Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Alur
[alz] Orientale province: Mahagi territory, northwest to Djalasiga area. 750,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Total users in all countries: 1,367,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Dho Alur, Jo Alur, Lur, Luri. Dialects: Jonam, Ngora. Lexical similarity: 96% between the Jonam and Ngora dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur. Comments: Christian.

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Amba
[rwm] Nord-Kivu province: Uganda border area south of Lake Albert, northern Ruwenzori foothills. 4,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hambo, Humu, KiHumu, Kuamba, Kwamba, Ruwenzori Kibira, Rwamba. Dialects: Kigumu (Hamba, Kuamba, Lubulebule), Kihyanzi, Kusuwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.22).

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Asoa
[asv] Orientale province: Rungu territory, Ituri Forest, in Mangbetu [mdj] dialect areas of Maele, Meje, Aberu, and Popoi. 25,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Aka” (pej.), Asua, Asuae, Asuati. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu. Comments: A pygmy group.

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Aushi
[auh] Haut Katanga province: east of Lubumbashi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avaushi, Ushi, Usi, Uzhili, Vouaousi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.402).

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Avokaya
[avu] Orientale province: Faradje territory, near Sudan border. 25,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1989 SIL). 2,000 Ojila, 10,000 Northern Ogambi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abukeia, Avukaya. Dialects: Ojila, Ajigu (Ajugu), Northern Ogambi, Avokaya Pur. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Babango
[bbm] Orientale province: Basoko territory; some in Equateur province. 2,550 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bango, Mobango, Southwest Bwa. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Budza [bja], which is immediately downriver. Lexical similarity: 89% with Budza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.441).

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Baka
[bdh] Orientale province: Garamba National Park to Sudan border. A few among the Logo [log]. 1,300 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1993 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tara Baaka. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka. Comments: Different from Baka [bkc] of Cameroon. Refugees in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Bali
[bcp] Orientale province: Tshopo district, Bafwasende territory, Tshopo river south to Ituri river north, and Ituri river north bank. 42,000 (1987 UBS). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baali, Dhibali, Kibaali, Kibala, Kibali, Libaali, Southeast Bwa. Dialects: Bemili, Bakundumu, Bafwandaka, Bekeni. The Bemili dialect is central linguistically and geographically. Lexical similarity: 52% with Lika [lik]; 40%–45% with Bwa [bww] and Pagibete [pae]; 46% with Komo [kmw]; 40% with Bhele [bhy], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]; 30% with Budu [buu] and Ndaka [ndk]; 25% with Lega languages and Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.21). Comments: ‘Kibali’ is the official name.

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Baloi
[biz] Equateur province: south, west, and east of Bomongo. 20,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baato Baloi, Boloi, Loi, Rebu. Dialects: Loi, Dzamba (Jamba), Makutu, Mampoko. Reportedly similar to Likila [lie] and Ndobo [ndw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.31).

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Bamwe
[bmg] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi district, Kungu territory, Mwanda collectivité, Ngiri river upper reaches between Limpoko and Sombe villages: Moniongo, Libobi, Likata, Mondongo, Lifunga, Bomole, Lokutu, and Botunia villages. 20,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lifonga, Likata, Libobi. All village dialects are mutually intelligible. Reportedly similar to Dzando [dzn] and Ndolo [ndl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.412).

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Banda, Mid-Southern
[bjo] Equateur province: Bosobolo territory, north of Dubulu; Mobaye territory. 2,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Yakpa (Bayaka, Yacoua, Yakpwa, Yakwa), Bendi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Banda, South Central
[lnl] Equateur province. 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ngbugu (Ngbougou, Ngubu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda, Togbo-Vara
[tor] Equateur province: Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo territory, Badja and Baya towns, Vongba II and Bandema village areas to Gwara II. 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Total users in all countries: 24,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Togbo (Tagbo, Tohgboh). Not intelligible of other Banda languages or dialects in South Sudan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara. Comments: Different from Tagbu [tbm] of Democratic Republic of the Congo in Sere group.

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Bangala
[bxg] Orientale province. Few L1 speakers. L2 users: 3,500,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as an LWC in Aru, Dungu, Faradje, and Watsa territories by all ethnic groups as a preferred market language. Alternate Names: Ngala. Dialects: None known. Reportedly becoming more like Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.30).

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Bangba
[bbe] Orientale province: Niangara territory, Kopa collectivité; Watsa territory, Tora area. 11,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abangba. Dialects: Kopa, Tora. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mayogo [mdm], 72% with Mündü [muh], 90% with dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mayogo-Bangba.

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Bangi
[bni] Equateur province: from Bolobo to Mbandaka. 50,900 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Total users in all countries: 118,740. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bobangi, Bubangi, Dzamba, Lobobangi, Rebu, Zamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.32).

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Bangubangu
[bnx] Katanga province: two northern areas, Tanganyika district; Maniema province: Kabambare territory; Sud-Kivu province. 171,000 (1995 SIL). 85,000 Bangubangu, 30,000 Mikebwe, 20,000 Kasenga, 32,000 Nonda, 4,000 Hombo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangobango, Kibangobango, Kibangubangu. Dialects: Bangubangu, Mikebwe, Kasenga, Nonda, Hombo, Sanzi. Dialects listed probably separate languages. Lexical similarity: 67% with Hemba [hem], 58% with Songe [sop], 81% with the Mikebwe dialect, 80% with the Kasenga dialect, 80% with the Nonda dialect, 71% with the Hombo dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.27). Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Barambu
[brm] Orientale province: Poko territory, between Bomokandi and Uélé rivers. 25,600 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abarambo, Amiangba, Amiangbwa, Balambu, Barambo, Duga. Dialects: Unconfirmed reports of a, Pamiaangba dialect, near Dungu in Niangara Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Barambo-Pambia.

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Beeke
[bkf] Orientale province: Ituri district, Mambasa territory, Bandaka and Bombo collectivités, 1 village in each. 1,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Beke, Ibeeke. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Bali [bcp], 46% with Lika [lik] and Bila [bip], 40% with Bera [brf], 38% with Ndaka [ndk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.335). Comments: Possibly ethnic Bali who moved away from Bali territory to 2 villages south of Ituri River, and in 1960s to Ndaka and Mbo [zmw] territory along the main road from Mambasa to Kisangani.

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Bemba
[bem] Near southeast Katanga Province border. 300,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chiwemba, Ichibemba, Icibemba, Wemba. Dialects: Lembue, Lomotua (Lomotwa), Ngoma, Nwesi, Shila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.42). Comments: Distinct from Bembe [bmb] of Sud-Kivu Province as well as Beembe [beq] (Bembe) of Congo (Brazzaville). Possibly in Zimbabwe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bembe
[bmb] Sud-Kivu province: Fizi territory, west of Lake Tanganyika; Maniema province. 252,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Beembe, Ebembe, Ibembe. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 76%–84% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm] dialects, 68% with Buyu [byi], 60% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 55% with Zimba [zmb], 50% with Enya [gey], 45% with Nyanga [nyj], 40% with Tembo [tbt], 30% with Lengola [lej]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe-Buyi (D.54). Comments: Classified with the Lega group (Bryan 1959). Distinct from Beembe [beq] (Bembe) of Congo Brazzaville and Bemba [bem] (Chibemba) in southeast Katanga Province, Zambia, and Tanzania. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bendi
[bct] Orientale province: Djugu territory, between Bunia and Djalasiga. 32,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mabendi, Mabeni. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Different from Ngiti [niy] (Bindi), and Bendi which is a dialect of Banda [bjo] of Equateur Province.

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Bera
[brf] Orientale province: Ituri district, Irumu territory. 120,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bira, Kibira, Plains Bira, Sese, Sumbura. Dialects: One dialect, but some variation around Solenyama. Lexical similarity: 70% with Amba [rwm]; 56%–59% with Bila [bip], Kaiku [kkq], Bhele [bhy], and Komo [kmw]; 47% with Bwa [bww], Lika [lik], and Bali [bcp]; 22% with Nyali [nlj] and Budu [buu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.32).

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Bhele
[bhy] Nord-Kivu province: Lubero territory, west of Butembo. Southern Bhele is in Munjoa; several enclaves in Orientale province. 15,000 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bili, Ebhele, Ipere, Kipere, Kipili, Pere, Peri, Pili, Piri. Dialects: Bugombe (Ebugombe). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kaiku [kkq] and Komo [kmw], 70% with Bila [bip], less than 60% with Bera [brf] and Amba [rwm], 40% with Bali [bcp] and Lika [lik]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.31). Comments: Different from Peri, a dialect of Kalanga [kck] of Zimbabwe. Names of ethnic groups: Babeka, Baleje, Batike, Babhogombe (Bapakombe, Bugombe, Ebugombe), Babhaidhomba, and Babhogala (Bapokara). Bapakombe may be separate language.

