Viet Nam

Print
Akha
[ahk] Dien Bien, Lao Cai, and Lai Chau provinces. 1,260 in Viet Nam (1995 ISEAS). Ethnic population: Hà Nhì ethnic group 21,725 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ha Nhi. Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Ikaw, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Ikor, Ko, Yani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Arem
[aem] Quang Binh province, Bo Trach district, Tan Trach, 1 or 2 families of Thuong Trach. 20 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Ethnic population: 100 (Ferlus 1996). Total users in all countries: 270. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized ethnic group: Chut. Alternate Names: A-Rem, Chombrau, Chomrau, Kri, Umo. Dialects: Other dialects or ethnic names: Tu-vang, Pa-leng, Xo-lang, To-hung, Chà-cu, Tac-cui, Nhà Chút. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Comments: Part of Chút official ethnic community, including Sách, Mày Ruc, and Arem.

More Information

Bahnar
[bdq] Gia Lai, Binh Dinh, and Kon Tum provinces, central highlands. 158,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ba Na. Alternate Names: Bana. Dialects: Tolo, Golar, Alakong (A-La Cong), Jolong (Gio-Lang, Y-Lang), Bahnar Bonom (Bomam), Kontum, Krem. Other dialects or ethnic names: Roh, Kpang Cong. Reportedly most similar to Alak [alk], Tampuan [tpu], and Romam [rmx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. Comments: Ba Na is an official ethnic community 227,715 (2009 census) that also includes Rengao [ren]. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Brao
[brb] Kon Tum province, Cambodia-Laos border area. 310 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 400 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Brau. Alternate Names: Braou, Brau, Brou, Lave, Laveh, Love, Proue, Rawe. Dialects: Palau. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Brâu is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Bru, Eastern
[bru] Quang Binh, Quang Tri, and Dac Lac provinces. 55,600 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Bru Van Kieu. Alternate Names: Brou, Bru, Quang Tri Bru, Van Kieu. Dialects: Mangkong, Tri. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So. Comments: Bru Vân Kiêu is an official ethnic community of 74,506 (2009 census) that also includes Khua [xhv]. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Cao Lan
[mlc] San Chay mainly in Tuyen Quang, Lang Son, Bac Kan, and Thai Nguyen provinces; scattered in Yen Bai, Vinh Phuc, Phu Tho, Bac Giang, and Quang Ninh provinces. 169,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: San Chay. Alternate Names: Cao, Caolan, Lan-Sán Chi, “Mán” (pej.), “Man Cao-Lan” (pej.), San Chay, San Chi, Sán-Chi. Dialects: None known. Maintain some features from Northern Thai [nod]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Sán Chay is an official ethnic community. Possibly came from China in the 19th century. May speak a form of Yue Chinese [yue]. Traditional religion.

More Information

Cham, Eastern
[cjm] Binh Thuan, Dong Nai, and Ninh Thuan provinces: Ho Chi Minh City. 72,900 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007a). All Cham: 161,729 (2009 census) but as many as 250,000 (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 73,790. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Cham. Alternate Names: Bhamam, Chiem, Chiem Thành, Tjam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham. Comments: Official Cham ethnic group also includes Western Cham [cja] and Haroi [hro]. Remnants of a once-powerful kingdom. Austro-Asiatic influences. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

More Information

Cham, Western
[cja] An Giang and Tay Ninh provinces; Ho Chi Minh City. 25,000 in Viet Nam (2007). All Cham: 161,729 (2009 census) but as many as 250,000 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Cham. Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, Chiem, New Cham, Tjam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham. Comments: Official Cham ethnic group includes Eastern Cham [cjm] and Haroi [hro]. Differs a bit from Eastern Cham [cjm] of central Viet Nam. Muslim.

More Information

Chinese, Yue
[yue] Mekong river delta area, Soc Trang, Can Tho, Vinh Long, Tra Vinh, Dong Nai, and Kien Giang provinces; Ho Chi Minh, Ha Noi, and Hai Phong cities; north Viet Nam-China border regions. 862,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Hoa. Alternate Names: Chinese Nung, Ha Xa Phang, Hai Nam, Han, Hoa, Kién, Liem Chau, Lowland Nung, Minh Huong, Nung, Phúc, Quang Dong, Samg Phang, Suòng Phóng, Trièu Chau. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Part of the official Hoa 823,071 (2009 census) ethnic community. Renowned fighters. Came from Canton, China as railroad workers and soldiers several decades ago. Distinct from Nung in the Tai family or Tibeto-Burman Nung (Nu) of China and Myanmar. Daoist, Christian.

More Information

Chrau
[crw] Dong Nai, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, and Binh Thuan provinces. 7,000 (1995 census), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 26,900 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Cho Ro. Alternate Names: Chauro, Choro, Ro, Tamun. Dialects: Chalah, Chalun, Dor (Doro), Jro, Mro, Prang, Tamun, Vajieng, Voqtwaq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau. Comments: Cho Ro is an official ethnic community. ‘Chrau’, mountain dweller. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Chru
[cje] Binh Thuan, Lam Dong, and Ninh Thuan provinces: inland from Malam area. 19,300 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Chu Ru. Alternate Names: Cadoe Loang, Choru, Chrau Hma, Chu, Chu Ru, Churu, Cru, Kru, Seyu. Dialects: Rai, Noang (La-Dang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern. Comments: Chu Ru is an official ethnic community.

