Bolivia

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Araona
[aro] Northwest, La Paz Department, headwaters of Manupari river, Puerto Araona near Ixiamas municipality. 110 (2006 PIB). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cavina Classification: Tacanan, Tacana Comments: Araona and Cavina are names of 2 moieties of the group.

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Aymara
[aym] Population total all languages: 2,808,000. Comments: Includes: Central Aymara [ayr], Southern Aymara [ayc] (Peru).

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Aymara, Central
[ayr] La Paz, Oruro, and Potosí departments, west of eastern Andes. 2,098,000 in Bolivia (2006 PIB). Population total all countries: 2,589,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Chilean Aymara is very similar to La Paz, Bolivia dialect. A member of macrolanguage Aymara [aym]. Classification: Aymaran, Aymara Comments: Some migration to valleys and lowlands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ayoreo
[ayo] Gran Chaco region, Department of Santa Cruz, Ñuflo de Chávez, Chiquitos, Sandóval, and Busch provinces, Santa Cruz de la Sierra city, Zapocó, Poza Verde, Puesto Paz, Guidai Ichai, Santa Teresita, Tobité, Urucú, Motacú, Rincón del Tigre, Belen. 1,700 in Bolivia (2006 PIB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayoré, Moro, Morotoco, Pyeta, Yovai Dialects: Tsiricua. Classification: Zamucoan Comments: Glossonym: Morotoco in Paraguay, Ayoreo in Bolivia.

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Baure
[brg] El Beni Department, Iténez and Mamoré provinces, between the Iténez and Río Blanco rivers, Baures, Huacaraje, Magdalena municipalities, southeast of Magdalena, mainly in Baures and El Carmen villages, also San Miguel, Tujure, Cairo, Alta Gracia, Jasiaquini, Bereuro, San Francisco, San Pedro, Buena Hora, Las Peñas, Pueblo Baure. 40 (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 980 (2006 PIB). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Mojo

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Bolivian Sign Language
[bvl] Cochabamba, La Paz, and Santa Cruz departments; El Beni Department, Riberalta municipality. 350–400 (1988 E. Powlison). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Based on American Sign Language [ase] with necessary changes for borrowed Spanish lexical items. Some groups in La Paz and Santa Cruz use the same signs with some dialect signs from their own areas. There is evidence that Bolivian Sign Language is no more divergent from ASL [ase] than some dialects of ASL (Morgan 2004). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Originated by missionaries. Other deaf schools use only the oralist approach.

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Borôro
[bor] Near Brazilian border, Santa Cruz Department, part of Angel Sandoval province. 2 in Bolivia (2004 S. Anonby), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boe Classification: Bororoan

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Callawalla
[caw] Highlands and high valleys, La Paz Department, Charazani area north of Lake Titicaca. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Callahuaya Dialects: Seems to have Quechua affixes and syntactic patterns, but distinctive roots from a dialect of the extinct Puquina language. Classification: Language isolate

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Canichana
[caz] Lowlands, El Beni Department, Puerto del Carmen area. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,550 (2001 DNPI). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kanichana Dialects: None known. Reportedly of the Tucanoan family. Classification: Language isolate

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Cavineña
[cav] North Bolivia, El Beni Department; southeast of Riberalta, along Beni River; east of the Beni; 500 in Pando west of the Beni; in the communities of Baqueti, Bolívar, California, Galilea, Candelaria, Misión Cavinas, Natividad, Paraíso, Peña Guarayo, Santa Catalina, San Juan, San José, San Miguel, Francia, El Choro. 1,680 (2006 PIB). Ethnic population: 2,950 (2001 DNPI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kavinenya Classification: Tacanan

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Cayubaba
[cyb] El Beni Department, west of Mamore river, north of Santa Ana, Yakuma province. 4 (Crevels 2007). 4 elderly speakers and a few semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 650 (2006 PIB). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cayuvava, Cayuwaba, Kayuvava Classification: Language isolate