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Bila
[bip] Orientale province: Ituri district, Irumu territory; Nord-Kivu province: northwest of Beni. 40,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ebila, Forest Bira, Kibila, Western Bila. Dialects: Bombi-Ngbanja, Nyaku. Lexical similarity: 94% between dialects, closely related to other Bira languages: 80% with Kaiku [kkq], 72% with Bhele [bhy], 70% with Komo [kmw], nearly 60% with Bera [brf] and Amba [rwm], 46% with Beeke [bkf], 45% with Bwa [bww], 40% with Lika [lik] and Bali [bcp], 26% with Mbo [zmw], 22% with Budu [buu] and Ndaka [ndk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.311). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Binji
[bpj] Kasai-Occidental province: Kazumba territory; Kasai-Oriental province: Sankura district. 165,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bindji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.231).

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Boguru
[bqu] Orientale province: west of Garamba National Park, Dungu. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Buguru, Guru, Kinsong, Kogoro, Koguru. Dialects: Boguru, Bukur (Bukum, Bukuru), Koguru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.302). Comments: Speakers in Democratic Republic of the Congo are refugees of South Sudanese origin.

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Boko
[bkp] Equateur province: on Congo river upstream from Mbandaka. 21000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iboko. Dialects: Busa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.16). Comments: Different from Longto [wok] of Cameroon and Boko [bqc] of Benin and Nigeria.

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Bolia
[bli] Bandundu province: north of Lake Mai-Ndombe; Equateur province: southeast of Lake Tumba. 100,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bokoki, Bulia. Dialects: Reportedly similar to, or possibly a dialect of, Ntomba [nto]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.35).

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Boloki
[bkt] Equateur province: Congo river, upstream from Mbandaka. 4200 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baloki, Boleki, Buluki, River Ruki. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.36).

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Bolondo
[bzm] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Budjala territory on Saw river south of Budjala, Bamba village area. 3,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Tembo [tmv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.302).

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Boma
[boh] Bandundu province: Bagata territory. 20,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boma Kasai, Buma, Kiboma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.82).

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Bomboli
[bml] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Kungu territory, Dongo collectivité, north of Bomongo on a canal flowing into Ngiri river, between Bokondo and Bodjinga villages. 2,500 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bombongo. Dialects: 3 dialects. Reportedly most similar to Bozaba [bzo] and Lobala [loq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.161). Comments: Consider themselves ethnically distinct from the Lobala [loq].

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Bomboma
[bws] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Kungu territory, Bomboma collectivité between Bomboma and Bokonzi villages: Lingonda, Ebuku, Makengo, Ndzubele, Motuba villages. 7 villages. 23,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boba. Dialects: Likaw, Lingonda, Ebuku, Bokonzi. The Likaw in Budjala Territory, southwest of Budjala, are reportedly ethnically identical with Bomboma and have good intercomprehension. Lexical similarity: 93% with the Ebuku and Lingonda dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.411).

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Bozaba
[bzo] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Kungu territory, Mwanda collectivité, northwest of Ngiri and Mwanda rivers confluence. 5,500 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Budzaba, Buzaba. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Bomboli [bml], then Bomboma [bws] and Lobala [loq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.162).

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Budu
[buu] Orientale province: Wamba territory, 8 collectivités. 180,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bodo, Ebudu, Kibudu. Dialects: Ineta (Timoniko), Wadimbisa (Isombi), Makoda, West Bafwangada (Bafanio), East Bafwangada, Bafwakoyi, Malamba, Mahaa. Bafwakoyi dialect, around Wamba, is best understood by East Bafwangada, Mahaa, and Malamba users; Ineta dialect, near Ibambi, is best understood by Makoda, Wadimbisa, and West Bafwangada users. However, Ibambi and Wamba groups consider themselves one people and language. Lexical similarity: 92% within dialects; 85% with Ndaka [ndk]; 78% with Mbo [zmw]; 74% with Nyali [nlj] and Vanuma [vau]; 30% with Bali [bcp]; Lika [lik], and Komo [kmw]; 20%–25% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]; 14% with Congo Swahili [swc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.332). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Budza
[bja] Equateur province: Mongala, Bumba, and parts of Bongandanga territories; northwest Orientale province. 226,000 (1985 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Budja, Buja, Ebuja, Embudja, Limbudza, Mbudja. Dialects: Mbila, Monzamboli, Bosambi, Yaliambi. Lexical similarity: 89% with Babango [bbm], 59% with Ngombe [ngc], 48% with Lingala [lin], 35%–40% with Pagibete [pae] and Bwa [bww]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.37).

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Buraka
[bkg] Equateur province: Ubangi river area; north and northeast of Bosobolo. 1,300 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boraka, Bouraka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili.

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Bushoong
[buf] Kasai-Occidental province: Mweka and north Ilebo territories. 155,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamongo, Bukuba, Bushona, Bushong, Bushonga, Bushongo, Busoong, Ganga, Kuba, Mbale, Mongo, Shongo. Dialects: Djembe, Ngende (Ngeende, Ngendi), Ngombe (Ngombia), Ngongo, Pianga (Panga, Piong, Pyaang, Tsobwa), Shuwa (Loshoobo, Shoba, Shobwa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.83). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Buyu
[byi] Lake Tanganyika area, borders of Maniema, Katanga, and Sud-Kivu provinces. 10,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bujwe, Buyi, Kibuyu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Bembe [bmb], 60% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], 55% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 50% with Zimba [zmb] and Enya [gey], 40% with Bangubangu [bnx]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe-Buyi (D.55).

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Bwa
[bww] Orientale province: Buta, Bambesa, Banalia, Aketi, and Bondo territories. Buta is center. Kiba is in Banalia territory; Benge and Bati in Aketi and Bondo territories; northeastern Equateur province: on Ubangi river. 200,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boa, Boua, Bua, Kibua, Kibwa, Libenge, Libua, Libwali. Dialects: Leboa-Le, Yewu, Kiba, Benge, Bati (Baati). Lexical similarity: 90% with Benge and Bati dialects, 80%–85% with Pagibete [pae], 60%–80% with Kango [kty], 60%–65% with Ngelima [agh], 55%–60% with Lika [lik], 48% with Komo [kmw], 43% with Bali [bcp], 37% with Ngombe [ngc], 35% with Budza [bja], 30% with Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.44). Comments: Buta and Bambesa territories have similar dialects. Clan names: Bangingita, Bagunzulu, Bokipa. Different from Bua [bub] of Chad.

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Bwela
[bwl] Orientale province. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buela, Lingi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.42).

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Bwile
[bwc] Haut Katanga province: Pweto area north end of Lake Mweru. 12,400 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.401).

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Chokwe
[cjk] Near Angola border, southeast Bandundu, Kasai-Occidental, and Katanga provinces. 504,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ciokwe, Cokwe, Djok, Imo, Shioko, Tschiokwe, Tshokwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.11).

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Dengese
[dez] Kasai-Occidental province: Dekese territory. 8,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ileo, Lengese, Ndengese, Nkutu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.81).

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Ding
[diz] Bandundu province: Idiofa territory, on Kasaï river. 155,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Di, Din, Dinga, Dzing. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yansi [yns]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.86).

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Dongo
[doo] Orientale province: east of Watsa. 12,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Donga, Dongo Ko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba. Comments: Different from Dongo, a dialect of Gbaya [krs] of Sudan, Dong [doh] (Donga) of Nigeria, which is in the Chamba group of Adamawa, and Ndo [ndp], which is Nilo-Saharan.

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Dzando
[dzn] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Kungu territory, Mwanda collectivité, between Ngiri and Mwanda rivers, Lokay, Molunga, Maboko, and Moliba villages. 6,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lokay, Molunga, Maboko, Moliba. Comprehension of Lifunga dialect of Bamwe [bmg] very high. Lexical similarity: 6% with Lifunga dialect of Bamwe [bmg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.413).

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Efe
[efe] Orientale province: Mambasa, Watsa, Irumu, and Djugu territories; Nord-Kivu province: enclave north of Beni. 20,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Live among the Balese and trade with them. Pygmies. Traditional religion.

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Enya
[gey] Orientale province: Ubundu territory, Lualaba river from Kisangani upriver to Kongolo. 15,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ena, Genya, Tsheenya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Mituku [zmq], 54% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 50% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Zimba [zmb], 47% with Nyanga [nyj], 40% with Lengola [lej], 30% with Komo [kmw] and Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Mbole-Enya (D.14).