More Information

Chut
[scb] Quang Binh province, Thuong Hoa, Hoa Son, Dan Hoa communes, near Laos border at the same latitude as Mu Gia Pass. 1,050 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007a). 450 May, 95 Ruc, 500 Sach. Ethnic population: 6,020 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 1,250. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized ethnic group: Chut. Alternate Names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang. Dialects: Sach, May, Ruc (Kha Mu Gia, Tac Cui). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Comments: Chút is an official ethnic community which includes Arem, Mày, Sách, and Ruc. Traditional religion.

More Information

Côông
[cnc] Lai Chau province: Muong Te district, east of Sila, south of Mang; Ban Nam Luong, 4 villages; Kan Ho commune, Bo Lech; Nam Khao commune; Muong Toong commune, Ban Bo village; Dien Bien province: Muong Nhé district, Nam Ke and Pa Thom communes, near the Lao border. 2,030 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Cong. Alternate Names: Khoong, “Xa Coong” (pej.), “Xa Xam” (pej.), “Xa Xeng” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Quite different from Akha [ahk], Lahu [lhu], and Sila [slt] of this location. North and south varieties in Viet Nam are different, but mutually intelligible. Bisu [bzi], Pyen [pyy], and Mpi [mpz] are closely related. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Cong is an official ethnic community.

More Information

Cua
[cua] Quang Ngai, Kon Tum, and Quang Nam provinces. 12,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Co. Alternate Names: Bòng Mieu, Bong Miew. Dialects: Kol (Co, Col, Cor, Dot, Kor, Yot), Traw (Dong, Tràu). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, East Bahnaric. Comments: Part of the Co official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

En
[enc] Cao Bang province, Ho Quang district, Noi Thon village, 20 km east of Ho Quang city. 200 (1998 J. Edmondson). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nung Ven. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Laha [lha], Qabiao [laq] (Laqua), Lachi [lbt], Gelao [giq], Hlai [lic]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra.

More Information

Gelao, Green
[giq] Ha Giang province, Yen Minh district, Dong Van district, Pho La and Dong Van communes. 300 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized ethnic group: Co Lao. Alternate Names: Cape Draping Gelao, Hakhi, Hoki Gelao, Klau, Qau. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra. Comments: Part of the Co Lao 2,636 (2009 census) official ethnic community. Not mutually intelligible with Red Gelao (2002 J. Edmondson). Traditional religion.

More Information

Gelao, Red
[gir] Ha Giang province: Yen Minh district. 20 in Viet Nam. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized ethnic group: Co Lao. Alternate Names: Vandu Gelao, Voa Dê. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra. Comments: Part of the Co Lao 2,636 (2009 census) official ethnic community. Not mutually intelligible with White Gelao [giw] (2002 J. Edmondson). Traditional religion.

More Information

Gelao, White
[giw] Ha Giang province, Yen Minh district, Pho La and Dong Van. 20 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized ethnic group: Co Lao. Alternate Names: Southwestern Gelao, Telue, Tú Du. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra. Comments: Non-indigenous. Part of the Co Lao 2,636 (2009 census). Not mutually intelligible with Red Gelao [gir] (2002 J. Edmondson). Traditional religion.

More Information

Giáy
[pcc] Lao Cai, Yen Bai, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, and Lai Chau provinces. 49,100 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 58,600 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Bo Y. Alternate Names: Bo-I, Bouyei, Bo-Y, Buyi, Chang Chá, Chung Cha, Cùi Chu, Dang, Dioi, Giai, Giang, Nhaang, Niang, Nyang, Pau Thin, Pú Nà, Pui, Pu-I, Pu-Nam, Puyi, Sa, Trong Ggia, Tu-Dìn, Xa Chung Chá, Yai, Yay. Dialects: Tu-Dí, Nhang, Pú Nà. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern. Comments: Giáy and Bo Y are both official ethnic communities. Traditional religion, Daoist.

More Information

Haiphong Sign Language
[haf] Hai Phong. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to sign languages in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand. Classification: Sign language.

More Information

Halang
[hal] Kon Tum province. 13,500 in Viet Nam (2000). Total users in all countries: 17,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xo Dang. Alternate Names: Koyong, Salang. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Jeh [jeh]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang. Comments: Part of the Xo Dang 165,501 (2009 census) official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

More Information

Halang Doan
[hld] Kon Tum province: between Sedang [sed] and Cua [cua] language areas. 2,000 in Viet Nam (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Total users in all countries: 4,350. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xo Dang. Alternate Names: Doan, Duan, Halang Duan. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Takua [tkz], Kayong [kxy], Halang [hal], and Rengao [ren]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan. Comments: Part of the Xo Dang 165,501 (2009 census) official ethnic community.

More Information

Hani
[hni] North, Lai Chau and Lao Cai provinces. 1 variety is east, 1 west of Muong Te city. 17,500 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 21,700 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ha Nhi. Alternate Names: Ha Nhi, Hànhì, Haw, U Ní, Uni, Xá U Ní, Xauni. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Hà Nhì is an official ethnic community in Viet Nam and China. 2 similar varieties in Viet Nam differ only in phonology and lexicon. Traditional religion.

More Information

Hanoi Sign Language
[hab] Scattered. Ha Noii. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to sign languages in Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand. Classification: Sign language.

More Information

Haroi
[hro] Gia Lai and Phu Yen provinces. 35,000 (Bradley 2007a). All Cham: 161,729 (2009 census) but as many as 250,000 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Cham. Alternate Names: Aroi, Bahnar Cham, Hoi, Hroi, Hroy, Hrway. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal. Comments: Official Cham ethnic group also includes Eastern Cham [cjm] and Western Cham [cja].

