Bolivia

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Araona
[aro] La Paz department: Manupari river headwaters; Puerto Araona. 110 (2006 PIB). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cavina. Classification: Tacanan, Tacana. Comments: Araona and Cavina are names of 2 moieties of the group.

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Aymara
[aym] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Central Aymara [ayr], Southern Aymara [ayc] (Peru).

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Aymara, Central
[ayr] La Paz, Oruro, and Potosí departments: west of eastern Andes. 998,000 in Bolivia (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,489,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aimara. Dialects: Chilean Aymara is very similar to La Paz, Bolivia dialect. A member of macrolanguage Aymara [aym]. Classification: Aymaran, Aymara. Comments: Some migration to valleys and lowlands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ayoreo
[ayo] Santa Cruz department: Ángel Sandoval, Chiquitos, Germán Busch, and Ñuflo de Chávez provinces; Santa Cruz de la Sierra city, Zapocó, Poza Verde, Puesto Paz, Guidai Ichai, Santa Teresita, Tobité, Urucú, Motacú, Rincón del Tigre, Belen. 1,700 in Bolivia (2006 PIB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayoré, Moro, Morotoco, Pyeta, Yovai. Dialects: Tsiricua. Classification: Zamucoan.

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Baure
[brg] El Beni department: Iténez and Mamoré provinces, Baures, Huacaraje, Magdalena municipalities, Baures and El Carmen, San Miguel, Tujure, Cairo, Alta Gracia, Jasiaquini, Bereuro, San Francisco, San Pedro, Buena Hora, Las Peñas, and Pueblo Baure villages; between Iténez and Río Blanco rivers. 40 (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 980 (2006 PIB). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Mojo.

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Bolivian Sign Language
[bvl] Cochabamba, La Paz, and Santa Cruz departments; El Beni Department, Riberalta municipality. 350 (1988 E. Powlison). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Based on American Sign Language [ase] with necessary changes for borrowed Spanish lexical items. Some groups in La Paz and Santa Cruz use the same signs with some dialect signs from their own areas. There is evidence that Bolivian Sign Language is no more divergent from ASL [ase] than some dialects of ASL (Morgan 2004). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Originated by missionaries. Other deaf schools use only the oralist approach.

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Borôro
[bor] Santa Cruz department: Ángel Sandoval province. 2 in Bolivia (2004 S. Anonby), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boe. Classification: Bororoan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Callawalla
[caw] La Paz department: Charazani; highlands north of Lake Titicaca. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Callahuaya. Dialects: Seems to have Quechua affixes and syntactic patterns, but distinctive roots from a dialect of the extinct Puquina language. Classification: Language isolate.

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Canichana
[caz] El Beni department: Puerto del Carmen area. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,550 (2001 DNPI). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kanichana. Dialects: None known. Reportedly of the Tucanoan family. Classification: Language isolate.

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Cavineña
[cav] El Beni department: Baqueti, Bolívar, California, Candelaria, El Choro, Francia, Galilea, Misión Cavinas, Natividad, Pando, Paraíso, Peña Guarayo, San José, San Juan, San Miguel, Santa Catalina; southeast of Riberalta along Beni river. 1,680 (2006 PIB). Ethnic population: 2,950 (2001 DNPI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kavinenya. Classification: Tacanan.

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Cayubaba
[cyb] El Beni department: Yakuma province; west of Mamore river, north of Santa Ana. 4 (Crevels 2007). 4 elderly speakers and a few semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 650 (2006 PIB). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cayuvava, Cayuwaba, Kayuvava. Classification: Language isolate.

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Chácobo
[cao] El Beni department: Alto Ivon, California, Cayuses, Motacusal, Núcleo, Nuevo Mojos, Siete Almendros; south of Riberalta on Alto Ivon river. 550 (2000 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,090 (2006 PIB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chákobo. Classification: Panoan, Bolivian Panoan, Chákobo.

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Chipaya
[cap] Oruro department: Atahuallpa province. 1,200 (1995), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Puquina. Dialects: None known. May be Arawakan or distantly related to Mayan (Olson 1964). Classification: Chipaya-Uru. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chiquitano
[cax] Santa Cruz department: Ángel Sandoval and Germán Busch, Chiquitos, Concepción, Florida, Lomerío, Ñuflo de Chávez, Roboré, San Ignacio, San Javier, San José, San Miguel, San Rafael, San Ramón, Santa Rosa de la Roca, and Velasco provinces. 5,860 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 47,100 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chikitano, Chiquito, Tarapecosi. Dialects: Concepción, San Ignacio de Velazco, San Javier (Javierano, Xavierano), Santiago, San Miguel. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ese Ejja
[ese] El Beni, La Paz, and Pando departments; Portachuelo Alto, Portachuelo Bajo, Portachuelo Medio; into foothills on Beni and Madre de Dios rivers. 500 in Bolivia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 940 (2006 PIB). Total users in all countries: 1,090. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Chama” (pej.), Ese Eja, Ese Exa, Ese’eha, Eseejja, Ese’ejja, Essejja, Huarayo, Tiatinagua. Dialects: Each clan has slight dialect differences; all seem inherently intelligible. Most divergent Tacanan language. Tambopata dialect in Peru somewhat different from the Bolivian dialect. Classification: Tacanan, Chama.