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Foma
[fom] Orientale province: Congo river north side, upstream from Basoko. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fuma, Lifoma, Pseudo-Bambole. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.56).

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French
[fra] L2 users: 6,080,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (OIF 2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2006, Constitution, Article 1). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fuliiru
[flr] Sud-Kivu province: Uvira territory, north and northwest of Uvira. 400,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulero, Fuliiro, Fuliru, Kifulero, Kifuliiru. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mashi [shr], 90% with Nyindu [nyg] and Joba [job]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.63).

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Furu
[fuu] Equateur province: Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo and Mobaye territories, east of Bosobolo. 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Total users in all countries: 16,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagero, Bagiro, Baguero, Baguiro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Gbanziri
[gbg] Equateur province: Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo territory, along Ubangi river. 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banziri, Gbandere, Gbanzili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili.

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Gilima
[gix] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, north Libenge territory in 3 groups: Bogon north, Mbanza-Balakpa southeast, and Bandi southwest. 12,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngbaka Ma’bo [nbm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka. Comments: May be in Central African Republic.

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Gobu
[gox] Equateur province: Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo territory: north of Bili between Duguru and Borunu on Sidi road, and Pandu area between Denbili and Bele II villages. 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gabou, Gabu, Gubu, Ngobo, Ngobu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Togbo-Vara Banda [tor] and Mono [mnh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Hamba
[hba] Kasai-Orientale province: Lodja territory; Maniema province. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.71). Comments: Different from the Hamba dialect of Haya [hay] of Tanzania.

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Havu
[hav] Sud-Kivu province: Idjwi and Kalehe territories; Nord-Kivu province. 506,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Haavu, Kihavu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Shi [shr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.52).

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Hema
[nix] Orientale province: Ituri district, Irumu and Djugu territories. 125,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Congo Nyoro, Hema-Sud, Kihema, Nyoro, Oruhuma, Runyoro, Southern Hema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.121). Comments: Hema is spoken by the Southern Hema people, of the same ethnic stock as the Northern Hema (who speak Lendu [led]) and the speakers of the Hima dialect of Nyankore [nyn] in Uganda.

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Hemba
[hem] Katanga province: east Kongolo territory; southernmost Maniema province. 181,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Luba, Emba, Kiemba, Kihemba, Luba-Hemba. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Bangubangu [bnx], 64% with Songe [sop], higher than 67% with the Mikebwe and Hombo dialects of Bangubangu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.34).

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Holoholo
[hoo] Katanga province: northwest Kalemie area. 15,500 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guha, Horohoro, Kalanga, Kiholoholo, Kikalanga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.28). Comments: Different from Holu [hol] (Kiholo, Holo).

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Holu
[hol] Extreme southwest corner of Bandundu Province; Malanje. 5,100 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Holo, Hongu, Kiholo, Kiholu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.12).

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Hunde
[hke] Nord-Kivu province: Masisi and Rutshuru territories. 200,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kihunde, Kobi, Rukobi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Tembo [tbt], 65% with Nande [nnb], 57% with Nyanga [nyj] and Shi [shr], 50% with Lega-Shabunda [lea]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.51). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hungana
[hum] Bandundu province: Bulungu territory. 400 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Huana, Hungaan, Hunganna, Kihungana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Mbala-Hunganna (H.42).

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Joba
[job] Sud-Kivu province: Uvira territory, north and northwest of Uvira. 10,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kijoba, Kivira, Loba, Vira. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.631).

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Kabwari
[kcw] Sud-Kivu province: Fizi territory. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bwari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.56).

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Kaiku
[kkq] Orientale province: Ituri district, Mambasa territory, Babombi collectivité; Nord-Kivu province: northern border. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikaiku, Kaiko. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Bhele and Bila, 70% with Komo [kmw], 56% with Bera [brf], 20%–25% with Mbo [zmw], Ndaka [ndk], and Budu [buu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.312). Comments: The people are considered Bila.

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Kakwa
[keo] Orientale province: Aru territory, north of Aru; Faradje territory. 20,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. Comments: Christian.

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Kaliko
[kbo] Orientale province: north Aru territory, along Sudan border. 7,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaliko-Ma’di, Keliko, Ma’di, Maditi. Dialects: Didi, Dogo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Comments: Dogo dialect is more like Sudanese Kaliko [kbo].

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Kango
[kty] Orientale province: Bas-Uélé district, Uélé river banks and tributaries. 5,900 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Likango. Dialects: Bomokandi, Uélé. Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Pagibete [pae], 66% with Ngelima [agh], 75%–80% with Bwa [bww], 60% with Lika [lik]. The Bomokandi dialect has 60%–65% with Bwa [bww] and Pagibete [pae], 68% with Lika [lik], 58% with Ngelima [agh]. Both dialects have 50% with Bali [bcp] and Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.403). Comments: A pidginized language. Possibly a cover term for a variety of dialects spoken by fishermen, called Bakango. Different from Kango [kzy], a pygmy language spoken among the Bali.

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Kango
[kzy] Orientale province: Tshopo district, Bafwasende territory, Bakundumu and Bemili collectivités, among the Bali [bcp]. The smaller dialect has 7 villages just south of where Nepoki and Ituri river confluence becomes Aruwimi river. 2,000 (1998 T. Harvey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Dibatchua” (pej.), Dikango, Kango Pygmy, “Kibatchua” (pej.), Kikango, Likango. Dialects: 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 78% with Komo [kmw], 72% with Bila [bip], 60% with Bali [bcp], 50% with Lika [lik]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.211). Comments: The language is evidently a combination of Komo and Bali, with some borrowings from the Bila-based pygmy language. Different from the riverine Kango [kty] to the north, who are fishermen. Those who attend school complete standard 1 or 2 classes. Traditional religion.

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Kanu
[khx] Nord-Kivu province: Walikale territory, Kabunga area; some in Sud-Kivu province. 3,500 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaanu, Kano, Likanu. Dialects: Probably a dialect of Lega-Shabunda [lea]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.251).

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Kanyok
[kny] Kasai-Oriental province: Mwene-Ditu territory, between Bushimaie and Luembe rivers. 200,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanioka, Kanyoka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.32).

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Kaonde
[kqn] Katanga province: east Kolwezi territory. 36,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1995). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chikahonde, Chikaonde, Kahonde, Kawonde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Kaonde (L.41).

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Kari
[kbj] Northwest Orientale Province scattered, north of Uele river. Scattered in Central African Republic (1996). 1,000. May be nearly extinct (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kare, Li-Kari-Li. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.301).

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Kela
[kel] Equateur and Orientale provinces; Kasai-Oriental province: Lomela territory. 180,000 (1972 D. Barrett et al.). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikela, Lemba, Okela. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.75). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kele
[khy] Orientale province: Isangi territory, on Lomami and Congo rivers. 160,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekele, Kili, Likelo, Lokele, Yakusu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.55). Comments: Distinct from Kele [keb] (Dikele) of Gabon. Ethnic groups: Lileko, Mbooso, Yalikoka, Yaokandja, Yawemba. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kete
[kcv] Kasai-Occidental province: northeast of Mweka; southern Kasai-Oriental province. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciket, Kikete, Lukete, Tshikete. Dialects: Kete (East Kete), Kete-Kuba (North Kete), Kete-Lulua (Southwest Kete). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.21).

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Kinyarwanda
[kin] Nord-Kivu province: Rwanda border lakes area; Sud-Kivu Province: west of Bujumbura. 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (UBS). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ruanda, Rwanda. Dialects: Bwisha (Kinyabwisha), Mulenge (Kinyamulenge), Twa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.61). Comments: Dialects may need separate literature. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kituba
[ktu] Bas-Congo, Kinshasa and south Bandundu provinces. 4,200,000 (1990 UBS). L2 users: 800,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory provincial language in Bas-Congo, Bandundu regions (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Kibulamatadi, Kikongo Commercial, Kikongo Simplifié, Kikongo Ya Leta, Kikongo-Kituba, Kikongo-Kutuba, Kileta. Dialects: Ikeleve, Western Kituba, Eastern Kituba. A creole based on the Kikongo dialect spoken in Manianga area (Bas-Congo), but unintelligible to Kikongo speakers of any of the other Kikongo dialects. Influenced by Lingala [lin], French [fra], restructured Swahili [swh], Portuguese [por], and other local dialects. Similar to Kituba [mkw] (Munukutuba) of Congo. Classification: Creole, Kongo based.

