Argentina

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Abipon
[axb] Chaco and Formosa provinces; north of Bermejo river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abipones Dialects: None known. Related to Kadiweu [kbc]. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern

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Argentine Sign Language
[aed] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Argentina, LSA Dialects: Córdoba Sign Language. Some regional variation (e.g. between Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza), but most deaf people ignore differences and strongly identify with one national sign language (2013 R. Caceres). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Deaf schools began in 1885. Historical relationship to Italian Sign Language [ise] (Zeshan, Delgado, Dikyuva, Panda and deVos 2013).

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Aymara, Central
[ayr] Jujuy and Salta provinces in the mountains. In urban areas. 30,000 in Argentina. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Aymaran, Aymara Comments: Quite a few come from Bolivia looking for work.

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Chiripá
[nhd] Misiones Province; possibly in Salta, Jujuy, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires provinces. 8,940 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 21,800. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Apytare, Ava Guaraní, Ñandeva, Nhandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá Dialects: Apapocuva. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Glossonym: Ñandeva in the Paraguayan Chaco for Tapieté [tpj].

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Chorote, Iyojwa’ja
[crt] Northeast Salta Province, near the Pilcomayo river. 800 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 ethnic Chorote [crt] and [crq] (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Choroti, Eklenjuy, Yofuaha Dialects: None known. Distinct from Iyo’wujwa Chorote [crq] (Drayson). Classification: Matacoan, Chorote Comments: Ethnonyms: Chorote in Argentina, Choroti in Paraguay, Eklenjuy by the Nivaclé. Traditional religion.

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Chorote, Iyo’wujwa
[crq] Northeast Salta Province, mixed with Iyojwa’ja Chorote [crt]. 1,500 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 2,150. 750 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Crevels 2007). Includes all ethnic Chorote, both [crt] and [crq]. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Chorote (Iyowujwa), Manjui (Inkijwas, I’no’, Manjuy). Classification: Matacoan, Chorote Comments: Traditional religion.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Northeast Argentina, Corrientes and Misiones provinces, south bank, Alto Parana river, Posadas area, shared border. 4,000 in Argentina (2008 CTI). Ethnic population: 8,200 ( INDEC). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Argentina Guaraní, Mbua, Mbyá Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Traditional religion.

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Guaraní, Western Argentine
[gui] Jujuy and Salta provinces. 15,000 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 21,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chabanco” (pej.), “Chaguanco” (pej.), “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.), Eastern Bolivian Guaraní Dialects: Chané, Izoceño (Isocenio, Izocenyo). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní Comments: ’Guarayo’ is a collective name in Argentina; distinct from Guarayo of Bolivia. Chané is a group that formerly spoke an Arawakan language, but now speak a dialect of Western Argentine Guaraní. Traditional religion.

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Mapudungun
[arn] West, Chile border, mainly Neuquén, Río Negro, and Chubut provinces; some in Mendoza Province, possibly others in Buenos Aires. 8,410 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 114,000 (2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: “Araucanian” (pej.), Araucano, Huilliche, Manzanero, Mapuche, Mapudungu, Maputongo, Pehuenche, Ranquel Dialects: Pehuenche. Classification: Mapudungu Comments: Recent migration from Chile.

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Mocoví
[moc] Southeastern Chaco, north central Santa Fe provinces. 3,000 (2011 E. Zugasti). A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,100 (2004 INDEC). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mbocobí, Mocobí, Mokovi Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Christian.

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Nivaclé
[cag] Salta Province, Rivadavia and San Martín departments, on the outskirts of Tartagal and in Misión La Paz. 220 in Argentina (2004 INDEC). Ethnic population: 550 (2001 INDEC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ashlushlay, “Chulupe” (pej.), “Chulupi” (pej.), “Chulupie” (pej.), “Churupi” (pej.) Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Classification: Matacoan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ona
[ona] Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur province: Patagonia. No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). The ethnic group disintegrated by early 20th century; last speakers died in the 1970s (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aona, Choon, Selknam, Shelknam Classification: Chon, Island Chon Comments: Lost their land to outside settlers, mines, and cattle. In 2000, there were reports of a group of 450 persons claiming Selknam ethnic affiliation.