More Information

Hmong Daw
[mww] North, Son La, Dien Bien, Lao Cai, and Lai Chau provinces; others resettled in south. 1,068,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Hmong. Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Mán Tráng, Meo Kao, White Lum, White Meo. Dialects: Hmong Xi (Meo Do). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Part of the H’mông official ethnic community. Largely intelligible with Hmong Njua [hnj]. No significant difference between White and Striped (Thailand) Hmong. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Hmong Dô
[hmv] Ha Giang province, Dong Van and Meo Vae districts; Lao Cai Province, Bac Ha district. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Hmong Daw [mww]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Hmong Don
[hmf] Hoa Binh, Yen Bai, and Son La provinces. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Hmong. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Part of the H’mông official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Hmong Njua
[hnj] Son La, Nghe An, Dien Bien, Lao Cai, Thanh Hoa, Lai Chau, and Hoa Binh provinces; scattered areas. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mong Leng. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian.

More Information

Ho Chi Minh City Sign Language
[hos] Ho Chi Minh City. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to sign languages in Hanoi, Hai Phong, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand. Classification: Sign language.

More Information

Hre
[hre] Binh Dinh, Gia Lai, Kon Tum, and Quang Ngai provinces. 94,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 127,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Hre. Alternate Names: Cham-Re, Chom, Davach, Davak, Hrey, Moi, Moi Da Vach, Moi Luy, Tachom. Dialects: Creq (Kare, Kre), Hre, Rabah (Tava). Reportedly most similar to Sedang [sed]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang. Comments: Hrê is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Hung
[hnu] Nghe An province, Tuong Duong district, Tam Thai commune, Pong; Con Cuong district, Mon Son and Luc Da communes, Dan Lai and Ly Ha. 700 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized ethnic group: Tho. Alternate Names: Cuói, K’katiam-Pong-Houk. Dialects: Pong (Khong Kheng, Phong, Pong 1, Pong 2, Poong, Tay Pong, Toum Phong, Xa La Vang), Dan Lai, Ly Ha. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi. Comments: Part of the Tho official ethnic community.

More Information

Iu Mien
[ium] Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Lai Chau, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Phu Tho, Quang Ninh, Son La, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Phuc, and Yen Bai provinces, scattered settlements in northern regions; Dac Lak province south. 350,000 in Viet Nam (1999 H. Purnell). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Dao. Alternate Names: Dao Do, Dao Thanh Phan, Dìu, “Dong” (pej.), Highland Yao, Kim Mien, “Mán” (pej.), Mien, Myen, Red Dao, “Trai” (pej.), “Xá” (pej.), Yao, Yao Kimmien, Yao Ogang, Yu Mien. Dialects: Dao Do, Deo Tien, Dao Lan Tien, Dao Lo Gang, Cham, Quan Chet, Quan Trang. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Comments: Part of the Dao 751,067 (2009 census) official ethnic community along with Kim Mun. Daoist, traditional religion.

More Information

Jarai
[jra] Gia Lai, Kon Tum, and Binh Dinh provinces; some in Dak Lak province. 242,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 411,000 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 262,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Gia Rai. Alternate Names: Chor, Cho-Rai, Chrai, Djarai, Gia-Rai, Gio-Rai, Jorai, Mthur. Dialects: Puan, Hodrung (Hdrung), Jhue, Aráp, Habau (Ho-Bau), To-Buan, Sesan, Chuty, Pleikly, Golar. Cambodian dialects are all very similar, all displaying some significant differences with dialects in Viet Nam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands. Comments: Gia Rai is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Jeh
[jeh] Kon Tum and Quang Nam provinces. 15,200 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 25,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Die, Gie, Yeh. Dialects: Jeh Bri La (Bri-La), Jeh Mang Ram. Related to Halang [hal]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang. Comments: Part of the Gié Triêng offical ethnic community (50,962, 2009 census) which includes Trieng [stg].

More Information

Katu, Eastern
[ktv] Quang Nam, Thua Thien-Hue, and Da Nang provinces. 50,500 (1999 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Co Tu. Alternate Names: High Katu. Dialects: None known. Western Katu [kuf] is a different language with a different orthography in Laos. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh. Comments: Part of the Co Tu official ethnic community (61,588, 2009 census) which includes Phuong [phg]. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Katua
[kta] Kon Tum province, Mang Buk area, west of Kayong [kxy] language area. 4,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xo Dang. Alternate Names: Ca Tua. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric. Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community (165,501, 2009 census).

More Information

Kayong
[kxy] Kon Tum province, remote mountains; also Quang Ngai province. 25,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xo Dang. Alternate Names: Ca Giong, Kagiuong, Katang. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Takua [tkz] and Cua [cua]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East. Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community (165,501, 2009 census).

More Information

Kháng
[kjm] North, Son La, Dien Bien, Lai Chau, and Lao Cai provinces. 13,800 (2009 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized ethnic group: Khang. Alternate Names: Bren, Hang, Khaang, Ksakautenh, Pouteng, Putenh, Quang Lam, Tay Hay, Tayhay, Teng, Theng, Xa, Xa Ai, Xa Bung, Xa Dang, Xa Don, Xa Hoc, Xá Khao, Xa Xua. Dialects: Kháng Clau, Kháng Ai (Sakau, Xa Cau, Xa Khao). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Bit-Khang. Comments: Kháng is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

More Information

Khao
[xao] Northwest; Son La and Dien Bien provinces, near ra River, north of Pa Ma. 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xihn Mun. Dialects: None known. Related to Bit [bgk] in Laos and China. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao. Comments: Part of the Xinh Mun official ethnic community (23,278, 2009 census).

