Botswana

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Afrikaans
[afr] Ghanzi District L1 mainly in commercial farms and Ghanzi village; south Kgalagadi District, especially near South Africa border; Kweneng District in Takatokwane. 20,000 in Botswana (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Christian.

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||Ani
[hnh] Northwest District, Khwai river, Mababe; near Khwe [xuu] language area. 1,000 (Brenzinger 1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: |Anda, Handá, Handádam, Handa-Khwe, Handakwe-Dam, Ts’exa, Ts’éxa Dialects: Related to Khwe [xuu]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Birwa
[brl] Central District, Bobonong subdistrict; east of Selebi-Phikwe in Bobonong, Kobojango, Semolale, Motalatau, and Mathathane. Also in South Africa. 15,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.30)

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English
[eng] 4,000 in Botswana (2006). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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||Gana
[gnk] Ghanzi District, New Xadi and Ghanzi, Ghanzi commercial farms, Central Kalahari Game Reserve. Central District, Boteti subdistrict, cattleposts south and west of Rakops; east of Naro, north of |Gwi. 2,000 (2004 R. Cook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dxana, G||ana, G||ana-Khwe, Gxana, Gxanna, Kanakhoe Dialects: |Khessákhoe, Domkhoe, G||aakhwe (Balanka, G||aa), G||anakhwe (Kanakhoe). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest

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Gciriku
[diu] 2,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diriko, Diriku, Mbogedo, Mbogedu, Rugciriku, Shimbogedu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Diriku (K.332)

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|Gwi
[gwj] Kweneng District in Dutlwe, Serinane, Takotokwane, Kautwane, Khekhenye, Letihakeng, Morwamosu, and Tsetseng; Ghanzi District in New Xade, East Hanahai, and Kacgae. 2,500 (2004 R. Cook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dcui, G!wikwe, G|wi, G|wikhwe, Gcwi Dialects: Khute. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Southwest

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Herero
[her] Scattered in groups among ethnic groups: Northwest District, Maun, Gomare, Sehitwa, Makakung, Nokaneng, Shakawe, Nxaunxau, and western cattleposts; Central District, Mahalapye, Toromoja, Rakops, Mokoboxane, Letlhakane; Ghanzi District, Charles Hill, Ghanzi, Makunda, Dryhoek, New Kanagas, Dekar; Kgalagadi District in Tsabong, Omaweneno, Werd; Kgatleng District, Morwa. 31,000 in Botswana (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ochiherero, Otjiherero Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.31) Comments: Spoken by the Ovaherero and Ovambanderu peoples. Glossonym: Damara, erroneous. Most came as refugees from Namibia in the early 1900s. Christian, traditional religion.

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‡Hua
[huc] Southern Kalahari desert, Kweneng District; Central District, southwest Mahalapye subdistrict, Sasi. 200 (2004 R. Cook), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: |Hû, |Hua, ‡Hoa, ‡Hoã, ‡Hoan, ‡Hua-Owani Dialects: ‡Hua, Sasi. Related to !Xóõ [nmn]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Southern, Hua

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Ju|’hoan
[ktz] Northwest District, Namibia and Angola borders, north of ‡Kx’au||’ein. Also in Namibia. 5,000 in Botswana (2002). Population total all countries: 33,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: !Xo, Dobe Kung, Dzu’oasi, Ju’oasi, Kung, Kung-Tsumkwe, Tsumkwe, Xaixai, Xû, Xun, Zhu’oasi Dialects: Dzu’oasi (Ssu Ghassi, Zhu’oase), Nogau (Agau). May be intelligible with ‡Kx’au||’ein [aue]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalanga
[kck] Entire Northeast District; eastern third of Central District. Lilima mainly in Botswana, Kalanga mainly in Zimbabwe. 150,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chikalanga, Ikalanga, Kalaka, Sekalaka, Sekalaña, Tjikalanga Dialects: Ikalanga, Lilima (Humbe), Nyai (Nyayi), Peri, Talahundra. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.16) Comments: Different from Holoholo [hoo] of Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Kgalagadi
[xkv] South and central, along South Africa border, north Kgalagadi District, west Kweneng and Southern districts; Ghanzi District, Ghanzi, Kanagas, Tsotsha, Kuke, Karakobis, Ncojane, Kule, Charles Hill, New Xade, Dekar, and Grootlaagte; Northwest District, Sehitwa and Maun. Also in Namibia. 40,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Population total all countries: 40,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kgalagarhi, Kgalagari, Khalagari, Khalakadi, Kxhalaxadi, Qhalaxarzi, Shekgalagadi, Shekgalagari Dialects: Balaongwe (Boloongwe), Kenyi (Khena), Kgalagadi (Kgalagari), Kgwatheng, Khakhae, Koma, Ngologa, Pedi, Phaleng, Rhiti, Shaga, Shelala, Siwane (Gyegwana), Tjhauba. Ngologa is the largest dialect and may be a separate language. Different from Tswana [tsn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31) Comments: Christian.