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Chácobo
[cao] Northwest El Beni Department, south of Riberalta on Alto Ivon River, Alto Ivon, Nuevo Mojos, California, Núcleo, Motacusal, Siete Almendros, Cayuses. 550 (2000 SIL). 275 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,090 (2006 PIB). L2 users: Bolivian non-Chacobo children at Alto Ivon learn Chácobo. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chákobo Classification: Panoan, Bolivian Panoan, Chákobo

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Chipaya
[cap] Oruro Department, Atahuallpa province. 1,200 (1995), increasing. 60 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Puquina Dialects: None known. May be Arawakan or distantly related to Mayan (Olson 1964). Classification: Chipaya-Uru Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chiquitano
[cax] Santa Cruz Department, provinces of Ñuflo de Chávez, Velasco, Chiquitos, Angel Sandoval and Germán Busch, San Ignacio, San Miguel, San Rafael, Santa Rosa de la Roca, San Javier, San Ramón, Concepción, Lomerío, Roboré, San José, Florida. 5,860 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 47,100 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chikitano, Chiquito, Tarapecosi Dialects: Concepción, San Ignacio de Velazco, San Javier (Javierano, Xavierano), San Miguel, Santiago. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ese Ejja
[ese] Northwestern region; Pando, El Beni, and La Paz departments; into foothills on Beni and Madre de Dios rivers, Portachuelo Alto, Portachuelo Medio, Portachuelo Bajo. 500 in Bolivia (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 730. Ethnic population: 940 (2006 PIB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Chama” (pej.), Ese Eja, Ese Exa, Ese’eha, Eseejja, Ese’ejja, Essejja, Huarayo, Tiatinagua Dialects: Each clan has slight dialect differences; all seem inherently intelligible. Most divergent Tacanan language. Tambopata dialect in Peru somewhat different from the Bolivian dialect. Classification: Tacanan, Chama

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Guaraní, Eastern Bolivian
[gui] South, Santa Cruz Department, Parapeti river area, east, southeast Chuquisaca Department; Tarija Department, south central Parapeti river area. 33,700 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2004). Population total all countries: 51,230. Ethnic population: 36,900 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.), Western Argentine Guaraní Dialects: Ava, Izoceño (Izocenio). A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guaraní, Western Bolivian
[gnw] Chuquisaca Department, south to Pilcomayo river, east to Cuevo, north to Monte Agudo; also into north central Tarija Department; southwest corner, Santa Cruz Department. 7,000 (2002 J. Russell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Simba, Simba Guaraní Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guarayu
[gyr] Northeast Guarayos river area, Santa Cruz Department; Ascensión de Guarayos, Urubichá, Salvatierra, San Pablo, Yaguarú y Yotaú, El Puente, Nueva Jerusalén, El Verano, Santa María, Cururú, Momené, Surucusi, San José Obrero, Cerro Chico, Cerro Grande, Cachuela, Puerto Ñuflo de Chávez. 5,930 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 9,860 (2006 PIB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Guarayo” (pej.) Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú Comments: Different from Eastern Bolivian Guaraní (Guarayo) [gui] of Paraguay and Huarayo (Ese Ejja) [ese] of Peru and Bolivia. “Guarayo”, used for several groups, means savage. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ignaciano
[ign] South central El Beni Department. 4,500 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 20,800 (Adelaar 2004). Includes Trinitario [trn]. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Limited comprehension of Trinitario [trn]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Mojo, Mojo Comments: Nearly the same culture as Trinitario [trn].

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Itene
[ite] North central El Beni Department at junction of Mamoré and Iténez rivers. 75 in Bolivia (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 87. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Iteneo, Itenez, More Dialects: Itoreauhip. Classification: Chapacuran, Itene

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Itonama
[ito] El Beni Department and Itonamas river, Magdalena, Chumano, San Ramón, Huaracajes, Nueva Calama, Versalles, La Selva, San Borja. 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,940 (2006 PIB). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Machoto, Saramo Dialects: None known. Ruhlen classifies it as Paezan. Classification: Language isolate

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Jorá
[jor] Santa Cruz Department. No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). 5 speakers in 1955 (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hora Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú, Sirionó