More Information

Khmer, Central
[khm] Hau Giang, Tra Vinh, Vinh Long, Kien Giang, An Giang, Bac Lieu, Ca Mau, Bin Duong, Can Tho, Dong Thap, Long An, Soc Trang, Bin Phuoc, and Tay Ninh provinces; Ho Chi Minh City. 1,060,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 1,260,000 (2009 survey). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized ethnic group: Khmer Krom. Alternate Names: Cambodian, Cu Tho, Cur Cul, Khmer Nam Bo, Kho Me, Khome, Krom, “Viet Goc Mien” (pej.). Dialects: Central Khmer, Southern Khmer. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer. Comments: Kho Me is an official ethnic community. Buddhist, Christian.

More Information

Khmu
[kjg] Dien Bien, Son La, Lai Chau, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, and Yen Bai provinces. 56,500 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 72,900 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Kho Mu. Alternate Names: Cam Mu, Kha Cau, Khamu, Kho Mu, Khomu, Kmhmu, Mun Xen, Xa Cau. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’. Comments: Kho Mú is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Khua
[xhv] West central; Quang Binh province, southeast of Giap Tam. 3,000 in Viet Nam (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Total users in all countries: 5,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Bru Van Kieu. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So. Comments: Part of the Bru Vân Kieu official ethnic community (74,506, 2009 census). Distinct from Cua [cua].

More Information

Kim Mun
[mji] Bac Giang, Ha Giang, Lao Cai, Quang Ninh, Tuyen Quang, and Yen Bai provinces. 170,000 in Viet Nam (1999 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coc Mun, Dao Ao Dai, Dao Lam Dinh, Dao Quan Trang, Dao Thanh Y, Great Tunic Yao, Jinmen, Kem di mun, Lan Ten, Lanten, Lantin, Lowland Yao, “Man Lan-Tien” (pej.), Mun, Red Trouser Yao. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Comments: Non-indigenous. Part of Dao official ethnic community (751,067, 2009 census). Lao Cai variety northwest of Lao City and Ha Giang at Na Khe village are very different phonetically.

More Information

Koho
[kpm] Binh Thuan, Dak Nong, Dong Nai, Lam Dong and Ninh Thuan provinces. 166,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Co Ho. Alternate Names: Caho, Co Ho, Coho, Kohor. Dialects: Chil (Kil), Tring (Trinh), Sre, Kalop, Sop, Laya, Rion, Nop (Tu-Lop, Xre Nop), Tala (To La), Kodu (Co-Don), Pru, Lac (Lach, Lat). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre. Comments: Co Ho is an official ethnic community. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kucong
[lkc] Lai Chau province, Muang Te district. 6,870 in Viet Nam (2007). Total users in all countries: 46,870. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized ethnic group: La Hu. Alternate Names: Cosung, Lahlu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Lahu [lhu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Part of the La Hu official ethnic community (9,651, 2009 census).

More Information

Lachi
[lbt] Ha Giang province: west of Ha Giang in upper Clear River valley (Riviere Claire) on China border. Black Lachi in Manyou, Long-Haired Lachi in Manpeng. 5,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007a). 3,990 women, in 1,450 households (Liang 1990), including Black Lachi 2,500 in 550 households, Long-Haired Lachi 4,500 in 900 households. 10,800 for all La Chi in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 7,860 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 5,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: La Chi. Alternate Names: Cù Te, Cu-Tê, La Chi, Lachí, Laji, Lati, Lipulio, Mia, Tai Lati, Y, Y Pí, Y Póng, Y To. Dialects: Liputiõ (Black Lachi), Lipupi (Long-Haired Lachi). Related to Gelao. Lexical similarity: Long-Haired Lachi of Viet Nam: 80% with Flowery Lachi [lbt] of China, White Lachi [lwh] of Viet Nam: 30%–40% with the others, and should be considered a separate language, 36% with Gelao, 33% with Qabiao [laq], 22% with Dong [doc], 23% with Laka, 25% with Hlai [lic]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra. Comments: Part of the La Chí official ethnic community (13,158, 2009 census) which includes White Lachi [lwh]. ‘Red’, ‘Flowery’, refer to clothing color or other features of physical appearance. Traditional religion.

More Information

Lachi, White
[lwh] Ha Giang province: Manbang and Manmei. 1,600 (Liang 1990). 300 households. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized ethnic group: La Chi. Alternate Names: Lipupõ, White Lachi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30%–40% with other Lachi. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra. Comments: Part of the La Chí official ethnic community (13,158, 2009 census) which includes White Lachi [lwh].

More Information

Laghuu
[lgh] Northwest; Lao Cai province, Sa Pa district, Nam Sa village; 15 km south and east of Sa Pa City, in the valley below the highest mountain in Viet Nam, Phan Si Pan (3,198 m); small enclave in Son La province. 300 (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laopa, Xá Phó. Dialects: None known. Unknown relationship to Laopang [lbg] (Laopa) of Myanmar, also in the Lolo group. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

More Information

Laha
[lha] Lai Chau and Son La provinces: along Red and Black rivers. 5,690 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 8,180 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: La Ha. Alternate Names: Khlá, Khlá Don, Khlá Dung, Khlá Phlao, Klá Dong, La Ha, La Ha Ung, Laxa, Liik, Xá Chien, Xá Khao, Xá Lay. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Qabiao [laq]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra. Comments: La Ha is an official community who live together with the Thai and Kháng. Traditional religion.

More Information

Lahu
[lhu] Northwest border with Laos, Lai Chau province; Black Lahu north of Muong Te City near China border, at Ban Kiem Tra, Phu Nam Ma, Phu Nam Cau, and Phu Nam Ha; White Lahu in Muong Te, east of Nha Ca, 1 village. 9,650 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: La Hu. Alternate Names: Kaixien, Lahuna, Laku, Launa, Lohei, Mooso, Muhso, Mussar, Musso, Mussuh, Namen. Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Khucong, Musser Dam), Nyi (Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu), Shehleh, Lahu Phung (White Lahu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. La Hu is an official ethnic community. Distinct from Lahu Shi (Yellow Lahu) [lhi]. One source called them White Lahu. It is not clear if these are the same as Red Lahu, Black Lahu. Traditional religion.