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Khwe
[xuu] Northwest District, Gan, Cadikarauwe, Mohembo, Shakawe, Kaputura, |Ao-Kyao, Sikondomboro, Ngarange, Sekanduko, Xongoa, Cauwe, Moxatce, Dungu, Seronga, Beyetca, Gudigoa, Sicokora, Geixa, ||Qom-ca, Tobere, ‡Umbexa, Djaxo, and Kangwara. 1,600 in Botswana (2010 LBT). Children and elderly are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Basarwa, Khoe, Kxoe, “Mbarakwena” (pej.), “Water Bushmen” (pej.), Xun Dialects: Buga-Kxoe (||Ani-Khoe, ||Anikxoe, Boga, Buga-Khwe, Bukakhwe, Gani-Khwe, “River Bushman” (pej.), Tannekwe). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kua
[tyu] Central District, especially Mahalapye, Serowe subdistricts; Northeast District. Primarily cattleposts and settlements. 820 (2004 R. Cook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Basarwa, Cua, Masarwa, Tyhua, Tyua Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northeast Comments: Nomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kuhane
[sbs] Northwest District, Chobe subdistrict. 3,000 in Botswana (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikuhane, Echisubia, Kuahane, Kwahane, Sesubea, Subia, Subiya, Supia Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subia (K.401) Comments: Glossonym: Subiya by Tswana [tsn]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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‡Kx’au||’ein
[aue] Ghanzi District in Grootelaagte, Kanagas, Ghanzi, and commercial farms. 3,000 in Botswana (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ||Au||ei, ||X’au||’e, ‡Kx’au||’ei, Auen, Kaukau, Koko, Kung-Gobabis Dialects: Nogau. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lozi
[loz] 14,000 in Botswana (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.30)

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Northwest District, north of Gomare within 30 km of Okavango river. 20,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gova, Kusso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimbukushu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.333) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nama
[naq] Kgalagadi District, Tsabong, Makopong, Omaweneno, Tshane; Ghanzi district, villages along Ghanzi-Mamuno road. 200 in Botswana (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Berdama, Bergdamara, Dama, Damaqua, Damara, “Hottentot” (pej.), Kakuya Bushman Nasie, Khoekhoegowab, “Kupkaferrn” (pej.), “Kupkaffer” (pej.), Namakwa, Naman, Namaqua, Rooi Nasie, Tama, Tamakwa, Tamma Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Nama

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Nambya
[nmq] 15,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinambya, Nambzya, Nanzva Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10) Comments: Christian.

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Naro
[nhr] Ghanzi District, Ghanzi, Bere, Dekar, East Hanahai, West Hanahai, Kuke, New Kanagas, Tshobokwane, Makunda, Grootelaagte, Karakobis, Kanagas, Charles Hill, and commercial farms. Also in Namibia. 10,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Population total all countries: 14,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: ||Ai||e, ||Ai||en, ||Aikwe, ||Aisan, |Aikwe, Nharo, Nharon, Nhauru, Nhaurun Dialects: !Gingkwe, |Amkwe, |Anekwe, G!inkwe, G!okwe, N|hai-Ntse’e (N||hai, Ts’ao), Qabekhoe (!Kabbakwe, Qabekho), Ts’aokhoe (Tsaokhwe, Tsaukwe), Tserekwe, Tsorokwe. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Southwest Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndebele
[nde] Northeast District, a few villages. 17,000 in Botswana (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Isinde’bele, Northern Ndebele, Sindebele, Tabele, Tebele Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.44)