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Komo
[kmw] Maniema province: Lubutu and Punia territories; Nord-Kivu province: Walikale; Orientale province: Opienge territory. Lubutu is center. 400,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikomo, Kikumo, Kikumu, Kikuumu, Kumo, Kumu, Kuumu. Dialects: No identified dialects, but speech varieties have the following differences: up to 10% lexical differences, in comparison with the reference lexicon as found in Lubutu. Most noticeable phonological variation: lambdacism. Most noticeable relational word variation: shape of the alienable possession marker. Lexical similarity: 80% with Bhele [bhy], 70% with Bila [bip], 58% with Bera [brf], 48% with Bwa [bww], 46% with Bali [bcp], Lika [lik], and Pagibete [pae], 30% with Lingala [lin], Lega-Shabunda [lea], and Budu [buu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.23). Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kongo
[kon] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 5,644,100 Status: Comments: Includes: Koongo [kng], Laari [ldi] (Congo), San Salvador Kongo [kwy].

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Kongo, San Salvador
[kwy] Bas-Congo province: Congo river area below Kinshasa into northern Angola. 537,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Congo, Iwoyo, Kikongo, Kikoongo, Kisikongo. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Kongo [kon]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16).

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Konzo
[koo] Nord-Kivu province: west slope Ruwenzori Mountains. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konjo. Dialects: Sanza (Ekisanza). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo-Ndandi (D.41). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koongo
[kng] Bas-Congo province cataract: Mbanza Manteke area; Fioti north of Boma, and scattered along the Congo River from Brazzaville to its mouth. Also in Kinshasa province. 3,000,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1982 UBS). L2 users: 5,000,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Total users in all countries: 10,016,500 (as L1: 5,016,500; as L2: 5,000,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Alternate Names: Congo, Kikongo, Kikoongo, Kongo. Dialects: South Kongo, Cataract, Central Kongo (Manyanga, Mazinga), West Kongo (Fiote, Fioti), Bwende (Buende, Sonde), East Kongo (Ntandu, Santu), South East Kongo (Nkanu, Pende, Zoombo), Nzamba (Dzamba). Part of Kongo subgroup. Other languages of the Kongo group are sometimes regarded as dialects of Koongo (see entries for Beembe [beq], Doondo [dde], Kunyi [njx], Vili [vif], Munukutuba [mkw], and Kituba [ktu]). In Angola, Ndingi and Mboka dialects may be separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Kongo [kon]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16). Comments: Fioti also spoken by Buende and Vili peoples. Christian.

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Kpala
[kpl] Equateur province: Libenge and Bosobolo territories scattered. 3,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbakpwa, Kpwaala, Kwala. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Monzombo [moj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo. Comments: Different from Kpala which is a dialect of Gbaya [krs] of Sudan.

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Kusu
[ksv] Maniema province: southwest corner, Kibombo territory; western Kasai-Oriental province. 26,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fuluka, Kikusu, Kongola, Kutsu, Lokutsu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.72).

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Kwami
[ktf] Maniema and Nord-Kivu provinces, between Kasese and Walikale. 400 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikwame, Kikwami, Kwame. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Nyanga [nyj], 68% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 66% with Kanu [khx] and Enya [gey], 61% with Mituku [zmq], 57% with Zimba [zmb], 55% with Bembe [bmb], 52% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], 49% with Hunde [hke] and Shi [shr], 48% with Buyu [byi], 47% with Tembo [tmv], 46% with Nande [nnb], 41% with Lengola [lej], 34% with Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.251). Comments: More influence from Lega than from Komo.

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Kwese
[kws] East Bandundu province: west of Kikwit. 60000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikwese, Kwezo, Pindi, Ukwese. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.13).

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Lala-Bisa
[leb] Katanga province: extreme southeast corner. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ambo (Bambo, Kambonsenga), Luano, Swaka, Wulima, Lala (Ichilala), Bisa (Ichibisa, Wiza). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lala-Bisa-Lamba (M.51).

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Lalia
[lal] Equateur province southeast corner: Ikela territory, Tumbenga, Lokina, Lofume, Tshwapa, and Loile collectivités. Yalosaka is center. Some in Orientale province. 55,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo-Nkundo (C.62). Comments: Distinct from Mongo.

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Lamba
[lam] Katanga province southeast corner. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chilamba, Ichilamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lala-Bisa-Lamba (M.54).

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Langbashe
[lna] Equateur province: Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo territory, along Ubangi river; Sidi, Bada, Zimango, Banga, and Boduna villages, scattered. 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langbase, Langbashi, Langbasi, Langbwasse, Langwasi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central.

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Lega-Mwenga
[lgm] Sud-Kivu province: Mwenga territory. 44,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ileka Ishile, Ishile, Isile, Kilega, Kirega, Lega-Ntara, Leka-Shile, Leka-Sile, Rega, Shile. Dialects: Iyoko, Ibanda, Isopo, Lusenge, Bilembo-Mango, Mizulo. Speakers say Lega-Shabunda [lea] and Bembe [bmb] are difficult to understand. Lexical similarity: 96%–88% among dialects; 76%–84% with Bembe [bmb]; 67%–81% with Lega-Shabunda [lea]; 60% with Buyu [byi]; 50% with Zimba [zmb], Enya [gey], and Mituku [zmq]; 45% with Nyanga [nyj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.25).

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Lega-Shabunda
[lea] Sud-Kivu and Maniema provinces: Shabunda and Pangi territories. Nord-Kivu province: southwest. 400,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Igonzabale, Ileka-Igonzabale, Kilega, Kirega, Lega, Lega-Malinga, Leka-Igonzabale, Rega. Dialects: Kigala, Kigyoma, Liliga, Kisede, Kinyabanga, Kinyamunsange (Pangi). Kanu [khx] is probably a dialect with 92% reported similarity. Lexical similarity: 67%–81% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm]; 65% with Kwami [ktf]; 60% with Bembe [bmb]; 55% with Budu [buu], Mituku [zmq], and Enya [gey]; 50% with Zimba [zmb], Nyanga [nyj], and Hunde [hke]; 45% with Nande [nnb]; 30% with Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.251). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lele
[lel] Kasai-Occidental province: west edge Ilebo and Tshikapa territories; extreme east Bandundu province. 26,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bashilele, Usilele. Dialects: None known. Comprehension of Wongo [won]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.84). Comments: Different from Lele [lln] of Chad.

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Lendu
[led] Orientale province: Ituri district, Djugu territory, west and northwest of Lake Albert. 750,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1996 SIL). Total users in all countries: 761,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bale, Baledha, Balendru, Baletha, Batha, Bbadha, Bbaledha, Hema-Nord, Kihema-Nord, Kilendu, Ndrulo. Dialects: Djadha (Jidha), Tadha, Pidha, Ddralo (Ddradha), Njawlo (Njawdha). Tadha is standard dialect. Djadha is largest and is used for literature. Jidha is the variety of the Bagegere (Northern Hema) who have adopted Lendu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu. Comments: Distinct from the Bale dialect of Ngombe [ngc]. Christian.

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Lengola
[lej] Orientale province: Ubundu territory; Maniema province: Lubutu and Punia territories, Lualaba river area between Opienge, Lowa, and a point called ‘Km 100’ on Kisangani-Lubutu road. 100,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kilengola, Lengora. Dialects: 2 dialects which differ in pronunciation. Lexical similarity: 40% with Enya [gey] and Mituku [zmq]; 35%–40% with Budu [buu] and Komo [kmw]; 30%–35% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], Lega-Mwenga [lgm], and Zimba [zmb]; 25%–30% with Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Bali [bcp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Mbole-Enya (D.12). Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Lese
[les] Orientale province: Watsa, Djugu, Irumu, and Mambasa territories; Nord-Kivu province: border enclave north of Beni. 50,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balese, Lesa, Lesse, Lissi, Mbuti, Walese, Walisi. Dialects: Lese Karo, Arumbi (Upstream Lese), Ndese (Lese Dese), Vukutu (Obi, Vonkutu), Fare. Reportedly similar to Mamvu [mdi], Bendi [bct], Mangbutu [mdk], and Efe [efe]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Libinza
[liz] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Kungu territory; Equateur district, northern Bomongo territory, on Ngiri and Mwanda rivers, Monia and Boniange villages southward; on islands as far as Bomongo. 10,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binza, Libindja, Libinja. Dialects: Monia, Boniange, Kutu. Dialects or closely related languages: Balobo (Likila) [lie] and Ndobo [ndw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.321). Comments: Distinct from the Binza (Libinja) dialect of Ligenza [lgz].

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Ligenza
[lgz] Equateur province: small areas in Bumba territory. Benza dialect: Orientale province: Aketi territory. 43,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Digenja, Gendja, Gendza-Bali, Ligendza. Dialects: Bokoy, Elowa, Benza (Binja, Binza, Libenza, Libindja, Libinja), Bolupi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.414).