More Information

Lao
[lao] 10,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 14,900 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

[khb] North, Lai Chau province, Tam Duong district, Ban Hon and Binh Lu communes; small border area, Lao Cai province. 4,960 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 5,600 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Lu. Alternate Names: Duon, Lue, Nhuon, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I, Tai Lu. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Lu is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

More Information

Maa
[cma] Lam Dong, Dong Nai, and Bin Phuoc provinces, widely scattered; possibly in Dac Nong province. 33,300 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 41,400 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ma. Alternate Names: Chauma, Che Ma, Ma, Ma Krung, Ma Ngan, Ma To, Ma Xop, Maaq. Dialects: Sometimes considered a Koho [kpm] dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre. Comments: An official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Maleng
[pkt] Ha Tinh province, Huong Khe district, Huong Lien commune; 2 or 3 villages bordering Laos, another southeast. Malieng dialect: Tuyen Hoa district, Thanh Hoa and Lam Hoa communes; Dan Hoa dialect: north Quang Binh province, Minh Hoa district. 200 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malang, Malieng. Dialects: Malieng (Pa Leng), Kha Phong (Kha Nam Om, Maleng Bro, Maleng Kari), Dan Hoa. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut.

More Information

Mang
[zng] Lai Chau province, Muong Te and Sin Ho districts, triangle-shaped area between Song Da (Black River) and the Nam Na: Nam Nghe, Nam Xung, Nam Ban, Ban Nam Voi, and other communities. 2,660 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 3,700 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 3,165. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Mang. Alternate Names: Ba’e, Chaman, Lá Vàng, Manbu, Mang U, Nieng Ó, Xá, Xá Mang, Xá Ó. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang. Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Mantsi
[nty] Ha Giang province, Meo Vac and Dong Van districts; also Cao Bang province. 1,100 (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Lo Lo. Alternate Names: Black Lolo, Flowery Lolo, Lolo, Red Mantsi. Dialects: None known. Called Southeast Vernacular, type of Yi. May be related to what is called Southeastern Yi or Guizhou Yi [yig] in China. Not intelligible with Sichuan Yi [iii] (Nosu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Part of the Lô Lô official ethnic community (4,541, 2009 census).

More Information

Mnong, Central
[cmo] Mainly Dak Nong, west Dak Lak, and Bin Phuoc provinces, southwest of the Rade. 32,500 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 70,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Mnong. Alternate Names: Budang, Budong, Bunong, Phanong, Pnong. Dialects: Préh (Pre), Biat (Bhiét), Bu Nar, Bu Rung, Dih Bri (Di-Pri), Bu Dang. Biat dialect may be a separate language related to Eastern Mnong [mng]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Comments: Part of the Mnông official ethnic community (102,741, 2009 census) which includes Eastern Mnong [mng] and Southern Mnong [mnn]. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Mnong, Eastern
[mng] Dak Lak, Dak Nong, and Lam Dong provinces, southeast of the Rade. 30,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Mnong. Dialects: Mnong Rolom (Ralam, Rlam, Rolam, Rolom), Mnong Gar (Gar), Mnong Kwanh, Chil. Biat dialect of Central Mnong [cmo] may be more similar to Eastern Mnong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Eastern Mnong. Comments: Part of the Mnông official ethnic community (102,741, 2009 census) which includes Central Mnong [cmo] and Southern Mnong [mnn].

More Information

Mnong, Southern
[mnn] Mostly Dak Nong and Bin Phuoc provinces, south of Central Mnong [cmo], north of Stieng [stt] language areas; some in Lam Dong province. 30,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Mnong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Comments: Part of the Mnông official ethnic community (102,741, 2009 census). Ra-Ong, Bu Sre, Bu Dip, and Kuenh are possibly subgroups.

More Information

Monom
[moo] East Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces. 6,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xo Dang. Alternate Names: Bonom, Menam, Monam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom. Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community (165,501, 2009 census).

More Information

Muong
[mtq] Mostly north central mountains, Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa, Phu Tho, Ha Noi, Yen Bai, Son La, and Ninh Binh provinces. 1,140,000 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 1,270,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Muong. Dialects: Thang, Wang, Mol, Mual, Moi 1, Boi Bi (Moi Bi), Ao Tá (Au Tá). Related to Chut [scb], May [scb], Ruc [scb], Arem [aem], and Aheu [thm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Comments: Muong is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Ná-Meo
[neo] Northwest Lang Son Province, Trang Dinh district, Cao Minh and Khuoi Phu Dao villages, Khanh Long hamlet; Cao Bang Province, Thach An district, Ca Liec village. 1,200 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Hmong. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Possible immigrants from Guangxi Province in China.

More Information

Nguôn
[nuo] Quang Binh province: An Duk, Ba Nuong, Kwi Dat, Tan Kieu, Than Long and 6 other villages. 1,000 (1995 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ngouan. Dialects: None known. Diffloth (1992) groups Nguôn as a separate language similar to Vietnamese [vie], but Tran (1996) and Ferlus (1996) group it with Muong [mtq]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong.