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Shua
[shg] Central District, Tutume subdistrict, Nata, Gweta; Boteti subdistrict, Motopi, Popipi, Mokoboxane, Mmatshumu, Letlhakane. 6,000 (2004 R. Cook). 100 Danisi (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mashuakwe, Shua-Khwe, Tshumakwe Dialects: ||’Aiye (|Aaye), |Oree-Khwe (|Koree-Khoe, |Oree), |Xaise (|Ais, |Hais, |Haise, |Taise), Cara, Danisi (Danisa, Danisis, Demisa, Madenassa, Madenasse, Madinnisane), Deti, Ganádi, N|oo-Khwe (N||ookhwe, N|oo), Shua-Khwe (Mashuakwe), Tshidi-Khwe (Shete Tsere, Sili, Tcaiti, Tsh’iti), Ts’ixa. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, North Central

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Tsoa
[hio] Central District, especially Mahalapye, Serowe subdistricts; Northeast District. Primarily cattleposts and settlements. Also in Zimbabwe. 3,000 in Botswana (2006). Population total all countries: 6,540. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chuwau, Chware, G||abake, Gabake-Ntshori, Haitshuari, Hietshware, Hiochuwau, Hiotshuwau, Kwe, Kwe-Etshori Kwee, Kwe-Tshori, Masarwa, Sarwa, Sesarwa, Tati, Tati Bushman, Tshuwau, Tshwa Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northeast Comments: Nomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tswana
[tsn] Widespread as lingua franca; Southeast and Kgatleng districts; east Southern and Kweneng districts, Central District, Serowe-Palapye and Mahalapye subdistricts; Northwest District Maun village area. Also in Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe. 1,070,000 in Botswana (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 4,521,700. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Beetjuans, Chuana, Coana, Cuana, Sechuana, Setswana Dialects: Kgatla, Kwena, Lete, Ngwaketse, Ngwatu (Ngwato), Rolong, Sehurutshe, Tawana, Tlahaping (Tlapi), Tlokwa. High intelligibility among Southern Sotho [sot], Northern Sotho [nso], and Tswana. Standard Tswana is based on the Sehurutshe dialect and is nearly identical to it. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31) Comments: 90%–95% of children complete standard 7 in primary school. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tswapong
[two] Central District, Mahalapye subdistrict; all villages east of Mahalapye. 2,000 (Andersson and Janson 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Setswapong Dialects: Some similarities to Northern Sotho [nso] and some to Tswana [tsn], but it is not clearly a dialect of either. Some intelligibility of northern dialect speakers of Tswana (Sengwato and Setawana), and of speakers of a northwestern dialect of Northern Sotho. Some Birwa [brl] and Tswapong [two] say their varieties are more similar to one another than to Tswana or Northern Sotho. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.30) Comments: Several groups: the Ramokgonami, Maifela, Chadibe, Sefbare, Tupsa.

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!Xóõ
[nmn] South Gantsi District, north Kgalagadi District, west Southern and Kweneng districts. Also in Namibia. 4,000 in Botswana (2002). Population total all countries: 4,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ng|amani, Tsasi Dialects: !Kwi, Auni (|Auni, |Auo), Kakia (Masarwa), Ki|hazi, Ng|u||en (||U||en, |Nu||en, |U||en, Ng|u|ei, Nu||en), Nusan (Ng|usan, Noosan, Nu-San), Xatia (|Eikusi, |Kusi, Katia, Kattea, Khatia, Vaalpens). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Southern, Hua Comments: Nusan are in Botswana. Nu||en dialect is extinct. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yeyi
[yey] North West District, Maun, Shorobe up to Mababe, Sankoyo, Daunara, Nokaneng, Gumare, Sepopo, Ikoga, Shakawe, and Seronga; Central District, Letihakane, Xumu, Rakops, Motopi. Also in Namibia. 20,000 in Botswana (2001 LBT). Population total all countries: 55,000. Ethnic population: 47,000 in Botswana. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ciyei, “Koba” (pej.), “Kuba” (pej.), “Sekoba” (pej.), Seyeyi, Shiyeyi, Yeei, Yei Dialects: Shirwanga. Not closely related to other languages. Lexical similarity: 47% with Luyana [lyn], 30% with Herero [her]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Yeye (R.41) Comments: Christian.

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Zezuru
[sna] 11,000 in Botswana (2004 R. Cook). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shona Dialects: Karanga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.11)

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