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Lika
[lik] Orientale province: Haut-Uélé district, Wamba territory, Balika-Toriko collectivité; Rungu territory, Mongomasi collectivité. 60,000 (1989 SIL). 57,000 in Wamba Territory, 3,000 in Rungu Territory. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kilika, Kpongo, Liko, Mabiti, Maliko, Toriko. Dialects: Likó (Ikó), Lilikó, Liliká (Liká). Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with Bomokandi Kango [kty]; 55%–60% with Pagibete [pae], Bwa [bww], and Uélé Kango [kty]; 52% with Bali [bcp]; 51% with Ngelima [agh]; 46% with Komo [kmw]; 40% with Bhele [bhy], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]; 30% with Budu [buu]; 25% with Lega languages and Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.201). Comments: 2 secondary schools, 15 primary schools, but Lika is not used in the schools. Christian, Muslim.

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Likila
[lie] Equateur province: Makanza town area, Congo river north bank. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balobo, Bangela. Dialects: Dialect or closely related language to Libinza [liz] or Baloi [biz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.31).

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Lingala
[lin] Widespread in Bandundu, Kinshasa, Equateur, and Orientale provinces, but not in southeast portion of the lattermost. 2,040,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Total users in all countries: 2,146,210. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in northwestern regions (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Ngala. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lusengo [lse] and Bangala [bxg]. Lexical similarity: 33% with Bobangi [bni]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.30).

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Lobala
[loq] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi district, Kungu territory; Equateur district, Bomongo territory, Dongo northeast road to Mokusi village; Dongo road south following Ubangi river, and forest south and west. 60,000 (2000 D. Morgan). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Poko (Iboko), South Lobala, Tanda, Likoka. Reportedly most similar to Bomboma [bws]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.16).

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Logo
[log] Orientale province: Faradje territory, and Watsa town. 210,000 (1989 SIL). 100,000 Ogambi. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Logoti. Dialects: Ogambi (Northern Logo, Ogamaru), Doka, Lolya, Obilebha (Obelebha, Obileba), Bhagira (Bagela), Bari (Bari-Logo, Bariti). A dialect subgroup, with Lolya as central. Reportedly similar to Avokaya [avu] and Omi [omi]. Avokaya in the northern Ogambi Area, may be more similar to Logo [log] than to Avokaya in Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lombi
[lmi] Orientale province: Tshopo district, Bafwasende territory, Barumi and Bekeni collectivités, Opienge, Banguruye, and Bangolu areas; northwest Nord-Kivu province. 12,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lumbi, Odyalombito, Rombi, Rumli. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mangbetu [mdj], but not as close as Mangbetu dialects are to each other. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu. Comments: Different than the Lombi dialect of Basa [bzw] in Cameroon.

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Lombo
[loo] Orientale province: Isangi area, both sides of Congo river. 10,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olombo, Turumbu, Ulumbu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.54). Comments: Reportedly readily understand Kele [khy].

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Lonzo
[lnz] Bandundu province: Kenge territory. 300 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Luba-Kasai
[lua] Kasai-Occidental province: southeastern third; Kasai-Oriental province: Sankura district. 6,300,000 (1991 UBS). L2 users: 700,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kasai Region (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Bena-Lulua, Ciluba, Luba-Lulua, Luva, Tshiluba, Western Luba. Dialects: Lulua, Luluwa, West Luba. Significant dialect differences between East Kasai region (Baluba people) and West Kasai region (Bena Lulua people). Reportedly similar to Hemba [hem]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.31). Comments: Christian.

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Luba-Katanga
[lub] Katanga province: Haut-Lomami district; Kasai-Oriental province: southeast Sankuru district. 1,510,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kiluba, Luba-Shaba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.33).

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Lugbara
[lgg] Orientale province: Aru territory, 6 collectivités. 840,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: High Lugbara, Lugbarati. Dialects: Zaki, Abedju-Azaki, Lu, Aluru, Nio, Otsho. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Comments: Aluru reportedly influenced by Ndo [ndp]; Nio and Otsho dialects are similar to Uganda Lugbara. Christian.

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Luna
[luj] Kasai-Oriental province: Lusambo territory. 50000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inkongo, Kuba, Luna-Inkongo, Northern Luba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.24).

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Lunda
[lun] Katanga province: Lualaba district; extreme south Bandundu province: Kahemba territory. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chilunda. Dialects: Lunda Ndembu, Lunda Kalunda, Lunda Kambove. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.52).

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Lusengo
[lse] Equateur province: Mankanza, Lisala, and Bumba territories, Congo river area. 42,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Losengo. Dialects: Kangana, Iliku (Eleko, Eleku, Leko, Leku, Loleko), Limpesa (Mpesa), Lipoto (Ingundji, Kele, Pfoto, Poto, Upoto), Bumwangi, Busu Djanga, Empesa Poko, Esumbu, Kunda, Kumba, Lusengo Poto, Mongala Poto, Ngundi, Mongo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.36).

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Lwalu
[lwa] Kasai-Occidental province: Luiza territory. 21,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lwalwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.221).

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Ma
[msj] Orientale province: north of Niangara, near Kapili river. 4,700 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amadi, Madi, Madyo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba.

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Mabaale
[mmz] Equateur province: Ngiri river area. 42,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lomabaale, Mabale, Mbali. Dialects: Bembe, Lipanja, Banza, Mbinga, Lobo (Balobo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.311).

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Mamvu
[mdi] Orientale province: Watsa territory, west and southwest of Watsa. 60,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tengo. Dialects: Amengi, Mamvu (Momfu, Momvu). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Different from Efe [efe]. Possibly some in Uganda.

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Mangbetu
[mdj] Orientale province: Rungu, Niangara, Poko, Watsa, Wamba, and northeast corner of Banalia territories. Popoi in Banalia territory; Aberu in Wamba territory. 620000 Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amangbetu, Kingbetu, Mambetto, Mangbettu, Nemangbetu. Dialects: Aberu, Meje (Medje, Meegye), Mangbetu, Makere, Malele, Popoi. Medje dialect has most speakers, and is most widely understood. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu.

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Mangbutu
[mdk] Orientale province: Watsa territory, south of Kibali river and east of Moto river. 15,000 (1991 SIL). 1,200 Andinai. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mangu-Ngutu, Mombuttu, Wambutu. Dialects: Andinai, Makutana, Angwe (Andali). Users of the Andinai dialect are separated from other users of Mangbutu by users of Lese [les]. The Andali are a clan speaking the Angwe dialect. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Christian.

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Mayeka
[myc] Bandundu province: border area with Central African Republic, Congo river vicinity. 21,000 (2004). Ethnic population: 25,500 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Part of subgroup with Nyanga-li [nyc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.307).

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Mayogo
[mdm] Orientale province: Isiro area, mostly Rungu and Wamba territories. 100,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kiyogo, Maigo, Maiko, Majugu, Mayko, Mayugo. Dialects: Madimadoko, Madipia (Mabodese, Mabozo, Madjedje, Magbai). Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Bangba [bbe], 62% with Mündü [muh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mayogo-Bangba. Comments: Ethnic groups: Bakango, Dai (Day, Angai), Maambi, Mangbele. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mba
[mfc] Orientale province: Banalia territory, Banjwade area. 36,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimanga, Kimbanga, Manga, Mbane. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba. Comments: Perhaps 45% of children are in school.

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Mbala
[mdp] Bandundu province: Bagata and Bulungu territories, between Kwango and Kwilu rivers. 200,000 (Nida 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gimbala, Rumbala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Mbala-Hunganna (H.41).

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Mbandja
[zmz] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Nord Ubangi, and west Mongala districts; west, southwest, and east of the Ngbaka [nga]. 352,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Total users in all countries: 362,460. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbandza, Mbanja, Mbanza. Dialects: Kala, Gbado. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southern.

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Mbesa
[zms] Orientale province: north Yahuma territory, south of Congo river. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mobesa, Mombesa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.51).

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Mbo
[zmw] Orientale province: Ituri district, Mambasa territory, Bombo collectivité; some in Nord-Kivu province. 11,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Imbo, Kimbo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87% with Ndaka, 78% with Budu, 77% with Vanuma, 76% with Nyali, 30% with Komo [kmw], 25% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], Bera [brf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.334). Comments: Different from Mbo [mbo] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Mbole
[mdq] Orientale province: southwest of Kisangani; southeastern Equateur province. 100,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lombole. Dialects: Keembo, Nkimbe (Nkembe), Yangonda, Yaisu, Inja, Botunga, Yaamba, Yaikole. Reportedly similar to Mituku [zmq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Mbole-Enya (D.11). Comments: Apparently different from the Mbole dialect of Ombo [oml].