More Information

Nung
[nut] North, mainly Cao Bang, Lang Son, Bac Kan, Tuyen Quang, Ha Giang, Lao Cai and Thai Nguyen provinces; possibly in Ho Chi Minh City and other sothern locations. 969,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Ethnic population: 969,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Nung. Alternate Names: Bu-Nong, Highland Nung, Lungchow, Nong, Tai Nung, Tay, Tày Nùng. Dialects: Xuòng, Giang, Nùng An, Nùng Phan Slình (Nùng Fan Slihng), Nùng Cháo, Nùng Lòi, Nùng Qúy Rin (Guiren), Khen Lài, Nùng Inh. Reportedly similar to Tày [tyz]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Different from Chinese Nung [yue] (Cantonese). Nùng is an official ethnic community.

More Information

O’du
[tyh] Nghe An province: Tuong Duong district, Nga My commune. 300 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 380 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 950. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized ethnic group: O Du. Alternate Names: Haat, Hat, ’Iduh, O Du, “Tay Hat” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’. Comments: Official ethnic community. Call themselves O Du. Traditional religion.

More Information

Pa Di
[pdi] Lao Cai province: Muong Khuong district. 300 in Viet Nam. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Padi. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Pa-Hng
[pha] Small enclaves, Tuyen Quang and Ha Giang provinces. 6,810 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Ethnic population: 3,700 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Pa Then. Alternate Names: Baheng, Bahengmai, Pa Hng, Pà Hung, Pà Then, Paheng. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Pa-hng. Comments: Pà Then is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

More Information

Pacoh
[pac] Laos border, southern Quang Tri and western Thua Thien-Hue provinces. 16,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Total users in all countries: 32,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bo River Van Kieu, Paco, Pokoh. Dialects: Pahi (Ba-Hi), Ka’do, Kanah. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh. Comments: Part of the Tà Ôi official ethnic community (43,886, 2009 census). ‘Koh’ in Pacoh, mountain.

More Information

Phu Thai
[pht] North central, Ha Tinh and Nghe An provinces; also in Laos. 209,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Thai. Alternate Names: Phutai, Putai, Puthai, Puthay. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Part of Thái official ethnic community.

More Information

Phula
[phh] Lao Cai Province, near Lao Cai City; Hà Giang Province, Xin Mun district, 1 village; Lai Chau and Son La provinces. 5,000 in Viet Nam (Pelkey 2008). Ethnic population: 11,000 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 10,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Phu La. Alternate Names: Fu Khla, Phu Kha, Phu Khla, Phu La. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Phù Lá is an official ethnic community.

More Information

Phuong
[phg] Thua Thien-Hue Province, southeast of Pacoh [pac] language area; possibly some in areas further southeast. 15,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ktu. Alternate Names: Phuang, Phuong Catang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh. Comments: Part of Katu official ethnic community.

More Information

Puoc
[puo] North, Lai Chau and Son La provinces, Laos border area. 18,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Total users in all countries: 26,570. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xinh Mun. Alternate Names: Kha Puhoc, Ksing Mul, Ksingmul, Mun, Pua, Puhoc, Puok, Sing, Xin Mul, Xinh Mul, Xinh-Mun. Dialects: None known. Related to Kháng [kjm] and Phong-Kniang [pnx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul. Comments: Part of the Xinh Mun official ethnic community (23,278, 2009 census).

More Information

Qabiao
[laq] Ha Giang province: Dunshi, Pugao, Pula, Pubang, and Manong; Yên Minh and Mèo Vac districts; Dông Van district, Phô Là and Sung Chang villages. 690 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Ethnic population: Most of the ethnic group use the language (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 708. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Pu Peo. Alternate Names: Bendi Lolo, Ka Bao, Ka Beo, Ka Biao, Laqua, Lolo, Pen Ti, Pu Péo, Pubiao, Pupeo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 38% with Gelao, 33% with Lachi [lbt], 30% with Northern Zhuang, 29% with Dong, 26% with Hlai [lic], 10% with Hmong, 7% with Iu Mien [ium]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra. Comments: Pu Péo is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

More Information

Rade
[rad] Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Gia Lai, Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa provinces, Banmethuot area. 177,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 331,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: E De. Alternate Names: De, E-De, Edeh, Raday, Rde, Rhade. Dialects: Adham (A-Dham), Bih, Blo, Kodrao (Kdrao), Krung 1, Ndhur (Mdhur), Rde Kpa (Kpa). Bih (L1 pop. 1,000) may be a separate language. Krung 1 dialect is different from the Bahnaric language Kru’ng 2 [krr], in Cambodia. Other dialect or ethnic group names are: Ktul, Dlie, Rue, E-pan, Dong Kay, Arul, Kah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands. Comments: Ê Dê is an official ethnic community. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Rengao
[ren] Kon Tum Province, northwest of Dak to southeast of Kontum city between Sedang and Bahnar. 18,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ba Na. Alternate Names: Ro-Ngao. Dialects: Western Rengao, Sedang-Rengao, Bahnar-Rengao. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Rengao. Comments: Part of the Ba Na official ethnic community (227,716, 2009 census).

More Information

Roglai, Cacgia
[roc] Ninh Thuan Province, northeast of Phan Rang on the coast. 3,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ra Glai. Alternate Names: Ra-Glai. Dialects: None known. Considerably different from other Roglai varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham.

More Information

Roglai, Northern
[rog] Ninh Thuan, Dak Lak, Binh Thuan, Khanh Hoa, and Lam Dong provinces, in the mountains west and south of Nhatrang; some near Dalat. 52,900 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ra Glai. Alternate Names: Adlai, La-Oang, Noang, Radlai, Ra-Glai, Rang Glai, Rayglay. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham. Comments: Part of the Ra Glai official ethnic community (122,245, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Roglai, Southern
[rgs] South, Binh Thuan, Khanh Hoa, and Ninh Thuan provinces. 41,000 (1999 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ra Glai. Alternate Names: Rai. Dialects: Rai. Reportedly similar to Chru [cje] and Northern Roglai [rog]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham. Comments: Part of the Ra Glai official ethnic community (122,245, 2009 census). Traditional religion.

