Vanuatu

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Akei
[tsr] Southwest Santo. 650 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tasiriki Dialects: Reportedly similar to Fortsenal [frt]. Complex dialect chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Ambae, East
[omb] Ambae (Leper’s) island. 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aoba, Northeast Ambae, Northeast Aoba, Oba, Omba, Walurigi Dialects: Lolokaro (Lolokara, Lolsiwoi), Lombaha (Lobaha), Longana. About 15 dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Comments: Christian.

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Ambae, West
[nnd] West Ambae (Aoba, Leper’s) island. 8,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Duidui, Opa Dialects: Nduindui (Duindui), Walaha. Many dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Amblong
[alm] South Santo. 300. Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Narango [nrg] and Morouas [mrp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Ambrym, North
[mmg] North Ambrym island. 5,250 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Magam, Olal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ambrym, Southeast
[tvk] Southeast Ambrym island. 3,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Endu, Penapo, Taveak (Taviak), Toak. Linguistically similar to Paama [pma]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Comments: Traditional religion.

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Aneityum
[aty] Aneityum island. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aneiteum, Aneiteumese, Anejom Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Aneityum

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Aore
[aor] East Santo. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Malo [mla] and Tutuba [tmi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Comments: Map not updated.

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Apma
[app] Central Pentecost (Raga). 7,800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Raga Dialects: Asuk (Asa, Asu), Suru Kavian, Suru Mwerani, Suru Rabwanga (Suru Bo), Wolwolan (Volvoluana). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Comments: Suru Kavian dialect is referred to in some sources as a dialect of Namaram, though no longer the major dialect spoken there; Bwatnapni village dialect is a mixture of Suru Mwerani and Suru Rabwanga; Asuk and Wolwolan dialects are extinct or poorly known.

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Araki
[akr] Araki island, south Santo. 8 Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Aulua
[aul] East Malekula. 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aulua Bay Dialects: Boinelang, Onesso. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Avava
[tmb] Central Malekula. 700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Katbol, Navava, Taremp, Tembimbe-Katbol, Tisvel, Vava Dialects: Bangasa, Nevaar, Nevat, Timbembe. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central

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Axamb
[ahb] South Malekula. 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahamb Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Baetora
[btr] Maewo island. 1,330 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Narovorovo, Nasawa, Talise. Considerable dialect variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Baki
[bki] West Epi. 350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Few monolinguals, youngest and oldest. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Burumba, Paki Dialects: Slight dialect variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo Comments: Christian.

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Banam Bay
[vrt] Southeast Malekula. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banan Bay, Burmbar, Vartavo Dialects: Some dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Bierebo
[bnk] West Epi, south of Lamenu [lmu] and north of Baki [bki] language areas. 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,140. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonkovia-Yevali Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo

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Bieria
[brj] South Epi, between Maii [mmm] and Lewo [lmu] language areas. 70 (Early 2006), decreasing. Ethnic population: 100. L2 users: Some older residents use it as L2. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bieri, Vovo, Wowo Dialects: Bieria, Vovo (Wowo). Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat Bieria and Vovo as separate languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii Comments: Christian.

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Bislama
[bis] Widespread. 10,000 in Vanuatu (2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 95% Melanesian. L2 users: Widely used by European and Asian expat residents, NGO’s and development agencies. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of national identity (1980, Constitution, Art 3(1)).Most in the country understand and use it as lingua franca and as a symbol of national identity. Alternate Names: Bichelamar Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Pijin [pis] (Solomon Islands) and Tok Pisin [tpi] (Papua New Guinea), but, unlike them, Bislama has some French loanwords. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific Comments: Christian.

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Butmas-Tur
[bnr] East central Santo. 520 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ati Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South

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Daakaka
[bpa] South Ambrym. 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baiap, Dakaka, South Ambrym Dialects: Sesivi. Several other dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Dixon Reef
[dix] Southwest Malekula. 50 (1982 SIL). Likely fewer than the 50 reported in 1982 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 60. 80% of the ethnic group speaks Dixon Reef. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas

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Dorig
[wwo] Banks Group, Gaua island, Dorig, Kweteon villages. 200 (2003 A. François). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wetamut Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Efate, North
[llp] North Efate island, Nguna, Tongoa, and several smaller islands, southeast Epi. 9,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nakanamanga Dialects: Buninga, Emau, Livara, Nguna (Guna, Ngunese, Tongoa), Paunangis, Sesake. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu

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Efate, South
[erk] Efate island. 6,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Population includes Eton [etn]. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erakor, Fate, Southern Efate Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu