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Leco
[lec] La Paz Department, Lake Titicaca east; Apolo area; scattered on Mapiri-Kaka river in Karura, Candelaria, Tutilimundi, and Uyapi; Coroico river in Trapichiponte in KeleKelera; Pucasucho, Inca, Trinidad, Mulihuara, Chirimayo, Muiri, Ilipana Yuyo, Munaypata, Irimo, Correo, Santo Domingo. 20 (2001 S. van de Kerke). Ethnic population: 2,800 (2001 DNPI). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Leko, Rik’a Classification: Language isolate Comments: Some folklore, dances, and music preserved. Previously reported extinct linguistically.

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Machinere
[mpd] Pando Department, Nicolás Suárez province, Bolpebra municipality, in San Miguel on the Acre river. 140 in Bolivia (1994). Ethnic population: 200 (2001 DNPI). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Machineri, Manchinere, Manchineri, Manitenére, Manitenerí, Maxinéri Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro

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Movima
[mzp] Central El Beni Department, Santa Ana area on Yacuma river, Santa Ana del Yacuma, Carnavales, Miraflores, San Lorenzo, Carmen de Iruyañez, 20 de Enero, Buen Día, 18 de Noviembre, Bella Flor, Ipimo, Navidad. 1,450 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 6,530 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Reportedly Tucanoan. Classification: Language isolate

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Pacahuara
[pcp] El Beni Department, Vaca Díez province, near the Chácobo community of Alto Ivon. 17 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 18 (Adelaar 2004). Possibly 50 Pacahuara in 8 families scattered between Río Negro and Río Pacahuaras, Federico Román Province, Pando Department (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pacawara Classification: Panoan, Bolivian Panoan Comments: Integrated into the Chácobo [cao].

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Paunaka
[pnk] Chiquitanía region, Santa Cruz Department, Chiquitos province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pauna Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Baure [brg] and Trinitario [trn]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Mojo Comments: The Paunaka are now culturally part of the Chiquitano, but they still consider themselves as a separate group within the Chiquitano complex, and the language is completely unrelated to Chiquitano.

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Pauserna
[psm] Southeast El Beni Department on Guaporé river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 46 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Guarayu-Ta, Paucerne, Pauserna-Guarasugwé Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Santa Cruz Department. 60,000 in Bolivia (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: German, Mennonite German Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, North Bolivian
[qul] Apolo region, La Paz Department. 116,000 in Bolivia (1978 census), increasing. 18,500 monolinguals. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Apolo region, La Paz Department (2009, Constitution, Article 5(1)). Recognized language (2009, Constitution, Article 5(1)). Alternate Names: North La Paz Quechua Dialects: Apolo, Charazani, Chuma. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, South Bolivian
[quh] Mainly Potosí Department; Cochabamba, Oruro, Chuquisaca, La Paz, and Tarija departments; highland and lowland except around Apolo. 2,780,000 in Bolivia (1987). Population total all countries: 2,785,120. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2009, Constitution, Article 5(1)). Alternate Names: Central Bolivian Quechua, Quechua Boliviano Dialects: Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Northwest Jujuy, Oruro, Potosí, Sucre. May be intelligible of Chilean Quechua [cqu]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Reyesano
[rey] El Beni Department, west central around San Borja, near Reyes. 250 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,130 (1994 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Maropa, San Borjano Classification: Tacanan, Tacana

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Saraveca
[sar] Santa Cruz Department, northeastern part of Velasco province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Paresí

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Shinabo
[snh] Status: Unattested. Classification: Panoan, Bolivian Panoan, Chákobo Comments: Existence improbable; contact attempted several times. Thought to have possibly been a Chácobo group.