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Pilagá
[plg] Central and western Formosa Province, Bermejo and Pilcomayo river valleys; Chaco and Salta provinces. 4,000 (2004 FEL). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pilaca Dialects: Chaco Pilagá (Toba Sur), Toba-Pilagá (Sombrero Negro, Toba del Oeste). Intelligibility between dialects needs investigation. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Puelche
[pue] Chubut Province. No known L1 speakers. The last L1 speaker was Trruúlmani, a woman who died in 1934. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gennaken, Northern Tehuelche, Pampa Classification: Language isolate Comments: Distinct from Pehuenche dialect of Mapudungun [arn].

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Quechua, South Bolivian
[quh] Buenos Aires, some working on docks; Salta and Northwest Jujuy provinces. 5,120 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 70,500 (2004 INDEC). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Central Bolivian Quechua Dialects: Northwest Jujuy (Colla). Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay Comments: Different from Santiago del Estero [qus] (R. Nardi).

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Quichua, Santiago del Estero
[qus] North central Argentina, Santiago del Estero Province, departments of Figueroa, Moreno, Robles, Sarmiento, Brigadier J. F. Ibarra, San Martín, Silipica, Loreto, Atamisqui, Avellaneda, Salavina, Quebrachos, Mitre, Aguirre; Chaco Province, southwest border strip; perhaps in Buenos Aires and Salta Province. 60,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santiagueño Quichua Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Bolivian or other Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Spanish
[spa] 38,800,000 in Argentina (2014). L2 users: 1,000,000 in Argentina (2014). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Lunfardo, Porteño, Portunhol, Portuñol, Rioplatense. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tapieté
[tpj] Salta Province, Misión Tapieté near Tartagal; San Martin district, Curbita near Pilcomayo river. 180 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 520 (2001 INDEC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guarayo, Guasurangue, Ñanagua, Tirumbae, Yanaigua Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní

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Tehuelche
[teh] Chubut Province, central zone. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1960s or 1970s (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 10,600 (2004 INDEC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aoniken, Gunua-Kena, Gününa Küne, Gününa Yajich, Gununa-Kena, Inaquen Classification: Chon Comments: From Chile.

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Toba
[tob] Chaco Province, Resistencia, Fontana, Saenz Peña, Castelli, Tres Isletas, Miraflores, La Leonesa, Las Palmas, San Martín, Pcia. Roca, Bermejito, Pampa del Indio; Formosa Province, San Carlos, El Colorado, Misión Laishí, and others; northwest corner, Corrientes Province; Santa Fe Province, Rosario. 40,000 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 40,760. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 69,500 (2004 INDEC). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chaco Sur, Namqom, Qom, Toba Qom, Toba Sur Dialects: Northern Toba, Southeast Toba. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Different from Toba-Maskoy [tmf] or Toba-Pilagá [plg]. Christian.

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Vilela
[vil] East central Chaco Province; near Paraguay border, Resistencia. No known L1 speakers (2011 M. Del Pozzi). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Language isolate

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Welsh
[cym] Patagonia, Chubut Province. 25,000 in Argentina (1998 A. Leaver). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Patagonian Welsh. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic Comments: Welsh speakers in Argentina since around 1865.

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Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay
[mzh] North, Formosa and Salta provinces, on the right bank of the Pilcomayo river, near Bolivia border. 15,000 (1999). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Güisnay, “Mataco” (pej.), “Mataco Güisnay” (pej.), “Mataco Pilcomayo” (pej.) Classification: Matacoan, Mataco Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wichí. Traditional religion.

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Wichí Lhamtés Nocten
[mtp] Chaco Province, General Güemes department; Formosa Province, Bermejo, Matacos, Patiño, Ramón Lista departments; Salta Province, San Martín, Rivadavia, Orán, Metán, Anta departments. 100 in Argentina. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Mataco Nocten” (pej.), Nocten, Noctenes, Oktenai Classification: Matacoan, Mataco Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz
[wlv] Northern areas of Chaco, Formosa, Salta, Jujuy, West of Toba, upper Bermejo river valley and Pilcomayo river. 25,000 (1991 UBS). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten (2004 INDEC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Mataco Vejoz” (pej.), Vejos, Vejoz Dialects: Bermejo Vejoz. Not intelligible of other Chaco languages. Classification: Matacoan, Mataco Comments: Language family also called Mataco-Mataguayo. Traditional religion.

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Yámana
[yag] Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur province: Extreme south Isla Grande. No known L1 speakers in Argentina (Crevels 2007). In the last decades of the 20th century the language became extinct in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Yahgan Classification: Language isolate

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