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Emae
[mmw] Emae; Three Hills and Sesake islands. 2 villages. 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emai, Emwae, Mae, Mai, Mwae Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic

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English
[eng] 1,900 in Vanuatu (1995). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1980, Constitution, Art 3(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Eton
[etn] Southeast Efate island, Eton, Pang Pang, and surrounding villages. 500 (1989 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Efate, Epwau Dialects: Eton, Pang Pang. Formerly thought a dialect of South Efate [erk]. 88% inherent intelligibility of Lelepa [lpa], 64% of South Efate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu

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Fortsenal
[frt] Central Santo. 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 560. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kiai Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Akei [tsr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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French
[fra] 6,300 in Vanuatu (1995). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1980, Consitution, Art 3(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Futuna-Aniwa
[fut] West Futuna and Aniwa islands, east of Tanna. 1,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erronan, West Futuna-Aniwa Dialects: Aniwa (Anewa), West Futuna (Fotuna). Significant differences between West Futunan and Aniwan dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Comments: Distinct from (East) Futuna [fud] on Futuna Island in French Territory of Wallis and Futuna.

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Hano
[lml] North Pentecost (Raga), Whitsuntide, and south Maewo islands. 6,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bwatvenua, Lamalanga, North Raga, Qatvenua, Raga, Vunmarama Dialects: Nggasai (Kasai). Slight dialect differences; the last Nggasai dialect speaker died 1999. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Comments: ‘Hano’ is the name preferred locally.

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Hiw
[hiw] Hiw island, Torres Islands. 150 (2007 A. François). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hiu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Ifo
[iff] South, Erromanga island. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1954. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Utaha Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga

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Koro
[krf] Banks Islands, Gaua island, Koro and Mekeon villages. 160 (2003 A. François). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Kwamera
[tnk] Southeast Tanna coast, major villages: Port Resolution, Imayo, Samaria, Galilee, Imaki, Yeruareng, Yenmarei, Kwamera, Kwaraka, and Greenpoint. 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nafe, Neninafe Dialects: 2 main dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna Comments: Christian.

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Lakon
[lkn] Banks Group, Gaua island. 700 (2003 A. François). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lakona, Lakona Bay, West Gaua Dialects: Qatareu, Togla, Vure. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Lamenu
[lmu] Shefa Province, Varmali region, Lamenu island, Epi island northwest tip; Sara village, Port Vila and Luganville. 850 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamen, Lewo, Varmali Dialects: Galokumali, Galoparua. Lexical similarity: borderline with Lewo [lww], but strong local identification as separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo Comments: Population of Lamenu and Epi was over 14,000, but was reduced to 800 in early 1900s due to disease and economic dependence. Christian.

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Larevat
[lrv] Central Malekula. 680 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laravat Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central

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Lehali
[tql] Banks Group, Ureparapara island west coast. 250 (2007 A. François). Ethnic population: 350. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Teqel Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Lelepa
[lpa] Lelepa island, west Efate island, Mangaliliu and Napkoa. 400 (1989 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Havannah Harbour Dialects: Formerly thought a dialect of North Efate [llp]. Also related to South Efate [erk]. 84% inherent intelligibility of Eton [etn], 88% of South Efate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu

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Lemerig
[lrz] Vanua Lava island, northest coastal villages. 2 (2008 A. François). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bek, Leon, Päk, Sasar Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Vera’a [vra] and Mosina [msn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Lenakel
[tnl] West central Tanna. 11,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ikyoo, Itonga, Loanatit, Nerauya. Complex dialect chain; up to 10 dialects (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna

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Letemboi
[nms] South Malekula. 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,100 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Small Nambas Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas

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Lewo
[lww] East Epi island, Varsu and Varmali regions. 2,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Only very elderly and very young are monolingual. L2 users: Speakers of neighboring languages also use Lewo. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Varsu Dialects: Mate-Nul-Filakara, Tasiko. Lexical similarity: borderline with Lamenu [lmu] but strong community perception that it is a different language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo Comments: Christian.

