Bhutan

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Adap
[adp] South central, Wangdue Phodrang District, from Damphu to Shemgang, Ada villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Dzongkha [dzo], 62%–65% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 41% with Tshangla [tsj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern

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Brokkat
[bro] Central Bumthang District, Dur. 300 (Van Driem 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokskad, Jokay Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern Comments: Different from Brokpake [sgt] (Van Driem 1993).

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Brokpake
[sgt] Trashigang District, Sakteng valley east, mainly in Merak and Sakteng villages. 5,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokpa, Dakpa, Damilo, Dap, Drokpakay, Jobikha, Mera Sagtengpa, Meragsagstengkha, Mira Sagtengpa, Sagtengpa Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern Comments: Buddhist.

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Bumthangkha
[kjz] Central Bhutan, Bumthang, Mangdi District around Tongsa in Mangdikha; northeast border of Kurto in Tsamangkha on the east; Yangtse District in Salabekha; Tawang; southeast Tibet. 20,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhumtam, Bumtang, Bumtangkha, Bumtanp, Bumthang, Bumthapkha, Kebumtamp Dialects: Chogor, Chunmat, Tang, Ura. Some northern varieties of Khengkha [xkf] and some southern varieties of Bumthangkha are reported by one source to likely be mutually intelligible. Tawang Monpa [twm] in India (Tawan Monba in China) is the same as, or closely related to, Bumthangkha. Lexical similarity: 92% with Khengkha [xkf], 47%–52% with Dzongkha [dzo], 62%–65% with Adap [adp], 40%–50% with Tshangla [tsj], 75%–77% with Nyenkha [neh], 70%–73% with Kurtokha [xkz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang Comments: Buddhist.

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Chalikha
[tgf] East Bhutan Mongar District, Chali area, east bank of Kurichhu river; central and eastern Bhutan in Wangmakhar, Gorsum and Tormazhong villages. 1,500 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chali, Chalipkha, Tshali, Tshalingpa Dialects: None known. Related to Bumthangkha [kjz] and Kurtokha [xkz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang

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Chocangacakha
[cgk] Mongar District, lower areas east of Dzongkha, Tsamang and Tsakaling; Lhuntsi District, Kurmet; Kurmey, Jarey, Tamochhu, Lingmithang, Thridangbi, Minje, Tormazhog, Autsho, Karmashangshang, Gorgen, Budur, Kupinyelsa. 30,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kursmadkha, Maphekha, Rtsamangpa’ikha, Tsagkaglingpa’ikha Dialects: None known. Related to Dzongkha [dzo]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern

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Dakpakha
[dka] North Trashigang District, near Brokpake, in Chaleng, Phongmey, Yobinang, Dangpholeng and Lengkhar near Radhi. 2,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: May be dialect of Brokpake [sgt]. Has been influenced by Dzalakha [dzl], and Brokpake has not. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish

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Dzalakha
[dzl] East Lhuntse and Yangtse districts. 22,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dzala, Dzalamat, Yangtsebikha Dialects: Khomakha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang

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Dzongkha
[dzo] Ha, Paru, Punakha districts. 160,000 in Bhutan (2006). Population total all countries: 171,080. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2008, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Bhotia of Bhutan, Bhotia of Dukpa, Bhutanese, Drukha, Drukke, Dukpa, Jonkha, Rdzongkha, Zongkhar Dialects: Ha, Northern Thimphu, Wang-The (Thimphu-Punakha). As different from Central Tibetan [bod] as Nepali [npi] is from Hindi [hin]. Partially intelligible with Sikkimese [sip] (Denjoke). Dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 48% with Tshangla [tsj], 47%–52% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 77% with Adap [adp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern Comments: Buddhist.

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English
[eng] Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Gongduk
[goe] East Bhutan, Mongar District, Gongdu Gewog; Dagsa, Damkhar, Pangthang, Pam, Yangbari, Bala. 2,000 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gongdubikha Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish Comments: Retains the complex verbal agreement system of Proto-Tibeto-Burman. Said to belong to an ancient population of Bhutan.

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Khengkha
[xkf] Zhemgang, Mongar districts; near Bumthangkha. Middle Kheng in Northwest Zhemgang; Upper Khen northeast of Zhemgang; also Mongar District; Lower Kheng in southern Zhemgang. 50,000 (2003 SIL). 30,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 15,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ken, Keng, Kenkha, Khen, Khenkha, Kyengkha Dialects: Lower Kheng, Middle Kheng, Upper Kheng. Bumthangkha [kjz] reportedly most similar related language, but comprehension not sufficient for complex discourse. Comprehend Kurtokha [xkz] with difficulty. Lexical similarity: 75%–85% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 70% with Kurtokha [xkz] and Nyengkha [neh], 65% with Adap [adp], 34% with Dzongkha [dzo], 40% with Tshangla [tsj], and 75%–100% between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang Comments: Middle Kheng region strongest and most developed economically; Lower Kheng least developed. Buddhist.