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Guaraní, Eastern Bolivian
[gui] Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Tarija departments; south central Parapeti river area. 52,000 in Bolivia (2014 UNSD). Ethnic population: 36,900 (Adelaar 2004). Total users in all countries: 69,530. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.), Western Argentine Guaraní. Dialects: Izoceño (Izocenio), Ava. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guaraní, Western Bolivian
[gnw] Chuquisaca department: south to Pilcomayo river, east to Cuevo, north to Monte Agudo; Santa Cruz and Tarija departments. 7,000 (2002 J. Russell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Simba, Simba Guaraní. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guarayu
[gyr] Santa Cruz department: Ascensión de Guarayos, Urubichá, Salvatierra, San Pablo, Yaguarú y Yotaú, El Puente, Nueva Jerusalén, El Verano, Santa María, Cururú, Momené, Surucusi, San José Obrero, Cerro Chico, Cerro Grande, Cachuela, Puerto Ñuflo de Chávez. 5,930 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 9,860 (2006 PIB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Guarayo” (pej.). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú. Comments: Different from Eastern Bolivian Guaraní (Guarayo) [gui] of Paraguay and Huarayo (Ese Ejja) [ese] of Peru and Bolivia. “Guarayo”, used for several groups, means savage. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ignaciano
[ign] El Beni department. 4,500 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 20,800 (Adelaar 2004). Includes Trinitario [trn]. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Limited comprehension of Trinitario [trn]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Mojo, Mojo. Comments: Nearly the same culture as Trinitario [trn].

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Itene
[ite] El Beni department: junction of Mamoré and Iténez rivers. 75 in Bolivia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 87. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Iteneo, Itenez, More. Dialects: Itoreauhip. Classification: Chapacuran, Itene.

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Itonama
[ito] El Beni department: Chumano, Huaracajes, La Selva, Magdalena, Nueva Calama, San Borja, San Ramón, Versalles. Itonamas river area. 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,940 (2006 PIB). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Machoto, Saramo. Dialects: None known. Ruhlen classifies it as Paezan. Classification: Language isolate.

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Jorá
[jor] Santa Cruz department. No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). 5 speakers in 1955 (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hora. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú, Sirionó.

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Leco
[lec] La Paz department: Apolo area, Karura, Candelaria, Tutilimundi, and Uyapi, Coroico river in Trapichiponte in KeleKelera, Pucasucho, Inca, Trinidad, Mulihuara, Chirimayo, Muiri, Ilipana Yuyo, Munaypata, Irimo, Correo, Santo Domingo. Lake Titicaca east; scattered on Mapiri-Kaka river. 20 (2001 S. van de Kerke). Ethnic population: 2,800 (2001 DNPI). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Leko, Rik’a. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Some folklore, dances, and music preserved. Previously reported extinct linguistically.

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Machinere
[mpd] Pando department: Nicolás Suárez province, Bolpebra municipality, San Miguel; on Acre river. 140 in Bolivia (1994). Ethnic population: 200 (2001 DNPI). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Machineri, Manchinere, Manchineri, Manitenére, Manitenerí, Maxinéri. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro.

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Movima
[mzp] El Beni department: 18 de Noviembre, 20 de Enero, Bella Flor, Buen Día, Carmen de Iruyañez, Carnavales, Ipimo, Miraflores, Navidad, San Lorenzo, Santa Ana del Yacuma. 1,450 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 6,530 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Reportedly Tucanoan. Classification: Language isolate.

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Pacahuara
[pcp] El Beni department: Vaca Díez province, near Alto Ivon; Pando department: Federico Román province, between Río Negro and Río Pacahuaras (Crevels 2007). 17 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 18 (Adelaar 2004). Possibly as many as 50 in 8 scattered families (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pacawara. Classification: Panoan, Bolivian Panoan. Comments: Integrated into the Chácobo [cao].

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Paunaka
[pnk] Santa Cruz department: San José de Chiquitos province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pauna. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Baure [brg] and Trinitario [trn]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Mojo. Comments: The Paunaka are now culturally part of the Chiquitano, but they still consider themselves as a separate group within the Chiquitano complex, and the language is completely unrelated to Chiquitano.

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Pauserna
[psm] El Beni department: Guaporé river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 46 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Guarayu-Ta, Paucerne, Pauserna-Guarasugwé. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Santa Cruz department. 60,000 in Bolivia (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: German, Mennonite German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Quechua, North Bolivian
[qul] La Paz department: Franz Tamayo province, Apolo region. 116,000 in Bolivia (1978 census), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Apolo region, La Paz Department (2009, Constitution, Article 5(1)). Recognized language (2009, Constitution, Article 5(1)). Alternate Names: North La Paz Quechua, Quechua. Dialects: Apolo, Charazani, Chuma. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay. Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, South Bolivian
[quh] Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, Oruro departments; La Paz department: except Franz Tamayo, Apolo area; mainly Potosí department; Tarija department. 1,610,000 in Bolivia (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,615,120. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2009, Constitution, Article 5(1)). Alternate Names: Central Bolivian Quechua, Quechua Boliviano. Dialects: Sucre, Cochabamba, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca, Northwest Jujuy. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Reyesano
[rey] El Beni department: José Ballivián province, San Borja area. 250 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,130 (1994 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Maropa, San Borjano. Classification: Tacanan, Tacana.

