Bangladesh

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A’tong
[aot] Northern Netrokona district. 5,400 in Bangladesh. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Attong Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Koch Comments: Seen by themselves and other Garos to be Garos, but the languages are not mutually intelligible. Christian.

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Bengali
[ben] West. Also in Canada, India, Malawi, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. 110,000,000 in Bangladesh (2001 census). 250,000,000 including L2 speakers. Population total all countries: 193,263,700. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1972, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Bangala, Bangla, Bangla-Bhasa Dialects: Barisal, Khulna, Mymensingh, Noakhali. Similar to Assamese [asm]. Lexical similarity: 40% with Nepali [npi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Muslim.

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Bihari
[urd] Mainly refugee camps in 13 districts. 250,000 in Bangladesh (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Urdu Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani

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Bishnupriya
[bpy] Sylhet Division, Moulvibazar district; southern Habiganj district, Sylhet city, 1 village; Sunamganj district, 2 villages. 40,000 in Bangladesh (2003). 1% monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bishnupria, Bishnupuriya, Bisna Puriya Dialects: Madai Gang, Rajar Gang. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Dialects are not attached to localities but exist side by side: Madai Gang (of the village of the queen) and Rajar Gang (of the village of the king). Intelligibility between the 2 caste dialects sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Hindu.

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Chak
[ckh] Southeastern Chittagong district, Arakan Blue mountains, Baishari, Bandarban, south Naikhongchari area, Bishar Chokpra, 14 villages. 3,000 in Bangladesh (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sak, Tsak Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Luish Comments: Distinct from Chakma [ccp]. Traditional religion.

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Chakma
[ccp] Southeast, Chittagong Hills area, and Chittagong city. Also in India, Myanmar. 150,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Population total all countries: 326,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sakma, Sangma, Takam Dialects: Chakma of India [ccp] understand Bangladesh Chakma with difficulty. Some dialect variation within Myanmar. Lexical similarity: 58%–67% with Tanchangya [tnv]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Asho
[csh] Bandarban, Chittagong, and Rangamati districts. Laitu dialect in the plain area; Kongtu in the hill area. 4,000 in Bangladesh (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khyang, Khyeng, Qin, Sho, Shoa Dialects: Kongtu, Laitu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern

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Chin, Bawm
[bgr] Chittagong hills. 10,000 in Bangladesh (2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Bom Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central

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Chin, Khumi
[cnk] Bandarban district, Thanchi, Ruma, and Rowanchari subdistricts. 2,090 in Bangladesh (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khami, Khuni, Khweymi Dialects: Khami, Khimi, Yindi (Yindu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern

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Chittagonian
[ctg] Chittagong region. 13,000,000 (2006 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Chatgaiyan Buli, Chatgaya, Chittagonian Bengali Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Bengali [ben], although considered a nonstandard Bengali dialect. Dialects form a continuum from north to south, with a larger religious distinction between Muslim and others. Rohingya [rhg] in Myanmar is similar to the southern dialect of Chittagonian. Lexical similarity: 43%–64% with Bangla [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Muslim, Hindu, Christian.

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Garo
[grt] Mymensingh plains, Tangail Sherpur, Madhupur, Jamalpur, Netrokona, Sylhet, Dhaka. 120,000 in Bangladesh (2005). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Garrow, Mande, Mandi Dialects: Abeng, Achik, Brak, Chibok, Dual. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Garo Comments: Abeng dialect is spoken but writing is in Achik. Christian, Hindu, traditional religion.

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Hajong
[haj] Dhaka Division, Rangpur district east to Sunamganj district. 8,000 in Bangladesh. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hajang Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Hindu.

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Indian Sign Language
[ins] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: The Indian manual English system is barely understandable to American Signed English.

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Khasi
[kha] Very few speakers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cossyah, Kahasi, Khasie, Khasiyas, Khassee, Khuchia, Kyi Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian Comments: The Lyngngam [lyg], Pnar [pbv], and War-Jaintia [aml] of Bangladesh identify ethnically with the Khasi.

