Burkina Faso

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Biali
[beh] Est region: Kompienga province at Benin border, south of Arli, 3 villages. 1,500 in Burkina Faso (1991). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Berba, Bieri, Bjerb, Bjeri, Burba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Different from Baatonum [bba] (Berba). Traditional religion.

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Birifor, Malba
[bfo] Sud-Ouest region: Ioba, Bougouriba, Noumbie and Poni provinces. West of Volta Noire. 108,000 in Burkina Faso (1993). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo, Malba-Birifor, Northern Birifor. Dialects: Wile, Birifor. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor. Comments: Dagaari [dgd], Wali [wlx], and Birifor [biv] of Ghana are separate languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bisa
[bib] Centre-Est region: Boulgou, Koulpelogo, and Kouritenga provinces; Centre-Sud region: Bazega province, Zoundweogo province: Garango, Zabré, Gomboussougou, Tenkodogo cities; Plateau-Central region: Ganzourgou province: Boudry department. 399,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 640,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boussanse. Dialects: Barka, Lebir, Lere. Related to Samo languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa. Comments: Different from Busa [bqp] of Nigeria. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Bobo Madaré, Southern
[bwq] Boucle du Muhoun region: Banwa province; Est region; Hauts-Bassins region: Houet province,: Bobo Dioulasso area; Kenedougou and Tuy provinces. 181,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fing, Boboda. Dialects: Benge, Sogokiré, Voré, Syabéré (Sya), Zara (Bobo Dioula, Bobo Jula). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo. Comments: The government calls them Bobo Madaré. ‘Bobo’ is the general Bambara word for Bobo Fing, Buamu, or Bomu. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bolon
[bof] Hauts-Bassins region: Houet and Kenedougou provinces, N’Dorola and Samorogouan areas. 12 villages. 17,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Total users in all countries: 22,920. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bo, Boka, Boon, Boron. Dialects: Black Bolon (Northern Bolon), White Bolon (Southern Bolon), Bon. The White Bolon dialect has higher inherent intelligibility with Jula [dyu] (81%) than the Black Bolon dialect (52%). Bon and Samalen varieties are highly similar to Bambara [bam]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bomu
[bmq] Boucle du Muhoun region: Mainly Banwa province,: Sami department; Hauts-Bassins region: Houet and Kenedougou provinces. 56,000 in Burkina Faso (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bobo Oule, Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Wule. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Buamu
[box] Boucle du Muhoun region: Bale, Banwa, Kossi, Mouhoun, and Nayala provinces; Centre-Ouest region: Sissili province; Est region; Hauts-Bassins region: Houet and Tuy provinces; Sud-Ouest region: Bougouriba and Ioba provinces; area 80 km east-west and 200 km north-south. 268,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bobo, Bomo, Bouamou, Bwaba, Bwamu, Eastern Bobo Oule, Eastern Bobo Wule, Red Bobo. Dialects: Ouarkoye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bwamu, Cwi
[bwy] Boucle du Muhoun region: Bale province, Kabourou area; Est region; Hauts-Bassin region: Tuy province: Founzan; Sud-Ouest region: Ioba province. 24,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coo, Cwi, Twi. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility within Cwi area is over 90%, 50%–70% with Láá Láá Bwamu [bwj], 30% with Ouarkoye Buamu [box], and 65%–70% with Dakwi Bwamu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bwamu, Láá Láá
[bwj] Boucle du Muhoun region: Bale province, Bagassi, Pâ, and Boni villages area; Hauts-Bassins region. 69,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kàdenbà, Yere. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Ouarkoye dialect of Buamu [box] and Bwamu Twi [bwy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cerma
[cme] Cascades region: Comoe province. 51,900 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 53,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goin, Gouin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma. Dialects: Banfora-Sienena, Niangoloko-Diarabakoko, Soubakanedougou, Gouindougouba. The Gouindougouba dialect is spoken in 1 or 2 villages. Turka [tuz] is reportedly the most similar language, but not inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dagaari Dioula
[dgd] Centre-Ouest region: Sissili and Zuri provinces, Diébougou, To, Boromo, Soukoulaye, Silly, Pa, Dano, Leo, Gao, Dissin, Wessa, Fara, French Hamele. 21,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagaari Jula, Dagari Dyoula, Jari, Wala, Yari. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dagaare [dgi], Jula [dyu], or Mòoré [mos]. Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with Northern Dagaare [dgi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari. Comments: Muslim.