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Sirionó
[srq] Eastern El Beni and northwestern Santa Cruz Departments, Ibiato (Eviato) village; along the Río Blanco in farms and ranches, Salvatierra village. 400 (Adelaar 2004), increasing. 30 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 420 (Adelaar 2004). More than half the ethnic group is under 15 years old (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mbia Chee, Mbya Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yuqui [yuq]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú, Sirionó Comments: Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 4,140,000 in Bolivia (2014). L2 users: 4,590,000 in Bolivia (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2009, Constitution, Article 5(1)). Dialects: Afro-Yungueño (Black Spanish). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tacana
[tna] La Paz Department, Iturralde province, Tumupasa and Ixiamas cantons; some groups scattered along the banks of the Orton, Beni, and Madre de Dios rivers, San Buenaventura, Tahua, Napashe, Capaina. 1,820 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 5,060 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takana Classification: Tacanan, Tacana

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Tapieté
[tpj] Tarija Department, Gran Chaco province, Villa Montes municipality, Samayhuate and Cutaiqui towns on the left bank of the Pilcomayo river. 70 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2004). Most elders and women are monolingual in Tapiete. Ethnic population: 80 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guasurango, Ñanagua, Tirumbae, Yanaigua Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní

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Toba
[tob] Tarija Department, left bank of Pilmacayo river, between Villa Montes and Paraguay border. No known L1 speakers in Bolivia (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Qom Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Different from Pilagá [plg] of Argentina or Toba [tmf] of Paraguay (Toba-Maskoy).

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Toromono
[tno] La Paz Department, Abel Iturralde province, between the upper Madidi and Heath river. Population total all countries: 200. Ethnic population: 200 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Toromona Classification: Tacanan, Chama

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Trinitario
[trn] South central El Beni. 5,500 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 20,800 (2000 W. Adelaar). 20,800 includes the Ignaciano [ign]. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mojos, Moxos Dialects: Javierano, Loreto (Loretano). Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Mojo, Mojo Comments: Both Trinitario and Ignaciano [ign] are called Mojeños, and occasionally Moxeños.

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Tsimané
[cas] Central La Paz Department, well north of La Paz city; southwest El Beni Department and along Maniqui river; San Miguel de Huachi and Santa Ana de Alto Beni. 5,320 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 5,840 (2006 PIB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimané, Mosetén Dialects: Mosetén, Tsimané. Mosetén move into Tsimané communities and function with seemingly no communication difficulties (2002 NTM). Classification: Mosetenan Comments: Mosetén and Tsimané separate languages (Adelaar 1991). Traditional religion.

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Uru
[ure] La Paz Department, south tip, Lake Titicaca, Desaguadero river area; Oruro Department, Atahuallpa province. 2 (Adelaar 2004). There are 3 groups of Uru origin: Chipaya, Iru Itu, Murato. Of these only Chipaya have conserved the language. The 1994 census has surprisingly shown that 59 of the 142 Iru Itu contended to know the language, which in reality is spoken by a few elders (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 590 (Crevels 2007). 450 Murato, 140 Iru Itu. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Iru-Itu, Morato, Muratu Classification: Chipaya-Uru

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Wichí Lhamtés Nocten
[mtp] North central Tarija Department, southwest of Pilcomayo river, Cordillera de Pirapo. 1,810 in Bolivia (1994). Population total all countries: 1,910. Ethnic population: 2,020 (1994). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bolivian, “Mataco” (pej.), “Mataco Nocten” (pej.), Noctén, Noctenes, Oktenai, Weenhayek Classification: Matacoan, Mataco

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Yaminahua
[yaa] Pando Department, Nicolás Suárez province, headwaters of Alto Yuruá and Purús rivers, in Puerto Yaminawa. 200 in Bolivia (2011 E. Wyss). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Jaminawa, Yamanawa, Yaminawa Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State Comments: Same dialect or similar to that of Brazil; slightly different from Peru dialect.

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Yuqui
[yuq] Foothills north of Cochabamba; Chimoré river. 120 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 140 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bia, Yuki Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sirionó [srq]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guarayú, Sirionó Comments: Nomadic. Bia is a Guaraní name.

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Yuracare
[yuz] El Beni and Cochabamba departments, primarily along Chapare river. 2,680 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 3,300 (Adelaar 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yura Dialects: Mansinyo, Soloto. Classification: Language isolate

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