 850,000 Nung nationality people in Viet Nam in 2000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nung Chao Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Part of the Nùng official ethnic community (968,800, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Daoist, Buddhist (Mahayana).

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