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Mfinu
[zmf] Kinshasa province. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Emfinu, Funika, Mfununga. Dialects: Ntsiam, Ntswar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.83).

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Mituku
[zmq] Orientale province: Ubundu territory, west of Lualaba river. 50,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinya-Mituku, Metoko. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mbole [mdq]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Enya [gey]; 55% with Lega-Shabunda [lea]; 50% with Nyanga [nyj], Lega-Mwengac [lgm], Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Zimba [zmb]; 40% with Lengola [lej]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Mbole-Enya (D.13).

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Moingi
[mwz] Orientale province: Yahuma territory, south of Congo river, opposite Basoko town. 4,200 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified.

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Mongo-Nkundu
[lol] South half Equateur province; northeast Bandundu province. 400,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lomongo, Mongo. Dialects: Mpama, Wangata, Panga (Acitu, Buli, Ipanga, South Nkundo, Titu), Bukala (Kala), Yalima (Yailima, Yajima), Kutu (Bakutu), Ekonda Mongo (Lomongo), Longo (Belo, Bolongo), Nkundo (Lolo, Lonkundo, Lonkundu, Nkundu), Ntomba-Inongo, Ntomba-Bikoro, Konda (Bosanga-Ekonda, Ekonda, Lokonda, Lokwala), Longombe (Ngombe-Lomela, Ngome à Múná), Bokote, Booli, Bosaka, Ekota, Emoma, Ikongo (Lokalo-Lomela), Iyembe, Lionje (Nsongo, Ntomba), Yamongo, Mbole (Bosanga-Mbole, Lwankamba, Mangilongo, Nkengo, Yenge, Yongo), Nkole. Dialect or language subgroup: Lalia [lal], Mongo-Nkundu, Ngando, and Ombo [oml]. Longombe dialect, spoken along Boende-to-Wema road, is reportedly most similar to the Bakutu dialect. Ntomba-Inongo, Ntomba-Bikoro, and Konda dialects may be separate languages. Konda is in Equateur Province, southern Equateur district, and in Bandundu Province, Mai-Ndombe district, Kiri territory. In Mbandaka, they call their dialect, Lonkundo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo-Nkundo (C.61).

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Mono
[mnh] Equateur province: Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo territory; some in Libenge territory. Bili is center. 65,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amono. Dialects: Bili, Bubanda, Galaba, Kaga, Mpaka. Reportedly most similar to Togbo-Vara Banda [tor] and Gobu [gox], but quite different ethnically from Togbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Monzombo
[moj] Equateur province: Ubangi river east bank, south of Libenge. 5,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Monjombo, Mono-Jembo, Monzumbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo.

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Mpuono
[zmp] Bandundu province: Idiofa territory. 165,000 (Nida 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Mpuono, Mpuun (Ambuun, Gimbunda, Kibunda, Kimbuun, Mbunda, Mbuun). Reportedly similar to Yansi [yns]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.84). Comments: Different from Mbunda [mck] of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola in Chokwe-Luchazi group.

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Mündü
[muh] Orientale province: north and northeast of Faradje. 2,800 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mondo, Mountou, Mundo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu.

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Mvuba
[mxh] Nord-Kivu province: Beni territory, Oicha area. 5,100 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Total users in all countries: 5,970. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bambuba, Bamvuba, Mbuba, Mvuba-A, Obiye. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lese [les]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe.

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Nande
[nnb] Nord-Kivu province: mainly Beni and Lubero territories; southeastern Orientale province. 903,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banande, Bayira, Kinande, Kinandi, Nandi, Ndande, Ndandi, Northern Nande, Orundande. Dialects: Nande, Kumbule (Ekikumbule), Mate (Ekimate), Tangi (Ekitangi), Sanza (Ekisanza), Shu (Ekishu), Ekisongoora (Nyangala, Songola), Swaga (Ekikira, Ekiswaga), Yira (Ekiyira). Lexical similarity: 75% with Konzo [koo]; 65% with Hunde [hke]; 55% with Tembo [tmv] and Shi [shr]; 45% with Nyoro [nyo], Nyanga [nyj], and Lega-Shabunda [lea]; 40% with Talinga-Bwisi [tlj]; 30% with Bhele [bhy]; 25% with Amba [rwm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo-Ndandi (D.42). Comments: The Konzo (Bakonzo) in Uganda and Nande (Banande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo feel very much one people, the Bayira. They believe they originate from the Ruwenzori Mountains; the mountains belong to them and they to the mountains. This plays a very important role in their traditions and self-image. Christian.

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Ndaka
[ndk] Orientale province: Ituri district, Mambasa territory, Bandaka collectivité, along Bunia to NiaNia road. 25,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Indaaka, Ndaaka. Dialects: Only 1 dialect. Lexical similarity: 87% with Mbo [zmw]; 85% with Budu [buu]; 76% with Vanuma [vau]; 73% with Nyali [nlj]; 30% with Komo [kmw]; 22% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.333). Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ndo
[ndp] Orientale province: Mahagi and Aru territories, south of Lowa river, west and northwest of Djalasiga. Oke’bu on Uganda border. 100,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ke’bu, Kebutu, Ndu, Oke’bu. Dialects: Avari (Avare, Avere, Aviritu), Oke’bu, Membi (Meembi, Membitu, Mombi, Ndo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Christian.

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Ndobo
[ndw] Equateur province: between Bomongo and Congo rivers. 10,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ndoobo. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Baloi [biz] or Libinza [liz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.312).

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Ndolo
[ndl] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Budjala territory, Ndolo-Liboko collectivité, Moeko river, south of Budjala between Ndama and Bokala villages, and Tando and Lisombo villages. 8,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mosange, Ndoolo, Tando. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.36).

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Ndunga
[ndt] Equateur province: Lisala territory. 8 villages. 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bondonga, Modunga, Mondugu, Mondunga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mba [mfc] (Kimanga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba.

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Ngando
[nxd] Equateur province: Maringa river area, north of Ikela; Orientale province: Tshopo district. 220,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bongando, Longandu, Ngandu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo-Nkundo (C.63). Comments: Not related to Ngando [ngd] of Central African Republic.

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Ngbaka
[nga] Equateur province: Gemena territory area. 850 villages. 1,010,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 1,016,650. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ngbaka Gbaya, Ngbaka Minagende. Dialects: Dialect differences are minor. Related to Gbaya languages of Central African Republic and Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East. Comments: Ngbaka is a different language from Ngbaka Ma’bo [nbm]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ngbaka Ma’bo
[nbm] Equateur province: Libenge territory, on the road north and south of Zongo town, and a belt north of Libenge. 11,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bouaka, Bwaka, Gbaka, Gwaka, Ma’bo, Mbacca, Mbaka, Mbwaka, Nbwaka, Ngbaka Limba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka.

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Ngbandi, Northern
[ngb] Equateur province: Nord-Ubangi district, Businga, Mobayi-Mbanza and Yakoma territories; Orientale province: Bondo territory. 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 SIL). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 250,290. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baza, Mongwandi, Ngwandi. Dialects: 2 dialects, about equal in size. Sango [sag] is derived from Ngbandi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. Comments: Ethnic groups: Abasango, Bwato, Mbaati, and Nzomboy (Monjomboli). Christian.

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Ngbandi, Southern
[nbw] Equateur province: Sud-Ubangi district, Budjala, Kungu, and Libenge territories. 105000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mbati, Mongbandi, Mongwandi, Ngbandi-Ngiri, Ngbandi-Sud, Ngwandi. Dialects: None known. Different enough from Northern Ngbandi [ngb] that separate literature is needed. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. Comments: Villages interspersed with Mbandja villages. Christian.

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Ngbee
[jgb] Orientale province: scattered in Rungu, Niangara, Wamba, and Watsa territories. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lingbe, Lingbee, Majuu, Mangbele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.336).

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Ngbinda
[nbd] Equateur province. 4,200 (2002). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bangbinda, Bungbinda, Ngminda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.303).

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Ngbundu
[nuu] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Libenge territory, north of Libenge, from Boyabo crossroads east to Budu and north to Oro; south of Libenge, mixed with Mbandja [zmz] and other language groups. 16,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southwestern.

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Ngelima
[agh] Orientale province: Banalia and Basoko territories. 13,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angba, Bangalema, Bangelima, Leangba. Dialects: Beo (Lebeo), Buru (Boro, Leboro), Tungu, Hanga. May be more than one language. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Bwa [bww], Kango [kty], and Pagibete [pae]; 50% with Lika [lik] and Komo [kmw]; 40% with Ngombe [ngc], the Benza dialect of Ligenza [lgz], and Budza [bja]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.45).