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Litzlitz
[lzl] Malekula. 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lagalag, Litzlitz-Visele, Lolnarrong, Naman, Netensal Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central

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Lo-Toga
[lht] Torres Islands. 650 (2007 A. François). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Loh-Toga Dialects: Lo, Toga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Lonwolwol
[crc] West Ambrym island; Efate island, Maat village. 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Craig Cove, Fali, Fanting, West Ambrym Dialects: 2 main dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Lorediakarkar
[lnn] Santo island, central east coast. 340 (2000). Ethnic population: 850. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shark Bay [ssv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South

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Löyöp
[urr] Banks Group, Divers bay area, Ureparapara island. 250 (2007 A. François). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Divers Bay, Lehalurup Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Mae
[mme] Malekula. 1,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dirak Dialects: North Small Nambas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Maewo, Central
[mwo] Maewo (Aurora) island. 1,400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Maewo, Sungwadaga, Tanoriki Dialects: Lotora. Arata and Bangoro may be dialects or closely related languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Mafea
[mkv] East Santo, Mafea island. 250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 730 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mavea Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Maii
[mmm] Southwest Epi, Mafilau village; north of Bieria [brj], south of Baki [bki] language areas. 180 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 260 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mae-Morae, Mafilau, Mkir Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii

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Malo
[mla] North; Malo island; some in Santo and Port Vila. 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ataripoe (South Malo), Avunatari (North Malo), Tamambo, Tamapo. Reportedly similar to Araki [akr], Aore [aor] (extinct), and Tutuba [tmi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Malua Bay
[mll] Malekula, northwest coast. 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 715 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Espiegle Bay, Middle Nambas Dialects: Several dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Maragus
[mrs] Central north Malekula. 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maragaus, Tape, Tobah Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central

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Marino
[mrb] North Maewo. 500 (2008 A. Henri), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naone, North Maewo, Sunwadia Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Comments: Christian (Protestant).

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Maskelynes
[klv] Southeast Malekula, Maskelyne Islands. 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001), increasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuliviu, Maskelyne Islands Dialects: Uliveo, Uluveu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Comments: Christian.

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Mele-Fila
[mxe] Efate, Mele village (over 2,000); Ifara island (1,000) (Lynch and Crowley 2001). 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fila-Mele, Ifara-Mele Dialects: Fila (Efira, Fira, Ifira), Mele. Significant differences between Mele and Fila. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic

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Merei
[lmb] Central Santo, north of Morouas, between Lape and Ora rivers. 400 (1997 J. Chung). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lametin Dialects: Winiv. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Comments: ‘Merei’ is self name. Christian.

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Morouas
[mrp] Central Santo. 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Moruas Dialects: Several dialects. Possibly a dialect subgroup with Amblong [alm] and Narango [nrg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Mota
[mtt] Banks Group, Mota (Sugarloaf) island. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Mpotovoro
[mvt] Malekula, north tip. 430 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Mwerlap
[mrm] Banks Group, Mere Lava and Merig islands. 1,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Merelava, Merlav, Merlav-Merig Dialects: Matliwag, Mwerig (Merig), West Merelava. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Mwotlap
[mlv] Banks Group, Mota Lava (Saddle) island. 1,800 (2007 A. François), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Motalava, Motlav Dialects: Dagmel, Valuwa, Volow. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Naha’ai
[mlx] South Malekula. 600 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malfaxal, Malvaxal-Toman Island, Taman, Tomman Dialects: Milip, Orierh (Na’ahai), Toman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Nahavaq
[sns] Southwest Malekula. 600 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Labo, Lamangkau, Na’ahai, Nahapa, Seniang, Sinesip Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Namakura
[nmk] North Efate, Tongoa, and Tongariki. 3,750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makura, Namakir Dialects: Buninga, Makura (Emwae Island), Mataso, Tongariki Island, Tongoa Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu

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Narango
[nrg] South Santo island. 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 230. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Several dialects. Reportedly similar to Amblong [alm] and Morouas [mrp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Nasarian
[nvh] Southwest coast of Malekula. 5 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central

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Navut
[nsw] West central Santo. 520 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tiale [mnl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Neve’ei
[vnm] Central west Malekula. 500 (Musgrave 2007). Ethnic population: 710. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Banggor, Lambumbu, Nefe’ei, Telag, Vinmavis Dialects: Winiv. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central

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Neverver
[lgk] Malekula. 1,250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bushman’s Bay, Lingarak, Nevwervwer Dialects: Mindu, Wuli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central

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Ninde
[mwi] Southwest Bay, Malekula. 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Labo, Meaun, Mewun, Nide Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Labo Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nokuku
[nkk] Northwest Santo. 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 400. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nogugu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Nume
[tgs] Northeast Gaua island. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaua, Gog, North-East Gaua, Tarasag Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Comments: Distinct from Numee [kdk] of New Caledonia.

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Olrat
[olr] Gaua island, west coast, mainly Dolap village. 5 (2008). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Koro [krf] and Lakon [lkn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Comments: In the 20th century the Olrat moved from their mountain village to Gaua west coast villages and adopted the dominant language Lakon [lkn].