More Information

Romam
[rmx] Kon Tum Province, Mo Rai commune, Le village. Near Viet Nam-Cambodia border. 200 (2013 SIL). Ethnic population: 440 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ro Mam. Alternate Names: Ro Mam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. Comments: Kaco’ [xkk] is possibly the same or a closely related language in Cambodia. Ro Mam is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion.

More Information

Sedang
[sed] Kon Tum, Quang Nam, and Quang Ngai provinces. 97,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 97,520. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: So Dang. Alternate Names: Cadong, Dang, Hadang, Hdang, Hotea, Hoteang, Kmrang, Rotea, Roteang, Tang, Xa, Xodang. Dialects: Central Sedang, Greater Sedang, Dak Sut Sedang, Kotua Sedang, Kon Hring Sedang. Reportedly most similar to Hre [hre]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang. Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community (169,501, 2009 census). Sakau or Xa Cau may be an alternate name. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Sila
[slt] Dien Bien province: Muong Nhé district, Chung Chai commune; Lai Chau province: Muong Tè district, Kan Ho commune, Ban Xeo Hai village, on the Black river. 710 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Most members of the ethnic group speak the language (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Si La. Alternate Names: Sida. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Si La is an official ethnic community who say they came from Laos. Traditional religion.

More Information

Sinicized Miao
[hmz] Ha Giang province. 3 villages. 2,000 in Viet Nam (Hattaway 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hmong Shua. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

More Information

Stieng, Budeh
[stt] Bin Phuoc province, south Stieng area. 40,000 (2009 census). Part of the Xtiêng 85,436 (2009 census) official ethnic community which includes Bulo Stieng [sti]. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xtieng. Alternate Names: Lower Stieng, Southern Stieng. Dialects: None known. Different enough from Bulo Stieng [sti] that intelligibility is not functional. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric. Comments: Part of the Xtiêng official ethnic community (85,436, 2009 census) which includes Bulo Stieng [sti].

More Information

Stieng, Bulo
[sti] Bin Phuoc and Dak Nong provinces. 45,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Part of the Xtiêng 85,436 (2009 census) official ethnic community which includes Budeh Stieng [stt]. Total users in all countries: 51,540. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xtieng. Alternate Names: Budíp, Northern Stieng, Rangah, Upper Stieng, Xa-Dieng, Xtieng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau. Comments: Part of the Xtiêng official ethnic community (85,436, 2009 census) which includes Budeh Stieng [stt]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sui
[swi] Tuyen Quang provimce, Chiem Hoa district. 120 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Non-indigenous. Lived in Viet Nam more than 150 years.

More Information

Tai Daeng
[tyr] Hoa Binh and Son La provinces: Thanh Hoa province, south of Sam Nuea: Yen Bai province, in a small area. 80,000 in Viet Nam (1995 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 105,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Thai. Alternate Names: Daeng, Môc-Châu, Red Tai, Tai Deng, Tai Rouge, Táy-Môc-Châu, Thai Dang, Thai Do. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Part of the Thái official ethnic community (1,550,423, 2009 census). Speakers in Viet Nam tend to identify with Tai Dam [blt] and deny they are Red Tai.

More Information

Tai Dam
[blt] North, along Red and Black rivers, Son La, Dien Bien, Yen Bai, Lai Chau, Lao Cai, and Phu Tho provinces; south, Lam Dong province, Tung Nghia; Dac Lak province, Tho Thanh; Gia Lai province, Pleiku; elsewhere. 699,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 762,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Thai. Alternate Names: Black Tai, Tai Do, Tai Noir, Táy-Dam, Thái Den. Dialects: Táy Mu’ò’i (Meuay, Tai Mueai). Reportedly similar to Thai Song [soa] and Tai Dón [twh], but not inherently intelligible of Tai Dón. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Part of Thái official ethnic community (1,550,423, 2009 census), which also includes Tai Dón [twh] and Tai Daeng [tyr]. Officially included under Dai in China. Traditional religion.

More Information

Tai Dón
[twh] North, mainly along Red and Black rivers, Lai Chau, Dien Bien, Lao Cai, and Son La provinces; some in the south, Lam Dòng province, Tung Nghia. 280,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Total users in all countries: 495,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Thai. Alternate Names: Tai Blanc, Tai Kao, Tai Lai, Táy Khao, Thái Tráng, White Tai. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of Tai Dam [blt]. Lao [lao] influenced the speech of some Tai Dón. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Part of the Thái official ethnic community (1,550,423, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Buddhist.

More Information

Tai Nüa
[tdd] Son La province: near the Laos border area. 70,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 95,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Tai Pao
[tpo] North, Nghe An province. 10,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Thai. Alternate Names: Hàng Tong, Tai Hang Tong, Tai Paw, Tày Muòng, Thai Muong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai.

More Information

Tai Thanh
[tmm] Nghe An and Thanh Hoa provinces. 20,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Thai. Alternate Names: Tai Man Thanh, Táy Thanh, Thanh. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

More Information

Tai Yo
[tyj] North, Nghe An province. 300 in Viet Nam (2002). Total users in all countries: 7,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Do, Tay Muoi, Tay Quy Chau, Tay Yo, Tay-Jo, Thai Muong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai.

More Information

Takua
[tkz] Quang Nam and Quang Ngai provinces. 6,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Co. Alternate Names: Langya, Quang Tin Katu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Cua [cua] and Kayong [kxy]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East. Comments: Other Part of the Co official ethnic community (33,817, 2009 census) which includes Cua [cua].