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Koch
[kdq] Dhaka Division, northern Sherpur district. 6,000 in Bangladesh (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koc, Kocch, Koce, Kochboli, Konch Dialects: Chapra, Margan, Tintekiya. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Koch

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Koda
[cdz] Rajshahi Division, Puthia, Mohonpur and Mundumala areas. Also in India. 1,300 in Bangladesh (2005). Population total all countries: 44,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 49%–55% with Santhali [sat], 61%–67% with Mundari [unr], 57%–60% with Kol [ekl]; wordlist contained 19% Bengali [ben] words. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kok Borok
[trp] 5,000 in Bangladesh. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Debbarma, Tipura, Tripura, Tripuri Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo

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Kol
[ekl] Godagari subdistrict of Rajshahi district in northwest Bangladesh. 1,660 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hor Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62%–64% with Santhali [sat], 58% with Mundari [unr], 57%–60% with Koda [cdz], 37% with Ho (Lanka Kol) [hoc]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Kurux
[kru] 50,000 in Bangladesh (2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kurukh, Oraoan, Uraon Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: Different from Sadri, Oraon [sdr].

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Lyngngam
[lyg] Netrokona district. 1,000 in Bangladesh. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Megam Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian Comments: Previously listed as dialect of Khasi. Culturally intermediate between the Khasi and the Garo. Resemble Garos in appearance and customs. (Singh 1994) Lyngngam is a former Garo clan, but do not mix with the Garo, and consider themselves to be Khasi (Breton 1997). Megam [mef] and Lyngngam are sometimes used interchangeably for the same language in Netrokona district. Christian.

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Marma
[rmz] Rangamati, Bandarban, and Khagrachari districts. Also in India. 150,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Population total all countries: 180,600. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: “Mogh” (pej.) Dialects: Related to Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: Buddhist, Muslim, Christian.

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Megam
[mef] Netrokona district, Kalmakanda subdistrict. 6,870 (2000). Ethnic population: Identify ethnically with the Garo [grt]. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Migam, Negam Dialects: Lexical similarity: 7%–9% with the Abeng dialect of Garo [grt], 60% with Lyngngam [lyg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo Comments: Christian.

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Meitei
[mni] Sylhet district, Moulvi Bazar district (Kamalganj subdistrict) and Sylhet dity. 15,000 in Bangladesh (2003). 2% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Manipuri, Meetei, Meithei Dialects: Hindu Meitei, Pangan (Pangal). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Meitei Comments: Preferred name is Meitei Manipuri. Outsiders don’t distinguish between Meitei and Bishnupriya, calling both of them Manipuri. Meitei is a well-developed language with much literature in India, but little is available in Bangladesh. Hindu, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mizo
[lus] Rangamati, Sajek. 250 in Bangladesh (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hualngo, Lei, Lusai, Lushai, Lushei, Sailau, Whelngo Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Most moved from Bangladesh to India. Christian.

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Mru
[mro] Bandarban district. Also in India, Myanmar. 30,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Population total all countries: 50,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maru, Mrung, Murung Dialects: Anok, Dowpreng, Sungma. Lexical similarity: 13% with Mro-Khimi Chin [cmr], 72%–76% with Anu-Hkongso Chin [anl]; lexical similarity with Anok, Dowpreng, and Sungma dialects in Bangladesh is high: 91%-98%. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru Comments: Ethnically related to the Khumi. 5 linguistically distinct groups: Anok (largest and central) and Tshungma in the north, Domrong in the lowlands north of the Matamuri, Dopreng and Rumma in far south and into Arakan (Brauns and Loffler 1990). Traditional religion.

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Mundari
[unr] Rajshahi Division, Dinajpur and Naogaon districts; Sylhet Division, various tea estates. 2,500 in Bangladesh (2005 Caritas). Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Colh, Horo, Mandari, Mondari, Munari, Munda Dialects: Hasada’, Kera’, Latar, Naguri. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari

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Pangkhua
[pkh] Rangamati district. Also in India (Pankhu). 3,200 in Bangladesh (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pangkhu, Pankho, Pankhu, Panko Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Christian.

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Pnar
[pbv] Northeast along India border; Sylhet Division, Sylhet district, near Jaflong, Tamabil, Jaintiapur, and north of Raipur; Moulvi Bazar district, near Fenchuganj, Madhabkunda, Barlekha, Goalbari, Fultala, Alinagar, Islampur, Khajori, Rashidpur, Satgoan, and Kamalganj. 4,000 in Bangladesh (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian Comments: Identify ethnically with the Khasi [kha].

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Rakhine
[rki] Southeast, Chittagong district. 200,000 in Bangladesh (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mogh, Rakhain, Rakkhaine Dialects: Rakhine, Sitwe. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: Buddhist, Muslim, Hindu.