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Paama
[pma] Paama, 1 village on east Epi (Lopevi), large group in Vila. 6,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Paama-Lopevi, Paamese, Pauma Dialects: North Paama, South Paama. Reportedly similar to Southeast Ambrym [tvk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Piamatsina
[ptr] Northwest Santo Island. 150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 210. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Vunapu [vnp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Polonombauk
[plb] Southeast Santo island. 120 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 550. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South

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Port Sandwich
[psw] Southeast Malekula. 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lamap Dialects: Several dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Port Vato
[ptv] Southwest Ambrym island. 1,300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Repanbitip
[rpn] East Malekula. 90 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas

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Rerep
[pgk] East Malekula. 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pangkumu, Pangkumu Bay, Tisman Dialects: Tisman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Roria
[rga] Central Santo island. 75 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mores Dialects: Some dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Sa
[sax] South Raga island. 2,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Saa Dialects: Lolatavola, Ninebulo, Ponorwal (South Raga). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Sakao
[sku] Northeast Santo island. 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hog Harbour, Klep, N’kep, Sakau, Santo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, North Comments: Christian (Protestant).

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Seke
[ske] Pentecost island. 300 (2011 K. Johnson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ske Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Shark Bay
[ssv] Litaro (Pilot) island, East Santo, also Shark Bay coast. 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lorediakarkar [lnn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South

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Sie
[erg] Southern Vanuatu, Erromanga island. 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eromanga, Erramanga, Erromanga, Sye Dialects: Potnariven, Sie (Sorung), Yoku (Enyau). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga

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Sowa
[sww] Central Raga island. 20 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Tambotalo
[tls] Southeast Santo, Tambotalo village. 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 70. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Tangoa
[tgp] Tangoa island, off south Santo. 4 villages. 800 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Santo, South Santo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Comments: Distinct from Tongoa (Namakura [nmk] and North Efate [llp]) languages.

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Tanna, North
[tnn] North Tanna. 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: East Tanna, Imafin, West Tanna. In a dialect chain. Reportedly similar to Whitesands [tnp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna

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Tanna, Southwest
[nwi] Southwest Tanna island. 4,500 (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nafe, Naha, Nvhal, Yahurmene Dialects: Narpaimene, Nowai, Siporo, Vaha. Complex dialect chain (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tasmate
[tmt] West Santo island. 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Some dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Comments: May be same as Vunapu [vnp].

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Tiale
[mnl] North central Santo. 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malmariv Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Navut [nsw]; mutually intelligible with Merei [lmb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Tolomako
[tlm] Big Bay, Santo island. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Big Bay, Marina, Tolomako-Jereviu Dialects: Slight dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Tutuba
[tmi] Tutuba island and south Santo. 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Aore [aor] and Malo [mla]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Unua
[onu] East Malekula island. 750 (1999), increasing. 50 in Bush Unua. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Onua Dialects: Bush Unua, Pangkumu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Comments: Christian.

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Ura
[uur] Southern Vanuatu, north Erromanga island. 6 (1998 T. Crowley). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga

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Uripiv-Wala-Rano-Atchin
[upv] Northeast Malekula and nearby islands. 9,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). 1,380 Atchin, 3,450 Uripiv-Wala-Rano. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northeast Malakula Dialects: Atchin (Nale), Uripiv, Wala-Rano. Dialect chain from Uripiv in the south to Atchin in the north. Lexical similarity: 85% at extremes of the dialect chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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Valpei
[vlp] Northwest Santo island. 300 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Valpay, Valpei-Hukua Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Vao
[vao] Vao island and north Malekula. 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Fooa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal

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V’ënen Taut
[nmb] Northwest Malekula. 3,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Big Nambas Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central

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Vera’a
[vra] Vanua Lava island west coast, Vera’a village. 300 (2005 A. François). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vatrata, Vetrat Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lemerig [lrz] and Vurës [msn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Vunapu
[vnp] Northwest Santo island. 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Piamatsina [ptr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Vurës
[msn] Banks Group, Vanua Lava island. 1,100 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Vetumboso, Vuras, Vureas Dialects: Mwesen (Mosin, Mosina). Lexical similarity: 88% with Mosina and Vures. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu

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Wailapa
[wlr] Southwest Santo island. 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 140. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: A dialect chain with Akei [tsr] and Penantsiro [ptr] at the extremes. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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Whitesands
[tnp] Tanna island, east coast. 7,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Napuanmen, Whitsands Dialects: Lometimeti, Weasisi (Wassisi). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna

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Wusi
[wsi] West Santo island. 300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wusi-Kerepua Dialects: Some dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo

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