Belgium

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Dutch
[nld] Oost Vlaanderen, Antwerpen, Limburg, Vlaams-Brabant, and bilingual part (10%–20%) of Brussels. 5,660,000 in Belgium (ELDIA 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Alternate Names: Dutch, Flemish, Nederlands, Vlaams Dialects: Antwerps, Brabants, Oost-Vlaams. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Glossonym: Vlaams in Belgium, even though different from (West) Vlaams [vls] spoken there. In the Dutch linguistic area there are minority rights for French-speaking persons in Drogenbos, Kraainem, Linkebeek, Sint-Genesius-Rode, Wemmel, Wezembeek-Oppem, Mesen, Spiere-Helkijn, Ronse, Bever, Herstappe, Voeren.

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Flemish Sign Language
[vgt] 6,000 (2005 M. Vermeerbergen). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2006, Parliamentary decree, 15 February). Alternate Names: VGT Dialects: Antwerpen (Antwerp), Limburg (Limburg), Oost-Vlaanderen (East Flanders), Vlaams-Brabant (Flemish Brabant), West-Vlaanderen (West Flanders). Reportedly most similar to French Belgian Sign Language [sfb]. Regional dialects developed in different deaf schools. Influence from spoken Dutch, particularly in mouthing. Also intra-regional variation, some related to gender and age. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Limited influence from Signed Dutch used some for communication with hearing people.

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French
[fra] Hainaut, Namur, Liège, Luxembourg, and Brabant-Walloon provinces, southern hills, and bilingual part of Brussels. Lorraine in Luxembourg Province south. 3,900,000 in Belgium (ELDIA 2012). L2 users: 4,630,000 in Belgium (ELDIA 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Alternate Names: Français Dialects: Lorraine. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: The following municipalities have minority rights for Dutch-speaking persons: Comines-Warneton, Mouscron, Enghien, Floubecques; and for German-speaking persons: Malmèdy, Weismes, Welkenraedt.

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French Belgian Sign Language
[sfb] Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Decree No. 4501 of 22 October, Article 1). Alternate Names: Langue des Signes Belge Francophone, LSFB Dialects: Most similar to Flemish Sign Language [vgt]. Major difference is in the mouthings which, for LSFB, are drawn from spoken French [fra]; sometimes people can understand the other language moderately well, but others have difficulty, especially (as in television) where there is no adjustment to the language of the addressee. Regional dialects developed in different deaf schools. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Taught in several private schools since 1980s, in vocational schools since 1992 (twelve levels), and in some deaf schools as pilot project since official government recognition in 2003. Limited influence from Belgium Signed French, which is used some for communication with hearing people.

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German, Standard
[deu] Liège Province, Eupen and Sankt-Vith cantons, municipalities: Eupen, Kelmis, Lontzen, Raeren, Amel, Bnlingen, Bntchenbach, Sankt-Vith, and Burg-Reuland. 41,200 in Belgium (ELDIA 2012). L2 users: 2,260,000 in Belgium (ELDIA 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in German-speaking areas (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Limburgish
[lim] Hasselt, Genk, Maaseik, Voeren, Eupen. 600,000 in Belgium (2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Limberger, Limburgan, Limburgian, Limburgic, Limburgs, Limburgs Plat Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Rhenisch Franconian Comments: Christian.

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Luxembourgish
[ltz] Luxembourg Province, Arlon and Bastogne area. 30,000 in Belgium (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in southeastern Wallonia (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 Dec). Alternate Names: Letzburgisch, Luxembourgeois Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian

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Picard
[pcd] Most of Hainaut Province, Tournai, Mons, Ath. 200,000 in Belgium (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in western Hinaut Province (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 Dec). Alternate Names: Chtimi, Rouchi Dialects: Belgian Picard. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Vlaams
[vls] West Vlaanderen. 1,070,000 in Belgium (1998 University of Ghent). Population total all countries: 1,204,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Vlaams Dialects: None known. Considered a variant of Dutch [nld]. Reportedly similar to German [deu], English [eng], Frisian [fry]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Walloon
[wln] Wallonia. Central Walloon: Namur, Wavre, and Dinant; Eastern Walloon: Liège, Malmedy, Verviers, Huy, and Waremme; Western Walloon: Charleroi, Nivelles, and Philippeville; Southern Walloon: the Ardennes region, Marche, and Neufchâteau. Also spoken in Luxembourg until recently. It is or was spoken in parts of northern France, and in Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States. 600,000 (Salminen 2007), decreasing. Active speakers may only be 300,000 (Salminen 2007). Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Wallonia (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 Dec). Alternate Names: Wallon Dialects: Central Walloon, Eastern Walloon, Southern Walloon, Western Walloon. Developed between the 8th and 12th centuries from remnants of Latin brought to the region by Roman soldiers, merchants, and settlers. Eastern subdialect considered the most difficult to understand. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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