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Kurtokha
[xkz] Northwest Lhuntsi District, especially Kurto. Bounded by Kurichhu river east and north, Tangmachhu village south and Rodula Pass west. 15,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gurtü, Kurteopkha, Kürthöpka, Kurthopkha, Kurtobikha, Kurtopakha Dialects: The dialect around Tangmachhu is more divergent. Lexical similarity: 69% with Nyengkha [neh], 70%–73% with Bumthangkha, 66%–74% with Khengkha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang

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Kurux
[kru] 4,200 in Bhutan (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kurukh, Oraoan, Uraon Classification: Dravidian, Northern

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Lakha
[lkh] 8,000 (Van Driem 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tshangkha Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern

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Layakha
[lya] North Punakha District, around Laya; Gasa District; Thimphu District, Lingzhi Gewog. 1,100 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dzongkha [dzo], but many divergent grammatical features significantly limit mutual intelligibility. Spoken by Layabs, alpine yakherds in northern Bhutan, and Lingzhibs in Western Bhutan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern

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Lepcha
[lep] West and south lower valleys. 2,000 in Bhutan (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lapcha, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa Dialects: Ilammu, Rengjongmu, Tamsangmu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Lepcha Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Lhokpu
[lhp] Southwest Bhutan, Samtsi District between Samtsi and Phuntsoling; Taba Damtey, Loto Kuchu, Sanglong, Sataka, and Lotu villages. 2,500 (Van Driem 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lhobikha, Taba-Damey-Bikha Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish Comments: An ancient population of Bhutan.

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Lunanakha
[luk] Punakha District, north, northeast quadrant, Lunana, on Pho Chhu river north from Punakha, right fork halfway up the valley. 700 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dzongkha [dzo], but many divergent grammatical features limit intelligibility between them. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern Comments: Take herds over to Gasa District, north from Punakha up the Mo Chhu River.

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Nepali
[npi] Foothills the entire length of Bhutan, especially south central. 156,000 in Bhutan (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). De facto language of provincial identity in entire length of foothills, especially south central region. Alternate Names: Eastern Pahari, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Lhotshammikha, Nepalese, Parbatiya Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari Comments: May be majority language of the south. Many are Bhutanese citizens. Hindu.

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Nupbikha
[npb] Trongsa area. 2,200 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Trongsakha Dialects: None known. Phonological similarities to Khengkha [xkf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang Comments: View their language as different from Bumthangkha [kjz].

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Nyenkha
[neh] Mangdi (Trongsa) District, Tongsa town, Sephu Geo area; Black river passes below their villages: Taktse, Usar and Tashidingkha, Phobjikha, Ridha, Dangchhu; surrounding hamlets southeast of Wangdue-Phodrang District. 10,000 (2006 Royal Gov’t of Bhutan). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Henkha, Lap, Mangdhika, Mangsdekha Dialects: Chutobikha, Phobjikha. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kurtokha [xkz], 75%-77% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 65%–78% with Khengkha [xkf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang

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Olekha
[ole] 5 villages: Adha, Rukha, Wangling, Jangji, Thrumzur. The 2 dialects are separated by the Black mountains. 500 (Van Driem 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Black Mountain Language, Monkha, Monpa, Ole Mönpa Dialects: None known. Retained complex verbal system of Proto-Tibeto-Burman. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish Comments: Reportedly an ancient population of Bhutan.

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Tshangla
[tsj] East and southeast Bhutan, especially Trashigang and Dungsam. 140,000 in Bhutan (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 158,200. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in eastern and southeastern Bhutan. Alternate Names: Menba, Monpa, Sangla, Sarchapkkha, Shachobiikha, Shachopkha, Sharchagpakha, Sharchhop-kha, Tsangla, Tshalingpa Dialects: None known. Standard variety in Tashigang. Tshangla is nearly identical to that of eastern Bhutan, except for the loss of initial voicing and tonogenesis in Tibet. Differs from Tawan Monba [twm] in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar, and Tawan Monba and Tshangla are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40%–50% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 48% with Dzongkha [dzo], 41% with Adap [adp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish Comments: Ethnonym: Schachop (sg.), Sharchhokpa (pl.) in Dzongkha. Not the same as Tsanglo (Angami Naga) of Assam, India. May also be classified as North Assam, Monpa. Buddhist.

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