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Ngiti
[niy] Orientale province: Irumu territory, south of Bunia. 100,000 (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bindi, Dru, Druna, Kingeti, Kingiti, Lendu-Sud, Ndruna, Ngeti. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu. Comments: Different from Bendi [bct].

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Ngombe
[ngc] Equateur Province, widespread along both sides of the Congo River, Mongala district and adjacent parts of Sud Ubangi and Equateur districts; possibly some in Orientale Province. 150,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lingombe. Dialects: Libale (Bale, Wiindza-Baali), Doko. Reportedly similar to Bwela [bwl] (Lingi). Lexical similarity: 78% with the Benza (Binja) dialect of Ligenza [lgz]; 40% with Lingala [lin], Pagibete [pae], and Ngelima [agh]; 37% with Bwa [bww]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.41). Comments: Different from Ngombe [nmj] in Central African Republic.

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Ngongo
[noq] Kasai-Occidental province. 4,080 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Ngul
[nlo] Bandundu province along Kasaï river north of Idiofa. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingul, Ngoli, Nguli, Ngulu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.861).

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Ngundu
[nue] Orientale province. 5,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kpagua [kuw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Nkutu
[nkw] North Kasai-Oriental province. 40,000 (Nida 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bankutu, Nkuchu, Nkucu, Nkutshu. Dialects: Elembe, Hamba, Lokalo (Kalo), Kongola-Meno, Ngongo, Saka (Losaka). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.73). Comments: Descendants of the ancient Mongo empire. Traditional religion.

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Ntomba
[nto] Bandundu province: Lake Mai-Ndombe area; Equateur province near Lake Tumba. 100,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lontomba, Luntumba, Ntomba-Bolia, Ntumba. Dialects: Imona, Mpongo, Nkole, Ntomba, Sakanyi (Lotsakani), Soko, Saw. Reportedly similar to Bolia [bli] (Bokoki). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.35).

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Nyali
[nlj] Orientale province: Ituri district, Djugu territory, Kilo collectivité. 43,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Huku, Linyali, North Nyali, Nyali-Kilo, Nyari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Vanuma [vau], 76% with Mbo [zmw], 73% with Ndaka [ndk] and Budu [buu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.33). Comments: ‘Huku’ is reportedly a Hema term used for anyone who is not a Hema.

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Nyanga
[nyj] Nord-Kivu province: Walikale territory, Wanyanga collectivité. 150,000 (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inyanga, Kinyanga. Dialects: Inyanga, Ifuna, Ikumbure, Itiri. Dialects do not differ much. Itiri appears most divergent. The dialect around Bana-Bangi is reportedly best understood. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kwami [ktf]; 57% with Hunde [hke]; 54% with Kanu [khx]; 50% with Lega-Shabunda [lea] and Tembo [tbt]; 45% with Nande [nnb], Lega-Mwenga [lgm], and Bembe [bmb]; 42% with Shi [shr]; 40% with Buyu [byi] and Zimba [zmb]; 30% with Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Nyanga (D.43). Comments: Different from Nyanga-li [nyc]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nyanga-li
[nyc] Orientale province: Watsa territory, southwest of Watsa. Gbati-ri dialect between Isiro and Watsa, north of Mungbere. 69,000 (2002). 21,000 Gbati-ri (2002). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Linyanga-le. Dialects: Gbati-ri (Gbote). Part of subgroup with Mayeka [myc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.305). Comments: Different from Nyanga [nyj].

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Nyindu
[nyg] Sud-Kivu province: west of Lake Kivu. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Many Nyindu consider themselves Lega-Mwenga [lgm], but Lega and Shi [shr] speakers consider them Shi. Their speech is reportedly a mixture of Lega-Mwenga [lgm] and Shi [shr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.501).

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Nzakara
[nzk] Orientale province: northwest Bondo territory, on Central African Republic border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansakara, N’sakara, Sakara, Zakara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara.

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Ombo
[oml] Maniema province: northwest of Kindu; some in Orientale province. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hombo, Loombo, Songola. Dialects: Mbuli (Mbole). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.76). Comments: Mbole is apparently distinct from Mbole [mdq] in the Enya group.

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Omi
[omi] Orientale province: Aru territory, between Nzoro and Lowa rivers along Aru to Aba road. 91,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaliko-Omi. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kaliko [kbo]. Previously considered a Kaliko dialect. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Pagibete
[pae] Equateur province: Businga, Yakoma, and Bumba territories; Mongbapele along road south of Businga; Momveda around Ngakpo on Dua river north side, across from Gumba; Yakoma territory, Butu. Ndundusana in north Bumba territory, south of Butu and at Ndundu-Sana. 28,000 (2000 SIL). 6,000 Momveda, 4,500 Mongbapele. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Apagibete, Apagibeti, Apakabeti, Apakibeti, Pagabete. Dialects: Momveda, Mongbapele, Ndundusana (Egejo, Egezo, Egezon, Gezon). Lexical similarity: Ndundusana dialect 90% with Momveda and Mongbapele dialects; Momveda and Mongbapele has 80%, and Ndundusana dialect has 85% with Bwa [bww]. Dialects have 60%–75% with Kango [kzy], 60%–65% with Ngelima [agh], 55%–60% with Lika [lik], 46% with Komo [kmw], 40%–45% with Bali [bcp], 35%–40% with Ngombe [ngc] and Budza [bja], 30% with Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.401). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Pambia
[pmb] North Orientale province. 21,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Apambia. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Barambo-Pambia.

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Pelende
[ppp] Bandundu province: Kenge territory. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lonzo [lnz] and Ngongo [noq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Phende
[pem] Bandundu province: Idiofa and Gungu territories, south of Kasai river; possibly inKasai-Occidental province. 420,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gipende, Giphende, Kipende, Pende, Pheende, Pindi, Pinji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.11). Comments: Traditional religion.

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Poke
[pof] Orientale province: Isangi territory, south of Congo river downstream from Kisangani. 46,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pfoke, Puki, Tofoke, Topoke, Tovoke. Dialects: Baluombila, Likolo, Liutwa, Lombooki. May be able to use Lokele [khy] literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.53). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ruund
[rnd] Katanga province: Lualaba district; small border area, southern Kasai-Oriental province. 153,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Total users in all countries: 251,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiluwunda, Lunda Kambove, Lunda-Kamboro, Luunda, Luwunda, Muatiamvua, Northern Lunda, Uruund. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.53).

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Sakata
[skt] Bandundu province: Kutu, Mushie, and Inongo territories, Lukenie river, and Semendua area. 75,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisakata, Lesa, Odual, Saka. Dialects: Sakata, Djia (Dia, Dja, Kidjia, Wadia), Bai (Kibai, Kibay), Tuku (Batow, Ketu). Descendants of the ancient Mongo empire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.34).

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Salampasu
[slx] Kasai-Occidental province: southest, east of Luiza. 60,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chisalampasu. Dialects: Luntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.51).

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Samba
[smx] Bandundu province: north Kasongo-Lunda territory. 4,200 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shankadi, Tsaam, Tsamba, Usamba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Holu [hol]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.12).

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Sanga
[sng] Katanga province: north of Likasi, dispersed in Lubudi, Mitwaba, and Pweto territories. 431,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Garengaze, Kisanga, Luba-Garenganze, Luba-Sanga, Southern Luba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.35).

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Sango
[sag] Equateur province: extreme north border (Oubangui river). Few in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sangho. Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based. Comments: Non-indigenous. A rapidly spreading language derived from Ngbandi [ngb] with loans from Bantu languages and French [fra].

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Seba
[kdg] Katanga province: Kasenga territory. 167,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kunda, Sewa, Shishi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lala-Bisa-Lamba (M.55). Comments: Distinct from Kunda dialect of Lusengo [lse], the Kunda [kdn] of Zimbabwe and Mozambique in Senga-Sena group, the Kunda dialect of Chichewa [nya], and Konda [lol] dialect or language in Mongo group.

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Sengele
[szg] Bandundu province: west of Lake Mai-Ndombe. 17,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kesengele, Sengere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.33).

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Sere
[swf] Orientale province: northeast of Ango, among the Zande [zne]. 2,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Total users in all countries: 2,528. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Basili, Basiri, Chere, Serre, Shaire, Shere, Sheri, Sili, Siri. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Ndogo [ndz] and Tagbu [tbm]. Slight dialect differences in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Central African Republic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere.