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Dagara, Northern
[dgi] Centre-Ouest region: Sissili province; Est region; Hauts-Bassins region: Tuy province; Sud-Ouest region: mainly Ioba and Bougouriba provinces; Noumbie and Poni provinces. 247,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dagaare, Dagaari, Dagari, Dagati, Degati, Dogaari, Northern Dagaare. Dialects: Lober (Lobr), Wule, Nura (Lawra Lobi). Dagara and Birifor [bfo] are partly intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari. Comments: Different from Southern Dagaare [dga] in Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dogon, Jamsay
[djm] Nord region: Yatenga province; Sahel region: Soum province. North border with Mali. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dyamsay Tegu. Dialects: Domno, Gono, Bama, Guru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tomo Kan
[dtm] Boucle du Muhoun region: Kossi province, Kombori department, near Mali border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomo-Kan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogosé
[dos] Cascades region: Comoe province, Sidéradougou subdistrict, Ouo, Sidéradougou, Kouere, Koro, and Sirakoro; Hauts-Bassins region: Houet province; Sud-Ouest region: Poni province. 20,000 (1991 O. Balagassina). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doghose, Doghosié, Dokhobe, Dokhosié, Dorhossié, Dorhosye, Doro Doghosié, Dorobé, Dorosie, Dorossé. Dialects: Klamaasise, Mesise, Lutise, Gbeyãse, Sukurase, Gbogorose. Different from Bambadion dialects Dogoso [dgs] and Khe [kqg]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Khisa [kqm], 68% with Kaansa [gna], 15% with Dogoso [dgs], 14% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. Comments: Clans are Ouattara or Coulibaly. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dogoso
[dgs] Cascades region: Comoe province, Dandougou, Torokoro, Sokoura, Bondokoro, Tolandougou, Sakédougou, near Dogose [dos], Khisa [kqm], and Khe [kqg] language areas. 9,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bambadion-Dogoso, Bambadion-Dokhosié, Black Dogose, Dorhosié-Finng, Dorhosié-Noirs, Dorossié-Fing. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 56% with Khe [kqg], 15% with Dogosé [dos], 16% with Khisa [kqm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dyan
[dya] Sud-Ouest region: Bougouriba province, Dolo, near Diébougou; small areas in Boucle du Muhoun region: Bale province; Hauts-Bassins region: Houet provinces. 14,100 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dan, Dian, Dya, Dyane, Dyanu. Dialects: Zanga. Zanga is a dialect or closely-related language. Reportedly not similar enough to Lobi [lob] to be intelligible. Distinct from Dan [dnj] (Gio, Yacouba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dyan. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Dzùùngoo
[dnn] Hauts-Bassins region: Kenedougou province, Samorogouan and Samogohiri departments, Orodara town area, Samogo-Iri, Saraba, Diomou, Gnalé, Sokouraba, Todié, and Samogogouan. Kpeengo dialect in Cascades region: Leraba province, Sindou and Kankalaba departments. 13,400 (1998 P. Solomiac). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dzùùn, Eastern Duun, Kpango, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro. Dialects: Kpangoo (Samorogouan), Dzùùngoo (Samogohiri), Kpeengo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo. Comments: Muslim.

