Brunei

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Belait
[beg] Scattered in Belait District; Tutong District in Kampung Kiudang. Also in Malaysia. 1,000 in Brunei. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balait Jati, Lemeting, Meting Dialects: Related to Kiput [kyi] and Narom [nrm]. Lexical similarity: 54% with Tutong [ttg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A Comments: Recognized indigenous group. Muslim Belait are Malay in orientation. Non-Muslims retain their Belait identity more. Heavy intermarriage with Bisaya and Chinese. Muslim.

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Bisaya, Brunei
[bsb] Central and interior Belait and Tutong districts, south of Tutong [ttg] language area; Brunei dialect around Seria town and a few villages near Sarawak border. Also in Malaysia. 37,600 in Brunei (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 57,600. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Basaya, Bekiau, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Dusun, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai, Lorang Bukit, Southern Bisaya, Tutong 1, Visayak Dialects: Brunei Bisaya, Sarawak Bisaya, Tutong 1. Lexical similarity: 78% with dialects spoken in Brunei and Sarawak, lower with other Dusunic languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern Comments: Recognized indigenous group.

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Brunei
[kxd] Bandar Seri Bagawan; Mara District, Kedayan; the coastal strip; Tutong District. Also in Malaysia. 215,000 in Brunei (1984 SIL), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Brunei-Kadaian, Orang Bukit Dialects: Brunei Malay, Kampong Ayer, Kedayan (Kadaian, Kadayan, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedien, Kedyan, Kerayan). Lexical similarity: 94%–95% between Brunei and the Kampong Ayer dialects, 80%–82% with Standard Malay [zsm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Brunei and Kadayan are recognized indigenous groups. Ethnic autonym: Orang Bukit. Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] 5,650 in Brunei (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Hakka Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 10,600 in Brunei (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] 7,060 in Brunei (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Dialects: Foochow. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Buddhist, Daoist, Christian.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 13,100 in Brunei (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan Dialects: Hainan, Hokkien (Fujian), Teochew (Chaochow, Tiuchiu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] 6,350 in Brunei (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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English
[eng] 10,000 in Brunei (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1984, Constitution, Article 82(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Iban
[iba] Rural areas of Belait and Tutong districts; Temburong District. 21,400 in Brunei. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sea Dayak Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic

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Lun Bawang
[lnd] Interior, from Brunei Bay to Padas, then to Baram river headwaters, Temburong District. 7 villages. 500 in Brunei (2006 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayoh, Lundaya, Southern Murut Dialects: Long Iluk, Lun Ba, Trusan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Comments: Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. Murut is a recognized indigenous group. Christian, traditional religion.

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Malay, Standard
[zsm] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1984, Constitution, Article 82(1)). Alternate Names: Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: L2 only.

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Melanau, Central
[mel] Around Kuala Belait town. 280 in Brunei (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belana’u, Melanau, Milanau, Milano Dialects: Mukah-Oya (Muka, Mukah, Oga, Oya, Oya’). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau Comments: Mukah dialect is spoken in Brunei. Muslim.

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Penan, Eastern
[pez] West of the Baram river. 55 in Brunei (2003 P. Sercombe). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Bok Penan (Bok), Jelalong Penan, Nibong (Nibon, Penan Nibong), Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lanying, Penan Lusong (Lusong), Penan Silat, Sipeng (Speng). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan

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Tutong
[ttg] Around Tutong town on the coast and central Tutong District. 16,600 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tutong 2, Tutung Dialects: Lexical similarity: 54% with Belait [beg] in Malaysia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B Comments: Different from Brunei Bisaya [bsb] in Dusunic, Bisaya Group. Recognized indigenous group. Muslim.

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