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Shi
[shr] Sud-Kivu province: north, west, and south of Bukavu. 654,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mashi, Nyabungu. Dialects: Lindja, Hwindja (Lwindja), Ziba, Longe-Longe. Lexical similarity: 70% with Havu [hav] and Tembo [tbt], 57% with Hunde [hke], 55% with Nande [nnb], 44% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 42% with Nyanga [nyj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.53). Comments: Different from Mashi [mho] of Zambia.

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So
[soc] Orientale province: north of Basoko. 6,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eso, Gesogo, Heso, Soa, Soko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.52).

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Sonde
[shc] Bandundu province: southeast, Feshi territory. 96,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kilua, Kisonde, Kisoonde, Soonde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.321). Comments: ‘Kilua’ may also be a name of the language.

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Songe
[sop] Kasai-Oriental province: between Sankuru and Lualaba rivers, mainly Kabinda territory; Katanga province: Kongolo and Kabolo territories; Maniema and Kasai-Occidental provinces. 1,000,000 (Hoffman 1991). 150,000 in Western Kalebwe (1982 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalebwe, Kisonge, Kisongi, Kisongye, Luba-Songi, Lusonge, Northeast Luba, Songye, Yembe. Dialects: Western Kalebwe (Esambi Kipya, Songe), Eastern Kalebwe (Ikalebwe, Kilombeno Kibya), Mbagani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.23). Comments: Ethnic subgroups are Bena Tshofwe, Bekalebwe, Beneki, Belande, Babembe, Balaa, Bambo, Befundu.

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Songo
[soo] Bandundu province: Bulungu territory. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Itsong, Kisongo, Nsong, Ntsuo, Tsong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.85). Comments: Possibly the same as Songo [nsx] of Angola.

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Songomeno
[soe] Kasai-Occidental province: Dekese territory. 50,000 (Barrett 1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hendo, Lohendo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.82). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Songoora
[sod] Maniema province: Punia, Kindu, and Shabunda territories, Gengele in Kindu territory; small area in Sud-Kivu province. 1,300 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binja, Kesongola, Songola. Dialects: Gengele (Kegengele), North Binja. North and South Binja dialects may be separate languages. Gengele dialect is reportedly a creole based on Lega-Shabunda [lea], Kusu [ksv], and other languages (1991 W. Mwangati). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.24). Comments: Different from the Songoora (Edi Songoora) dialect of Nande [nnb].

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Suku
[sub] Bandundu province: west of Feshi, Moanza and Mwela areas. 50,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisuku. Dialects: None known. Classification uncertain. One report says not in the Yaka (H.30) subgroup, but in Kongo subgroup (H.10). Another says it is in Holu (K.10). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.32).

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Swahili, Congo
[swc] Widespread in Katanga, Nord-Kivu, Sud-Kivu, and Maniema provinces; southeast Orientale province. 1,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. L2 users: 9,100,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 UBS). Total users in all countries: 9,101,000 (as L1: 1,000; as L2: 9,100,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in eastern regions (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Zaïre Swahili. Dialects: Ituri Kingwana, Lualaba Kingwana, Katanga Swahili, Kivu Swahili. Kingwana is a pidgin Swahili which functions sociolinguistically as a dialect. There are several regional dialects, with that of the formerly Arabized areas reportedly being most similar to Swahili of Kenya and Tanzania. Lexical similarity: 30% with Lingala [lin] and with the Lega group; 15%–20% with Bira-Huku group, Bali [bcp], and Lika [lik]. A member of macrolanguage Swahili [swa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40).

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Taabwa
[tap] Katanga province: on Lake Tanganyika, south of Moba. 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Barrett 1982). Total users in all countries: 281,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ichitaabwa, Rungu, Taabua, Tabwa. Dialects: Shila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.41). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tagbu
[tbm] Scattered. 17,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tagba, Tagbo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Sere [swf] and Ndogo [ndz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere. Comments: Different from Togbo-Vara Banda [tor] (Tagbo) in Banda group.

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Talinga-Bwisi
[tlj] Nord-Kivu province: Beni territory, Butalinga county, Virunga National Park boundary, up to Uganda border. 30,900 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bwisi, Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Lubwissi, Mawissi, Olubwisi, Talinga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.102). Comments: Different from Bwisi [bwz] of Congo-Brazzaville and Gabon.

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Teke, Eboo
[ebo] Bandundu province: Mushie territory. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aboo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.74). Comments: Traditional religion.

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Teke, Ibali
[tek] Kinshasa and Bandundu provinces. 167,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Total users in all countries: 203,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bali, Eastern Teke, Ibali, Kiteke, Teke-Ibali. Dialects: Mosieno, Ngee (Esingee), Bali (Ambali, Teo, Tio, Tyo). Ngee dialect may be a distinct language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.75).

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Tembo
[tbt] Sud-Kivu and Nord-Kivu provinces: Kalehe territory. 150,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chitembo, Kitembo. Dialects: Tembo (Kitembo), Rhinyihinyi. No major dialect differences. Lexical similarity: 75% with Hunde [hke], 70% with Shi [shr], 55% with Nande [nnb], 50% with Nyanga [nyj], 45% with Lega Shabunda [lea]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.531). Comments: Different from Tembo [tmv] in Ngombe group and Tembo [mwn] (Tambo) in Nyika-Safwa group.

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Tembo
[tmv] Equateur province: Sud Ubangi, Equateur, Budjala and Bomongo territories, Libanza, Bokele, and Bosanga villages on Banga-Melo river; 1 or 2 villages on Mongala river southwest of Akula; Sumba island. 5,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Litembo, Motembo. Dialects: Wide dialect variation may exist. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.371).

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Tetela
[tll] Kasai-Oriental and Maniema provinces; border areas of Equateur, Katanga and Orientale provinces. 750,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Otetela, Sungu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.71). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tiene
[tii] Bandundu province: Bolobo area on Congo river, inland savannah and forest. 24,500 (1977 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitiene, Kitiini, Tende. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.81).

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Vanuma
[vau] Nord-Kivu province; Orientale province: Ituri district, Irumu territory, Tchabi collectivité. 6,700 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bambutuku, Bvanuma, Livanuma, Nyali-Tchabi, South Nyali. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Nyali [nlj]; 75% with Budu [buu], Ndaka [ndk] and Mbo [zmw]; 76% with Bila [bip]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.331).

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Wongo
[won] Kasai-Occidental province: Ilebo and Tshikapa territories. 12,700 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakong, Gongo, Ndjembe, Tukkongo, Tukongo, Tukungo. Dialects: None known. Intelligible of Lele [lel]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.85).

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Yaka
[yaf] Bandundu province: Popokabaka and Kasongo Lunda territories. 700,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 SIL). Total users in all countries: 900,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iaka, Iyaka, Kiyaka. Dialects: Ngoongo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Yakoma
[yky] Equateur province. 10,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yamongeri
[ymg] Equateur province: south of Congo river. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yamongiri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.36).

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Yango
[yng] Equateur province: Kungu and Libenge territories, Esobe river area, Gbendere village. 3,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbendere. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Monzombo [moj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo.

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Yansi
[yns] Bandundu province: Bulungu territory, Loange river area. 100,000 (1997 S. Mufwene). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eyansi, Eyanzi, Kiyanzi, Yans, Yanzi. Dialects: Yeei (Yey), Mbiem (West Yansi), East Yansi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.85).

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Yela
[yel] Kasai-Oriental province; Equateur province: mainly Bokungu territory. 33,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boyela, Kutu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.74).

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Yombe
[yom] Western Bas-Congo province: Mayombe forest. 669,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2002). Total users in all countries: 734,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bayombe, Ciyoombe, Kiombi, Kiyombe, Yoombe. Dialects: Mbala (Mumbala), Vungunya (Kivungunya, Yombe Classique). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16). Comments: Distinct enough from Koongo-Fioti [kng] to need separate literature. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yulu
[yul] Katanga province: near Kamina. 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Binga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Zande
[zne] Orientale province: Bas-Uélé district. 730,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Total users in all countries: 1,242,000 (as L1: 1,142,000; as L2: 100,000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Asande, Azande, Badjande, Bazenda, Pazande, Sande, Zandi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zimba
[zmb] Maniema province: Kasongo territory, Mulu and Maringa collectivités; small area in Sud-Kivu province. 120,000 (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyangwe. Dialects: South Binja, Binja (Soe, Sole), Semulu (Kisembombo, Nyembombo, Semolo), Semalinga, Kwange, Mamba (Kyenyemamba). Kwange and Mamba dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bembe [bmb]; 50% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], Lega-Shabunda [lea], Buyu [byi], Mituku [zmq], and Enya [gey]; 40% with Nyanga [nyj]; 34% with Bangubangu [bnx]; 32% with Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.26). Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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