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French
[fra] 170,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). L2 users: 3,570,000 in Burkina Faso (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 35). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Northeastern Burkina Faso
[fuh] Sahel region, Oudalan, Soum, Seno, Yagha provinces; Centre-Nord region, Namentega and Bam provinces, small border areas; Boucle du Muhoun region, Kossi and Sourou provinces; south of Mopti town, Mali border. 1,170,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Fulfulde. Dialects: Barani (Barain, Baraniire), Gourmantche, Bogandé, Jelgoore, Liptaakoore, Barkoundouba, Seeba-Yaga (Yaaga), Ouhiguyua, Fada Ngurma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central. Comments: Muslim.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] Centre-Est region: Koulpelogo province; Centre-Nord region: Namentenga province; Est region: Gnagna, Gourma, Komandjari, Kompienga and Tapoa provinces; Sahel region: Seno and Yagha provinces. 772,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,042,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulmacema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gulmancema, Gurma, Migulimancema. Dialects: Northern Gourmanchema, Central Gourmanchema, Southern Gourmanchema. Central and eastern dialects are inherently intelligible; northern only with difficulty. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Hausa
[hau] Scattered. Est region: Gourma and Tapoa provinces. 500 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Haoussa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Jalkunan
[bxl] Cascades region: Leraba province west of Banfora, Blédougou near Sindou town. 500 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Blé, Dyala, Dyalanu, Jalkuna. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 19% with Jula [dyu], 17% with Bolon [bof]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jeri-Jalkuna. Comments: Muslim.

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Jowulu
[jow] Cascades region, Leraba province,Tena and Noussoun villages near Mali boundary. 1,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jo, Samogho. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jula
[dyu] Boucle du Muhoun region: Kossi province; Cascades region: Comoe and Leraba provinces; Hauts-Bassins region: Houet province; Kenedougou province, scattered. 616,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). L2 users: 3,000,000 in Burkina Faso (2012 V. Vydrine). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as a trade language in the western half of the country, and sub-populations in all major cities. Alternate Names: Dioula, Dioula Véhiculaire, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan, Trade Jula. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Different from Jola [dyo] (Diola) of Senegal. Majority not ethnic Jula. Muslim.

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Kaansa
[gna] Sud-Ouest region: Poni province, Gaoua subdistrict, Loropéni department, bounded by Loropéni west, Derbi east, Djigoué south, and Yérifoula north; Cascades region: Comoe province; Sud-Ouest region: Bougouriba province. 6,000 (1990 S. Showalter). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gã, Gan, Gane, Kaan, Kaanse, Kãasa, Kan. Dialects: Kaansa, Kpatogo (Bodoro, Gbadogo, Kpatogoso, Padogho, Padorho, Padoro). Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 71% with Khisa [kqm], 68% with Dogosé [dos]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. Comments: 4 clans: Farma, Suwa, Khama, Thama. The Kpatogo separated politically and geographically from the Kamba. At least 7 primary schools in towns and villages serving Kaan villages. Obiré, 8 km northwest of Loropéni, is cultural center and residence of the Kaan Iya, the traditional ruler of the Kaan people. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kalamsé
[knz] Boucle du Muhoun region: Sourou province, Tougan subdistrict, on Mali border. 9,570 in Burkina Faso (1985 census). Total users in all countries: 12,070. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalemsé, Sàmó, Sàmòmá. Dialects: Kasoma (East Kalamsé), Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Distinct from other Samo languages. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Karaboro, Eastern
[xrb] Cascades region: Comoe province, east of main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora. South. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Total users in all countries: 40,610. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kar, Ker, Kler. Dialects: Kar dialect averages 70% comprehension by Western Karaboro [kza], but the reverse is 30%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Karaboro, Western
[kza] Cascades region: Comoe province, west of main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora. South. 30,200 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Syer-Tenyer. Dialects: Tenyer, Syer. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kasem
[xsm] Centre-Sud region, Nahouri province, Po, Guiaro, and Tiébélé towns; Centre-Ouest region, Sissili province. 83,600 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 232,600. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kasena, Kasim, Kassem, Kassena. Dialects: East Kasem, West Kasem. West and East Kasem mutually inherently intelligible. Reportedly similar to Nuni [nuv] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: East Kasem is more prestigious. Loanwords from French [fra] and Mòoré [mos] in Burkina Faso, English [eng] and Akan [aka] in Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khe
[kqg] Cascades region: Comoe province, Noumoukiedougou, Tiébata, Moromoro, Boli, Sessagbo, and Lobo, near Dogose [dos], Khisa [kqm], and Dogoso [dgs] language areas. 1,300 in Burkina Faso (1983 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bambadion-Kheso, Kheso. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 56% with Dogoso [dgs] (Bambadion-Dogoso), 14% with Dogosé [dos], 13% with Khisa [kqm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khisa
[kqm] Cascades region: Comoe province, Mangodara prefecture, 25 villages. Southwest, near Côte d’Ivoire border. 3,000 in Burkina Faso (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Khi, Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. Comments: ‘Komono’ is the Jula name. Muslim.

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Konabéré
[bbo] Boucle du Muhoun region: Banwa province, Tansilla area; Kossi province. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Total users in all countries: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fing, Bobo Madaré, Boboda, Northern Bobo Madaré. Dialects: Yaba, Sankuma (Sarokama), Jèrè, Tankri, Kure, Kukoma (Koma). Northern Bobo Madaré has 20%–30% intelligibility of Southern Bobo Madaré. All dialects of Northern understand Yaba, centered in Tansilla. Separate literature may be needed for the Mali dialect. Some linguists treat Bobo as a separate major branch of Mande. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Koromfé
[kfz] Centre-Nord region: Bam and Sanmatenga provinces; Nord region: Loroum province; Yatenga province: Titao subdistrict; Sahel region: Soum province, Djibo-Aribinda subdistrict. 196,000 in Burkina Faso (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Total users in all countries: 202,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fula, Fulse, Koromba, Kouroumba, Kuruma, Kurumba, Kurumfe. Dialects: Koromba, Fulse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe. Comments: Muslim.

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Kpeego
[cpo] Cascades region: Leraba province, Kankalaba department, Noumousoba and Tourny villages; southwest. 2,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Noumou, Noumoukan, Numu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern. Comments: Kpeego speakers are blacksmiths.

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Kusaal
[kus] Centre-Est region: Boulgou province, villages south of Zabré. Centre-Sud region: Narhouri province. 12,800 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koussassé, Kusaas, Kusale, Kusasi. Dialects: Tonde (Toende, Western Kusaal). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lobi
[lob] Cascades region: Comoe province; Sud-Ouest region: Poni province, Gaoua southwest border area; Bougouriba and Noumbiel provinces. 220,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 376,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa. Dialects: Gongon Lobi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lyélé
[lee] Boucle du Muhoun region: Nayala province; Centre-Ouest region: North and central Sanguie province, Dassa, Didyr, Godyr, Kordie, Kyon, Réo, Tenado subdistricts, Réo principal center; Boulkiende province; Nord region: Passore province; thousands of migrants in neighboring countries, especially Côte d’Ivoire. 213,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gurunsi, Lela, Lele, Lyela. Dialects: Southern Lyélé (Reo), Central Lyélé, Northern Lyélé, Kandéré. Most Central and Northern Lyélé speakers have nearly 100% comprehension of Southern Lyélé dialect. Kandéré have 75% comprehension of Southern Lyélé; Southern Lyélé understand all dialects except Kandéré well. Reportedly similar to Nuni [nuv], but low mutual inherent intelligibility. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Marka
[rkm] Boucle du Muhoun region: Bale, Banwa, Nayala, and Sourou provinces; Kossi and Mouhoun provinces: Nouna and Dedougou areas. 135,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 185,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dafing, Marka Dafing. Dialects: Safané, Nouna, Gassan. More than 80% inherent intelligibility of southeastern dialect around Safané; however, northwestern dialect region is 70%. The central dialect around Dembo village is well understood. Reportedly similar to Bambara [bam] or a variant of Jula [dyu]. Comprehension of Jula ranges from 45% in a southeastern villages to 85% in the northwest. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin. Comments: Marka is used for followers of the traditional religion, Dafing for Muslim speakers. Different from the Marka dialect of Soninke. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Moba
[mfq] Centre-Est region: Koulpelogo province, Ouargaye subdistrict. 1,800 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben, Moa, Moab, Moare. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba.

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Mòoré
[mos] Widespread. Central Ouagadougou area. 6,360,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 6,447,300. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as a trade language in the central part of the country, with sub-populations in all major cities. Alternate Names: Mole, Moose, More, Moré, Moshi, Mossi. Dialects: Saremdé, Taolendé, Yaadré, Ouagadougou, Yaande, Zaore (Joore), Yana (Jaan, Yanga). Yana dialect has over 90% intelligibility with the Ouagadougou dialect 75%–80% with the Joore dialect. Joore with Ouagadougou varies from 88% in Tibga to 95% in Diabo. Yanga in Togo, completely intelligible with Central Mòoré. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Natioro
[nti] Cascades region: Leraba province, Sindou subdistrict, Sindou town area west of Banfora; Dinaoro, Timba, and Kawara. 2,400 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Koo’ra, Natjoro, Natyoro. Dialects: Kaouara-Timba-Sindou-Koroni, Ginaourou. Reportedly similar to Wara [wbf], but not inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ninkare
[gur] Centre-Est region: Boulgou province; Centre-Sud region: Narhouri province, Zecco and Ziou subdistricts; Zoundweogo province. 25,100 in Burkina Faso (1991). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Farefare, Frafra, Gurenne, Gurne, Nankani, Ninkarsé. Dialects: Gudeni, Nankani, Booni, Frafra, Nankana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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N’ko
[nqo] Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Mixed language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Nuni, Northern
[nuv] Boucle du Muhoun region: Bale and Mouhoun provinces, near Boromo; dialect dividing line is Mouhoun river. Centre-Ouest region: Sanguie province. 45,000 (1995 SIL). 15,000–25,000 in Northwestern Nuni, 25,000–35,000 in Northeastern Nuni. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nibulu, Nouni, Nounouma, Nuna, Nune, Nunuma, Nuruma. Dialects: Northwestern Nuni, Northeastern Nuni. Northern Nuni users have no comprehension of Southern Nuni [nnw]. Reportedly similar to Kasem [xsm] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nuni, Southern
[nnw] Boucle du Muhoun region: Bale province, east Mouhoun province; Centre-Ouest region: Sissili and Zuri provinces, Sanguie province; Centre-Sud region: west Narhouri. Over 100 villages. 147,000 (2009 UNSD). Census figure (2009) is for all Nuni. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nibulu, Nouni, Nounouma, Nuna, Nune, Nunuma, Nuruma. Dialects: Micari, Basinyari (Sundoni), Yatini, Gori, Bwana, Sankura. Reportedly similar to Kasem [xsm] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Paleni
[pnl] Cascades region: Leraba province, Loumana department, Faniagara village. 260 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wara. Dialects: None known. 15%–20% intelligibility of Wara [wbf]. Lexical similarity: 19% with Wara [wbf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro.

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Pana
[pnq] Boucle du Muhoun region: Sourou province, Kassoum subdistrict, Oué town area, Sourou river valley from Mali. 5,000 in Burkina Faso (1998). Total users in all countries: 7,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sama. Dialects: Pana North, Pana South. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Phuie
[pug] Sud-Ouest region, Bougouriba and Ioba provinces north and west of Diébougou, northeast of Dano; Hauts-Bassins Region, Houet and Tuy provinces; possibly some in Est Region. 14,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buguli, Buguri, Phuien, Phuó, Pougouli, Puguli, Pwa, Pwe, Pwie, Pwien, Pwo. Dialects: None known. Phuie is closely related to Winye [kst] and Sisaala [sld]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Samo, Matya
[stj] Boucle du Muhoun region: Sourou province, Mouna and Solenzo areas; Kossi province; Ouagadougou, Bobo-Diolaso, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities. 105,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 R. Jones). All Samo (San) languages: 233,000 (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 106,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northwestern Samo, San, Sànán, Sane, Tougan, West Central Goe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo. Comments: The Rimaïbé are Samo who were former Fula slaves, now also speak Fulfulde [fuh]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Samo, Maya
[sym] Boucle du Muhoun region: Sourou province; Nord region: Yatenga and Zoundma provinces. North central. 38,000 (1999). All Samo (San) languages: 233,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Samo, Sa, San. Dialects: Bounou, Kiembara (Northeastern Goe), Bangassogo, Gomboro. Intelligibility of Matya Samo [stj] varies between 28% and 50%, depending on the village and text tested; of Southern Samo [sbd] less than 10%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Samo, Southern
[sbd] Boucle du Muhoun region, mainly Nayala province, Nouna and Solenzo areas, and Sourou province; Centre-Ouest region, Sanguie province; Nord region, Passore province; also in urban areas, Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities; Toma dialect: Toma, Yaba, Gossina, Ye, Kougny, and Gassan departments. 85,000 (1998). All Samo (San) languages: 233,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: San, Sane. Dialects: Toma (Makaa, Nyaana). Intelligibility low across Samo varieties. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo. Comments: The Rimaïbé are Samo who were former Fula slaves, now speak Fulfulde [fuh] as L2, and live in Kawara, Kassan, Zoumou, and Teri in the Tougan area. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Seeku
[sos] Hauts-Bassins region: Houet province; Bobo-Dioulasso department, Karankasso, Bouendé, Torosso, Banzo, Tiara, and Bama villages; Kenedougou province. 16,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sambla, Samogho, Seenku, Sembla, Southern Samo. Dialects: Northern Seeku (Timiku), Southern Seeku (Gbeneku). Dialects have good inherent intelligibility. 3 minor dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo. Comments: Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Nanerigé
[sen] Hauts-Bassins region: Kenedougou province, Djigouera and north; Houet province, Bobo-Dioulasso department. 50,000 (1985 census). All Senoufo languages: 173,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naani, Nandereke, Nandergé, Nanergé, Nanergué, Nanerige. Dialects: Some intelligibility with Sicite Senoufo [sep]. No significant dialects or subgroups. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Senara
[seq] Cascades region: Comoe and southern Leraba provinces. 50,000 (1995 SIL). All Senoufo languages: 173,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niangolo, Sénoufo. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility testing of Cebaara Senoufo [sef] varies from 51% in Konadougou to 71% in Niankorodougou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Sìcìté
[sep] Hauts-Bassins region, Kenedougou province, Tagouara plateau, Koloko and Ouelaní prefectures, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, to Mali border; Cascades region, Leraba province, Oueleni department. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). All Senoufo languages: 173,000 (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 38,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sìcijuungé, Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sucite, Tagba. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility low of Nanerige Senoufo [sen]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: Little intermarriage with others in the southern area. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Siamou
[sif] Hauts-Bassins region: Houet province, Toussiana department; Kenedougou province: Orodara is center, Tin, Diossogou, Diéri, Kotoudéni, Diéridéni, Didéri, Lidara, and Bandougou villages. 17,400 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 37,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seme, Sému, Siémou, Siemu, Syémou. Dialects: Bandougou. Minor dialect differences between villages and within Orodara. The Bandougou dialect is considered different, but intelligibility among dialects seems adequate. No closely related languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Seme. Comments: Previously classified as Mande. Their tradition says they came from the south. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sininkere
[skq] Centre-Nord region: Sanmatenga province near Pensa. 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Silanke, Silinkere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding. Comments: Muslim.

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Sissala
[sld] Centre-Ouest region, Sissili province between Léo and Hamale, 30 villages; Sud-Ouest region, Ioba province, Niego and Ouessa departments. 13,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sisaali. Dialects: All one dialect in Burkina Faso. Distinct from Sisaala languages in Ghana, although reportedly most similar to Western Sisaala [ssl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Songhay
[hmb] Sahel region: Oudalan and Seno provinces, Ouanobian, Falagountou, and other towns. Central northeast. 10,000 in Burkina Faso (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Songai, Humburi Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai. Dialects: Marensé (Koroboré, Maransé). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamasheq, Kidal
[taq] Nord region: Loroum province, into Yatenga province; Sahel region: Oudalan province. 122,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, Tuareg. Dialects: Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou), Tadghaq (Kidal). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Téén
[lor] Sud-Ouest region: Poni province, Kampti subdistrict, 2 pockets west of Kampti. 2,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tiéfo
[tiq] Cascades region: Comoe province, east of Toussiana, Dramandougou Tiéfo. Ethnic Tiéfo in about 20 villages, into Hauts-Bassins region: Houet province. 1,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kiefo, Tyefo, Tyeforo. Dialects: Noumoudara-Koumoudara, Dramandougou-Nyarafo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tiefo. Comments: Endogamous within the village. Traditional religion.

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Toussian, Northern
[tsp] Hauts-Bassins region: Houet province west of Bobo-Dioulasso; Kenedougou province north, east, and south of Orodara. 19,500 (1995 SIL). 1,000 in Wenteene dialect, 18,500 in the other dialects. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tusia, Tusian. Dialects: Ter, Tru, Kebeenton, Wenteene. Northern region dialects inherently intelligible to speakers but have 45% inherent intelligibility of Southern Toussian [wib]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Toussian, Southern
[wib] Cascades region: Comoe Hauts-Bassins region, Houet province, halfway between Banfora and Bobo-Dioulasso; Toussiana is center area. 19,500 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tusia, Tusian, Win. Dialects: 40% inherent intelligibility of Northern Toussian [tsp]. Nianha dialect is central. Each village has a separate dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Turka
[tuz] Cascades region: Comoe province north and west of Banfora; Leraba province; Hauts-Bassins region: Houet and Kenedougou provinces; principal villages are dialect names. 37,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Curama, Cuuramã, Tchourama, Tourka, Turuka, Tyurama. Dialects: Douna, Beregadougou-Toumousseni. Reportedly most similar to Cerma [cme]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Viemo
[vig] Hauts-Bassins region, Houet province, Karankasso Vigué department, southeast of Bobo Dioulasso; Cascades region, Comoe province; Sud-Ouest region, Bougouriba province. 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vige, Vigué, Vigye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Viemo. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wara
[wbf] Cascades region: Leraba province west of Banfora, Sindou town area. Main village is Néguéni. 4,500 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ouala, Ouara, Samoe, Samwé. Dialects: Negueni-Klani, Ouatourou-Niasogoni, Soulani. The Negueni dialect has over 95% intelligibility of the Niansogoni dialect, but Niansogoni below 80% of Negueni. No intelligibility of Natioro [nti]. Reportedly similar to Paleni [pnl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Winyé
[kst] Boucle du Muhoun region: Bale province, Boromo subdistrict, Boromo area, halfway between Bobo-Dioulosso and Ouagadougou, 17 to 18 villages; Centre-Ouest region: Sanguie province. 20,000 (1999 SIL). Most are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kõ, Kols, Kolsi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sissala [sld]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zarma
[dje] Est region: Tapoa province, scattered settlements. 600 in Burkina Faso (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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