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Rangpuri
[rkt] Rangpur Division north from Bogra, also known as the greater Dinajpur and Rangpur areas, now subdivided into Rangpur, Lalmonihat, Nilphamari, Gaibanda, Panchagar, Thakurgaon, and Dinajpur districts. Also in India (Kamta). 10,000,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Population total all countries: 15,000,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anchalit Bangla, Bahe Bangla, Kamta, Polia Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese

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Riang
[ria] Rangamati district. 500 in Bangladesh (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kau Bru, Reang Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: Different from Riang [ril] of Myanmar, a Mon-Khmer language.

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Rohingya
[rhg] Cox’s Bazaar district. 200,000 in Bangladesh (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rohinga Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Muslim.

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Sadri, Oraon
[sdr] Throughout Rajshahi Division; Sylhet Division, Moulvibazar and Habiganj districts; Khulna Division, Jhenaidah district (Jhenaidah, Moheshpur subdistricts), Kushtia district (Mirpur subdistrict), Magura district (Magura subdistrict). 166,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Borail Sadri, Mokkan Tila Sadri, Nurpur Sadri, Uchai Sadri. Dialects may need separate literature. Inherent intelligibility of 7 Sadri varieties on Borail ranges from 70%–93%; of 8 varieties on Nurpur from 78%–94%. Lexical similarity: 88%–97% with 14 Sadri varieties with the Borail Sadri dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: The Oraon people came from India over 100 years ago. Sometime in the past some Oraon shifted from Kurux [kru], a Dravidian language, to Sadri, which is Indo-Aryan. Some Oraon people still speak Kurux. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Santhali
[sat] 225,000 in Bangladesh (2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Har, Hor, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santali, Satar, Sonthal Dialects: Mahali (Mahle), Santali. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali

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Sauria Paharia
[mjt] 7,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Malto, Paharia Classification: Dravidian, Northern

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Sylheti
[syl] Sylhet, Sunamganj, Habiganj, Moulvibazar districts. Also in Canada, India, Malaysia, Singapore, United Kingdom, United States. 7,000,000 in Bangladesh. Population total all countries: 10,300,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sileti, Siloti, Srihattia, Sylhetti, Sylhetti Bangla, Syloti, Syloty Dialects: Similar to Bengali [ben] and Assamese [asm]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bengali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Muslim, Hindu.

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Tangchangya
[tnv] Chittagong hills. 21,600 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tanchangya Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Chakma [ccp]. Lexical similarity: 58%–67% with Chakma [ccp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese

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Tippera
[tpe] Chittagong hills, Khagrachari district, Chittagong district, Fatikchari subdistrict. 85,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kok Borok, Tipperah, Tippurah, Tipra, Tipura, Triperah, Tripura Dialects: Anok, Aslong, Dendak, Gabing, Kema, Kewa, Khali, Naitong, Phatung, Tongpai. Lexical similarity: 56%–85% among dialects, 61%–74% with Kok Borok [trp], 53%–65% with Riang [ria], 37%–59% with Usoi Tripura [usi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Usoi
[usi] Bandarban district. 22,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kau Brung, Unshoi, Unsuiy, Ushoi Dialects: Joloi, Panji. Lexical similarity: 88% with Panji and Joloi dialects, 59%–67% with Riang [ria], 47%–58% with Kok Borok [trp], 37%–59% with Tippera [tpe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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War-Jaintia
[aml] Northeast along India border; Sylhet Division, Sylhet district, near Jaflong, Tamabil, Jaintiapur, and north of Raipur; Moulvi Bazar district, near Fenchuganj, Madhabkunda, Barlekha, Goalbari, Fultala, Alinagar, Islampur, Khajori, Rashidpur, Satgoan and Kamalganj. Also in India. 16,000 in Bangladesh (2003 SIL). 25% monolingual. Population total all countries: 41,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: War-Jaintia, War-Khasi. Lexical similarity: 86%–92% with dialects in Bangladesh; 83%–89% with War-Jaintia in India and Bangladesh; India variety 41%–45% with Pnar [pbv] (from scant data); 27%–35% with standard Khasi [kha]; 24%–28% with War dialect of Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian Comments: Learning standard Khasi [kha] is important due to affinity with the larger Khasi ethnic group. Standard Khasi has high prestige. Christian, traditional religion.

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