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Saraveca
[sar] Santa Cruz department: Velasco province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Paresí.

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Shinabo
[snh] Status: Unattested. Classification: Panoan, Bolivian Panoan, Chákobo. Comments: Existence improbable; contact attempted several times. Thought to have possibly been a Chácobo group.

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Sirionó
[srq] El Beni and Santa Cruz departments: Ibiato (Eviato); Salvatierra on Río Blanco river. 400 (Adelaar 2004), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 420 (Adelaar 2004). More than half the ethnic group is under 15 years old (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mbia Chee, Mbya. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yuqui [yuq]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú, Sirionó. Comments: Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 4,450,000 in Bolivia (2013). L2 users: 4,930,000 in Bolivia (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2009, Constitution, Article 5(1)). Dialects: Afro-Yungueño (Black Spanish). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tacana
[tna] La Paz department: Iturralde province, Tumupasa and Ixiamas cantons; Capaina, Napashe, San Buenaventura, Tahua; along Orton, Beni, and Madre de Dios rivers. 1,820 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 5,060 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takana. Classification: Tacanan, Tacana.

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Tapieté
[tpj] Tarija department: Gran Chaco province, Villa Montes municipality, Samayhuate and Cutaiqui; left bank Pilcomayo river. 70 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2004). Most elders and women are monolingual in Tapiete. Ethnic population: 80 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guasurango, Ñanagua, Tirumbae, Yanaigua. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Toba
[tob] Tarija department: Pilmacayo river, between Villa Montes and Paraguay border. No known L1 speakers in Bolivia (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Namqom, Qom, Qoml’ek. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Pilagá [plg] of Argentina or Toba [tmf] of Paraguay (Toba-Maskoy).

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Toromono
[tno] La Paz department: Abel Iturralde province; between Madidi and Heath river. Ethnic population: 200 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Toromona. Classification: Tacanan, Chama.

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Trinitario
[trn] El Beni department. 5,500 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 20,800 (2000 W. Adelaar). 20,800 includes the Ignaciano [ign]. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mojos, Moxos. Dialects: Loreto (Loretano), Javierano. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Mojo, Mojo. Comments: Both Trinitario and Ignaciano [ign] are called Mojeños, and occasionally Moxeños.

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Tsimané
[cas] El Beni department: San Miguel de Huachi and Santa Ana de Alto Beni; along Maniqui river; La Paz department: north of La Paz city. 5,320 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 5,840 (2006 PIB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimané, Mosetén, Moseteno. Dialects: Tsimané, Mosetén. Mosetén move into Tsimané communities and function with seemingly no communication difficulties (2002 NTM). Classification: Mosetenan. Comments: Mosetén and Tsimané separate languages (Adelaar 1991). Traditional religion.

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Uru
[ure] La Paz department: Lake Titicaca, Desaguadero river area; Oruro department: Atahuallpa province. 2 (Adelaar 2004). There are 3 groups of Uru origin: Chipaya, Iru Itu, Murato. Of these only Chipaya have conserved the language. The 1994 census has surprisingly shown that 59 of the 142 Iru Itu contended to know the language, which in reality is spoken by a few elders (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 590 (Crevels 2007). 450 Murato, 140 Iru Itu. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Iru-Itu, Morato, Muratu. Classification: Chipaya-Uru.

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Wichí Lhamtés Nocten
[mtp] Tarija department: Cordillera de Pirapo; southwest of Pilcomayo river. 1,810 in Bolivia (1994). Ethnic population: 2,020 (1994). Total users in all countries: 1,910. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bolivian, “Mataco” (pej.), “Mataco Nocten” (pej.), Noctén, Noctenes, Oktenai, Weenhayek. Classification: Matacoan, Mataco.

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Yaminahua
[yaa] Pando department: Nicolás Suárez province, Puerto Yaminawa; headwaters of Alto Yuruá and Purús rivers. 200 in Bolivia (2011 E. Wyss). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Jaminawa, Yamanawa, Yaminawa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State. Comments: Same dialect or similar to that of Brazil; slightly different from Peru dialect.

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Yuqui
[yuq] Foothills north of Cochabamba; Chimoré river. 120 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 140 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bia, Yuki. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sirionó [srq]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú, Sirionó. Comments: Nomadic. Bia is a Guaraní name.

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Yuracare
[yuz] El Beni and Cochabamba departments, primarily along Chapare river. 2,680 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 3,300 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yura, Yurakaré. Dialects: Mansinyo, Soloto. Classification: Language isolate.

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