More Information

Ta’oih, Upper
[tth] Thua Thien-Hue and Quang Tri provinces. 19,000 in Viet Nam (2002). 13,300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kantua, Ta Hoi, Tà-Oi, Tau Oi, Toi-Oi, T-Oy. Dialects: Pasoom, Kamuan’, Palee’n, Leem, Ha’aang (Sa’ang). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih. Comments: Tà Ôi is an official ethnic community (43,886, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tày
[tyz] Northeast of Ha Noi city, near China border, widespread; 15 provinces, possibly in Laos. 1,630,000 in Viet Nam (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Tay. Alternate Names: Ngan, Phen, Tai Tho, “Thô” (pej.), Thu Lao, T’o. Dialects: Central Tày, Eastern Tày, Southern Tày, Northern Tày, Tày Trung Khanh, Thu Lao, Tày Bao Lac. Reportedly similar to Nung [nut]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Tày is an official ethnic community. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tay Boi
[tas] Also known as Vietnamese Pidgin French, spoken in French colonial households between male Vietnamese servants and their employers; scattered, probably mostly urban; no longer spoken. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Annamite French, Tay Boy, Vietnamese Pidgin French. Classification: Pidgin, French based.

More Information

Tày Sa Pa
[tys] Lao Cai province, Muong Khuong district. 300 (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Sa Pa. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

More Information

Tày Tac
[tyt] Son La province: Muong Tâc district. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Thai. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Part of the Thái official ethnic community. Women’s blouses similar to that worn by White Tai women of Lai Châu, but without silver buttons.

More Information

Tho
[tou] North Nghe An province, highland areas, Cuoi Cham dialect in Tan Ky district, Tan Hop commune; also in Thanh Hoa province. 68,400 (1999 census). Ethnic population: 75,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Tho. Alternate Names: Cuoi, Cuoi Cham, Ho Muong Meridional, Keo. Dialects: Cuoi Cham (Uy Lo), Mon. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi. Comments: Tho is an official ethnic community. Associated culturally with other principal local ethnonyms Keo, Mon, Cuoi, Ho, Dan, Lai-Ly Ha, and Tay Poong.

More Information

Thu Lao
[tyl] Far north, near China border, Lao Cai Province; possibly in Laos. 200 (2002 J. Edmondson). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Todrah
[tdr] Kon Tum province, northeast of Kon Tum city, Kon Hring to Kon Braih. 6,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Xo Dang. Alternate Names: Didra, Didrah, Kodra, Modra, Podra, Todrá. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom. Comments: Part of the Xo Dang official ethnic community. Didra may be a separate language.

More Information

Trieng
[stg] Mainly Kon Tum and Quang Nam provinces. 15,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Gie Trieng. Alternate Names: Dgiéh, Giang Ray, Gie-Trieng, Pin, Strieng, Talieng, Tareh, Ta-Rieng, Treng. Dialects: None known. May be related to Jeh [jeh] or Talieng [tdf] in Laos. May be the same language as Talieng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West. Comments: Part of the Gié Triêng official ethnic community (50,962, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Ts’ün-Lao
[tsl] Northwest, scattered, Lai Chau, Dien Bien, and Son La provinces. 10,000 (1993 D. Van). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Lao. Alternate Names: Lao. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Lao is an official ethnic community (14,928, 2009 census), with associated names Lào Bóc and Lào Noi. Traditional religion.

More Information

Vietnamese
[vie] Widespread. 65,800,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Ethnic population: 73,600,000 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 68,031,420. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Language of recognized ethnic group: Kinh. Alternate Names: Annamese, Ching, Gin, Jing, Kinh, Viet. Dialects: Northern Vietnamese (Hanoi, Tonkinese), Central Vietnamese (Hue), Southern Vietnamese. Numerous dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese. Comments: Kinh is an official ethnic community. Buddhist, Christian.

More Information

Zhuang, Dai
[zhd] Lao Cai province: possibly Muong Khuong district. 200 in Viet Nam (2007). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: bu6 daai2, Thu Lao, Tu, Tuliao, Tuzu, Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

More Information

Zhuang, Yang
[zyg] North, Cao Bang province, Ha Quang district. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Nung. Alternate Names: Caj coux, Can Yang, Dejing Zhuang, Dianbao, Fouh, Jingxi Zhuang, Nong, Nung Giang, Tianpao, Tuhua, Yangx, Yangyu, Zhuangyu Nanbu fangyan Dejing tuyu. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Officially classified within Nung nationality. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

More Information

Zhuang, Yongnan
[zyn] Cao Bang province: Quang Ha district, Phuc Sen village; Doan Khon, Quoc Phong, Quoc Dan, Chi Thao, and Tu Do communes 37 km from Cao Bang city; Ha Quang district, Noi Thon commune; Ba Be district, Cao Che commune. 10,000 in Viet Nam (2000 J. Edmondson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Nung. Alternate Names: Boux Toj, Long An, Long’an, Nongz Anx, Nung An, Southern Zhuang, Yongnan Vernacular of the Southern Dialect of the Zhuang Language, Zhuangyu nanbu fangyan Yongnan tuyu. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Part of the Nùng official ethnic community (968,800, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

More Information

Zhuang, Zuojiang
[zzj] Lang Son province. 340,000 in Viet Nam (2000 census). 170,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: Over 850,000 Nung nationality people in Viet Nam in 2000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Nung. Alternate Names: Canto, Nongz Anx, Nung Chao, Potai, Puto. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Part of the Nùng official ethnic community (968,800, 2009 census). Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

More Information

Page Views Left: