Central African Republic

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Ali
[aiy] Ombella-Mpoko Prefecture, Boali, Bimbo, and Yaloke-Bossembele subprefectures; Lobaye Prefecture, Boda subprefecture; Bangui. 35,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East

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Banda, Mid-Southern
[bjo] Basse-Kotto Prefecture, Alindao, Mobaye, and Mingala subprefectures; Ouaka Prefecture, Kouango subprefecture; Mbomou Prefecture, Gambo-Ouango subprefecture. 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 102,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda Central Sud Dialects: Bongo, Dukpu, Wasa (Ouassa), Yakpa (Bayaka, Yacoua, Yakpwa, Yakwa). Reportedly most similar to Gubu [gox], but speakers have better relations with Mbandja [zmz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern

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Banda, South Central
[lnl] Basse-Kotto Prefecture, Mobaye, Kembé, Mingala, and Alindao (southwest) subprefectures; Mbomou Prefecture, Gambo-Ouango subprefecture. 150,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 55,000 Langba, 95,000 Ngbugu. Population total all countries: 153,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Langba (Lagba), Ngbugu (Ngbougou). May be intelligible with Langbashe [lna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central

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Banda, Togbo-Vara
[tor] Haute-Kotto Prefecture, Bria (Togbo) subprefecture; Ouaka Prefecture, Bambari (Vara) subprefecture. 12,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Togbo (Tagbo, Tagbwali, Tohgboh), Vara (Vera, Vora). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara Comments: Distinct from Tagbu [tbm] (Tagbo, Tagba) of Democratic Republic of the Congo in Sere group. They view themselves as very different from Mono [mnh].

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Banda, West Central
[bbp] Ouaka Prefecture, Bambari, Bakala, and Grimari subprefectures; Kemo-Gribingui Prefecture, Sibut (northeast of Dekol town) and southeast Dekoa subprefectures. 4,500 in Central African Republic (1996). 1,000 Wojo. Population total all countries: 7,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dakpa, Gbaga-Nord (Gbaga-2), Gbi, Vita, Wojo (Hodjo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central

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Banda-Bambari
[liy] Ouaka Prefecture, Bambari, Ippy, Grimari, and Bakala subprefectures; Basse-Kotto Prefecture, Alindao and Mingala subprefectures; some in Haute-Kotto Prefecture, Bria subprefecture. 183,000 (1996). 4,000 Gbende, 2,000 Joto, mainly Linda. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda of Bambari, Banda-Linda Dialects: Gbende, Joto (Jeto), Linda, Ndokpa, Ngapo (Ngapu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Bambari

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Banda-Banda
[bpd] Widespread. 102,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Banda-Banda, Bereya (Banda de Bria, Banda of Bria, Bria), Buru, Gbaga-South (Gbaga 1), Gbambiya, Hai, Ka, Mbi (Mbiyi), Ndi (Ndri), Ngalabo, Ngola, Vidiri (Mvedere, Vadara, Vidri, Vodere). May be intelligible with Banda-Bambari [liy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda

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Banda-Mbrès
[bqk] Ouaka Prefecture, Bakala (Sabanga, Moruba) subprefecture; Gribingui Prefecture, Mbrès subprefecture and Kaga Bandoro subprefectures; Ouham Prefecture, Bouca subprefecture; small areas in Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture, Bamingui subprefecture border. 42,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda of Mbrès, Banda-Mbre Dialects: Buka (Bouka), Mbre (Mbele, Mbere), Moruba (Maraba, Morouba), Sabanga (Sangbanga), Wada (Ouadda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres

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Banda-Ndélé
[bfl] Haute-Kotto Prefecture, Ouadda subprefecture; Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture, Ndélé and Bamingui subprefectures; Ouaka Prefecture, Bakala and Ippy subprefecturess; Gribingui Prefecture, Kaga Bandoro subprefecture; some in Vakaga Prefecture, Ouanda-Djalle subprefecture. 35,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda of Ndélé, Nyele Dialects: Banda-Ndélé, Junguru (Djingburu, Nguru), Ngao (Bandangao, Ngau), Ngbala, Tangbago (Tambaggo, Tambolo, Tangago, Tombaggo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele

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Banda-Yangere
[yaj] Sangha Prefecture, Bambio subprefectures, some in Nola subprefecture; Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Berbérati and Carnot subprefectures. 26,500 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yangere, Yanguere Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Western

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Birri
[bvq] Southeast corner scattered; Haut-Mbomou prefecture. 200 (1996). Ethnic population: 5,000. No longer spoken in Sudan (1993). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Biri, Bviri, Viri Dialects: Mboto, Munga. Only one dialect spoken in Central African Republic. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi Comments: Different from Viri [bvi].

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Bodo
[boy] Haut-Mbomou Prefecture, east tip scattered. Not more than 3 speakers in the same village. 15 (1996). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.308)

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Bofi
[bff] Lobaye Prefecture, Boda subprefecture; Sangha Prefecture, Bambio subprefecture. 23,500 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boffi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East Comments: Those in Bimbo Subprefecture are reportedly mostly pygmies.

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Bokoto
[bdt] Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Carnot subprefecture; Lobaye Prefecture, Boda subprefecture; Nana-Mambere Prefecture, Baoro subprefecture; small border areas, Ouham-Pende Prefecture, Bozoum subprefecture, and Ombella-Mpoko Prefecture, Yaloke-Bossembele subprefecture. 130,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhokoto, Bogodo, Bogoto, Bokodo, Bokpoto Dialects: Bokoto (Ngata), Bokpan, Gbaya of Boda (Gbaya de Boda). May be intelligible with Northwest Gbaya [gya]. A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central

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Buraka
[bkg] Basse-Kotto Prefecture, Mobaye subprefecture, along Ubangi river. 2,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 3,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bolaka, Boraka, Bouraka Dialects: None known. May not be inherently intelligible with Gbanziri [gbg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili

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Dagba
[dgk] Ouham Prefecture, Batangafo, Kabo, and Bossangoa subprefectures. 34,000 in Central African Republic (2007). Population total all countries: 44,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Kaba [ksp]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper

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Dendi
[deq] Mbomou Prefecture, Gambo-Ouango subprefecture. 10,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Yakoma [yky]. Ngbandi [ngb] and Mbangi [mgn] may be inherently intelligible of Dendi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi Comments: Different from Dendi [ddn] in Benin and Nigeria.

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French
[fra] Widespread. 9,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 18). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Fulfulde, Bagirmi
[fui] Widespread. 156,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baghirmi Peul, Bagirmi Fula Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Spoken by people of Wodaabe lineage who are also in northern Niger, northern Cameroon, Central African Republic. Nomadic. Different from Bagirmi [bmi] language of Chad, which is Nilo-Saharan.

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Furu
[fuu] Basse-Kotto Prefecture, Mobaye subprefecture. 11 villages. 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagero, Bagiro, Baguero, Baguiro Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara

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Ganzi
[gnz] Border region, Gribingui and Kemo-Gribingui prefectures, scattered throughout. 1,400 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ganzi, Yaka. May be intelligible with Baka [bkc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi Comments: Pygmies.

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Gbanu
[gbv] Ombella-Mpoko Prefecture, Yaloke-Bossembélé subprefecture, north of Bogangolo; Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Carnot subprefecture; Ouham Prefecture, Bossangoa subprefecture; Lobaye Prefecture, small areas along Ombella-Mpoko border, north of Bodo town. 95,000 (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banu, Gbanou Dialects: Budigri (Bidikili), Gbagiri (Bagili, Baguili, Gbagili), Gbanu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central

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Gbanziri
[gbg] Ouaka Prefecture, Kouango subprefecture, along Ubangi river. 14,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 17,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banziri, Gbandere, Gbanzili Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili

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Gbaya
[gba] Population total all languages: 857,500. Comments: Includes: Bokoto [bdt], Gbaya-Bossangoa [gbp], Gbaya-Bozoum [gbq], Gbaya-Mbodomo [gmm] (Cameroon), Northwest Gbaya [gya], Southwest Gbaya [gso].

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Gbaya, Northwest
[gya] Nana-Mambere Prefecture, Bouar and Baboua subprefectures; Ouham-Pende Prefecture, Bocaranga and Bozoum subprefectures; Haute-Sangha Prefecture, areas north of Amada Gaza. 200,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 267,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gbaya, Gbaya Nord-Ouest Dialects: Bodoe, Gbaya Kara (Boar, Gbaya de Bouar), Lai (Lay), Yaáyuwee (Kalla, Yaiwe). A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Gbaya, Southwest
[gso] Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Berbérati, Carnot, and Gamboula subprefectures; Sangha Prefecture, Nola subprefecture; Nana-Mambere Prefecture, Baboua and Baoro subprefectures. 220,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gbaya Sud-Ouest Dialects: Biyanda (Bianda), Bokare (Bokari), Bosoko (Bossouka, Mbusuku), Budamono, Buli (Boli), Mbakolo (Yasua), Mbombeleng, Mbondomo (Mbodomo), Mboundja (Mbunza), Toongo, Yangele. A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest

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Gbaya-Bossangoa
[gbp] Ouham Prefecture, Bossangoa and Batangafo (Gbabana) subprefectures; Ouham-Pende Prefecture, south of Ouham river. 200,000 (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gbaya de Bosangoa, Gbaya of Borro, Gbaya of Bossangoa, Gbaya-Borro, Gbea, Gbeya Dialects: Bossangoa, Gbabana. May be inherently intelligible with Gbaya-Bozoum [gbq] or Suma [sqm]. A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central

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Gbaya-Bozoum
[gbq] Ouham-Pende Prefecture, broad area south of Ouham river; Nana-Mambere Prefecture, Baoro and Bouar subprefectures; Ombella-Mpoko Prefecture, Yaloke-Bossembele subprefecture; Ouham Prefecture, Bossangoa subprefecture. 32,500 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bozom, Gbaya de Bozoum Dialects: Boyali, Bozom, Diabe. May be inherently intelligible with Gbaya-Bossangoa [gbp]. A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central

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Gbayi
[gyg] Haute-Kotto Prefecture, Bria subprefecture; Mbomou Prefecture, east bank, Kotto river, between Mbeti and Tchola Banar; Basse-Kotto Prefecture, north Mingala subprefecture. 5,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpasiya Dialects: None known. Related to Ngbandi [ngb]. Ethnically Kpatili, but not intelligible with Kpatili [kym]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi

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Geme
[geq] Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture, Ndélé subprefecture, north of Ndélé. 2 villages. 550 (1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gueme, Jeme, Ngba Geme Dialects: Geme Kulagbolu, Geme Tulu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara

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Gubu
[gox] Ouaka Prefecture, Kouango subprefecture, north bank, Oubangui river. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gabou, Gabu, Gobu, Ngobo, Ngobu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern Comments: Few in Central African Republic.

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Gula
[kcm] Vakaga Prefecture, Birao subprefecture, Kafia Kingi near Sudan border. 13,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 13,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula, Gula du Mamoun, Kara, Kara de Soudan, Kara of Sudan, Tar Gula, Yamegi Dialects: Mele, Mere, Molo, Mot-Mar (Moto-Mara), Sar (Sara), Zura (Koto). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara Comments: Different from Kara [kah], Kare [kbj] of Chad, or Gula [glu] of Chad. Muslim.

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Gundi
[gdi] Sangha Prefecture, Nola subprefecture, south and east of Nola; Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Gamboula subprefecture. 9,000 (1988 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngondi, Ngundi Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Baka [bkc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi Comments: Pygmies, not contacted by census takers. Distinct from Ngundi [ndn] of Congo and Central African Republic, which is Bantu.

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Kaba
[ksp] Ouham-Pende Prefecture, Paoua subprefecture; Ouham Prefecture, Markounda subprefecture. 72,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 83,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kabba, Sara, Sara Kaba Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Different from Kaba Deme [kwg], Sara Kaba Náà [kwv], Kulfa [kxj] (Kaba So), Sara Kaba [sbz], Laka [lap] (Kabba Laka), or Kaba [bcq] of Ethiopia, a dialect of Bench.

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Kaba Démé, Sara
[kwg] Large [kwg] language area across border in Chad; possibly some speakers in Bamingui river basin in Bamingui-Bangoran and Gribingui prefectures. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba ’Dem, Kaba Démé, Kaba Demi, Sara Kaba Dem, Tà Sàra Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Kulfa [kxj], Sara Kaba Náà [kwv], or Laka [lap].

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Kaba Naa, Sara
[kwv] Nana-Mambere Prefecture, Baoro subprefecture, Mbanga villages. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dana, Kaba Na, Kaba Naa, Kaba Nar, Na, Sara Kaba Dialects: Dunje (Dendje, Denje, Dindje, Dinje, Dounje), Mbanga (Banga), Na, Tie (Tiye). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Kaba Deme [kwg], Kulfa [kxj], or Laka [lap].

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Kako
[kkj] West, Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Gamboula town, on Cameroon border. 10,400 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaka, Nkoxo, Yaka Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kaka (A.93)

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Kara
[kah] Vakaga Prefecture, Birao subprefecture. 4,800 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dam Fer, Fer, Fertit Classification: Unclassified Comments: Different from Gula [glu] (Kara of Sudan). Muslim.

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Kare
[kbn] Ouham-Pende Prefecture, Bozoum and Bocaranga subprefectures. 93,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 57,500 Kare, 35,500 Tale. Population total all countries: 97,460. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kali, Kari, Karré Dialects: Kari, Tale (Tali). Intelligible of Mbum [mdd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Different from the Kari [kbj] of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is Benue-Congo.

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Kpagua
[kuw] South, Ouaka Prefecture, between Ouake and Oubangui rivers. 3,830 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpagwa Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ngundu [nue]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern

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Kpatili
[kym] Basse-Kotto Prefecture, south Mingala subprefecture; Mbomou Prefecture, Bakouma subprefecture. 4,500 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpatere, Kpatiri, Ngindere Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Gbayi [gyg], who are ethnically Kpatili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara

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Laka
[lap] Ouham-Pende Prefecture, Bocaranga subprefecture, Chad border. 9 villages. 2,050 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kabba Laka Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Different from Laka [lak] of Nigeria and from Kaba [ksp] of Central African Republic and Chad.

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Langbashe
[lna] Ouaka Prefecture, Kouango subprefecture; Kemo-Gribingui Prefecture, Sibut subprefecture. 40,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 43,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langbase, Langbashi, Langbasi, Langbwasse, Langwasi Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with South Central Banda [lnl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central

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Limassa
[bme] Possibly in far southwestern corner, Sangha Prefecture, along Republic of the Congo border. Few in Ngundi [ndn] villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamassa, Bomasa, Bomassa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi

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Lutos
[ndy] Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture, Ndélé subprefecture; Gribingui Prefecture, Kaga Bandoro subprefecture; Ouham Prefecture, Kabo subprefecture. 17,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 18,980. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ruto Dialects: Konga, Lutos (Louto, Luto, Rito, Routo, Ruto), Nduga (Ngougua), Nduka (Ndouka, Ndoukwa), Wada (Wad). Lutos dialect in Chad; Ruto and Nduka dialects in Central African Republic. Not intelligible of Sar [mwm] or Ngambay [sba]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale

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Manza
[mzv] Ouham Prefecture, Bouca subprefecture; Kemo-Gribingui Prefecture; Dekoa and Sibut subprefectures; Gribingui Prefecture, Kaga Bandoro and Mbrès subprefectures; Ouaka Prefecture, Grimari subprefecture; Ombella-Mpoko Prefecture, Damara subprefecture. 220,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mandja, Manja Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngbaka-Minangende [nga] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mbangi
[mgn] Mbomou Prefecture, Bangassou and Gambo-Ouango subprefectures; Basse-Kotto Prefecture, Alindao subprefecture. 2,750 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mbangui Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Yakoma [yky]. May be intelligible of Ngbandi [ngb] or Dendi [deq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi

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Mbati
[mdn] Lobaye Prefecture, Mbaiki subprefecture. 60,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Isongo, Issongo, Lisongo, Lissongo, Songo Dialects: Bolemba, Bonzio, Bwaka, Mbati of Mbaïki. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.13)

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Mbay
[myb] Ouham Prefecture, Markounda and Batangafo subprefectures. 8,300 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbai Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper

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Mbum
[mdd] Ouham-Pende Prefecture, Bocaranga subprefecture, along Cameroon border. 12,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mboum Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Southern

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Monzombo
[moj] Lobaye Prefecture, Mongoumba subprefecture. 1,600 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mondjembo, Monjombo, Monzumbo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo

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Mpiemo
[mcx] Sangha Prefecture, Nola subprefecture; Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Gamboula subprefecture. 24,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 29,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bimu, Mbimou, Mbimu, Mbyemo, Mpo, Mpyemo Dialects: Bidjuki (Bidjouki), Jasoa (Jasua), Mpyemo. The Jasua dialect spoken by most people and well understood by others. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.86) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ngam
[nmc] Ouham Prefecture, Kabo subprefecture. 17,700 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngama Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Different from Ndam [ndm] of Chad.

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Ngando
[ngd] Lobaye Prefecture, Mbaïki subprefecture. 5,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagandou, Bangandou, Bodzanga, Dingando, Ngando-Kota Dialects: Dikota (Kota), Dikuta. Reportedly similar to Yaka [axk]. Kota dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.102) Comments: Not related to Ngando [nxd] of Democratic Republic of the Congo or Bangandu [bgf] of Congo and Cameroon.

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Ngbaka Ma’bo
[nbm] Lobaye Prefecture, Mbaiki and Mongoumba subprefectures; Ombella-Mpoko Prefecture, Bimbo subprefecture. 88,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 189,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bouaka, Bwaka, Gbaka, Ma’bo, Mbacca, Mbaka, Nbwaka, Ngbaka Limba Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gilima [gix]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka

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Ngbaka Manza
[ngg] Ombella-Mpoko Prefecture, Damara and Boali subprefectures; Ouham Prefecture, Bossangoa and Bouca subprefectures; Kemo-Gribingui Prefecture, Sibut subprefecture. 29,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Manza [mzv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East

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Ngombe
[nmj] Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Gamboula subprefecture, Cameroon border. 1,450 (1996). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bagando-Ngombe, Bangando-Ngombe, Ngombe-Kaka Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Southwest Gbaya [gso]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi Comments: Different from Ngombe [ngc] in Democratic Republic of the Congo. May not be Baka-Gundi group but Gbaya group.

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Nzakara
[nzk] Mbomou Prefecture, Bangassou, Bakouma, and Gambo-Ouango subprefectures. 50,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansakara, N’sakara, Sakara, Zakara Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara

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Pana
[pnz] Ouham-Pende Prefecture, Bocaranga subprefecture. 82,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 63,000 Pana, 10,000 Pondo, 9,000 Gonge. Population total all countries: 85,980. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pani Dialects: Gonge, Pana, Pondo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Pande
[bkj] Sangha Prefecture, Nola subprefecture; small area near Banga town, Haute-Sangha Prefecture, Berbérati subprefecture. 9,700 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ipande Dialects: Bogongo (Bugongo, Bukongo, Gongo), Pande (Linyeli, Linzeli, Ndjeli, Ngili, Njeli). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.12)

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Runga
[rou] Vakaga Prefecture, Birao subprefecture; Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture. 21,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayki, Aykindang, Rounga, Runga de Ndele Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Runga-Kibet Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sango
[sag] Widespread. 350,000 in Central African Republic (1988 census). Population total all countries: 404,000. L2 users: 1,600,000 in Central African Republic. More men than women speak it as L2. Status: 1 (National). Statutory language of national identity (2004, Constitution, Article 18). Alternate Names: Sangho Dialects: None known. A rapidly spreading creole derived from Ngbandi [ngb]. Lexical similarity: 51% with French [fra], 49% with African languages. However, African-based words used more frequently. Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based

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Sango, Riverain
[snj] Basse-Kotto Prefecture, Mobaye subprefecture, along Ubangi river. 34,500 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Sango [sag]. Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based

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Sara Dunjo
[koj] Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture, Ndélé subprefecture, close to Chad border; far west Vakaga Prefecture, small area on Bahr Kameur river; 9 villages. 4,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaba Dunjo, Sara Dinjo Dialects: None known. May be the same as Sara Kaba Náà [kwv] of Chad. May be intelligible of Sara [sbz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba

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Sara Kaba
[sbz] Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture, Ndélé subprefecture; Vakaga Prefecture, Birao subprefecture. 13,600 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ta Sara Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Sara Dunjo [koj] of Central African Republic or Sara Kaba Náà [kwv] of Chad. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba

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Suma
[sqm] Ouham Prefecture, Bossangoa and Markounda subprefectures; Ouham-Pende Prefecture, Paoua subprefecture. 50,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Souma Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Gbaya-Bossangoa [gbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka

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To
[toz] No known L1 speakers in Central African Republic. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified Comments: Ancient secret male initiation language of the Gbaya used in Cameroon and Central African Republic.

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Ukhwejo
[ukh] Sangha-Mbaéré Prefecture, south of Nola. Ukhwejo in Ngulo; Bikaka in Nalimo, Salo, Bayanga, and Gbaso; Piiga in Koola, Ambasila; Kamsili in Bomanzoku, Linjombo, both sides of Sanga river. 7 villages. 2,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Benkonjo, Ukwedjo Dialects: Bikaka, Kamsili (Ngamsile), Piiga, Ukhwejo. Reportedly similar to Koonzime [ozm], Mpiemo [mcx], Bomwali [bmw], and Makaa [mcp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.802) Comments: Population threatened by sleeping sickness.

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Vale
[vae] Ouham Prefecture, Batangafo and Kabo subprefectures; Gribingui Prefecture, Kaga Bandoro subprefecture. 5,400 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Tana (Tane, Tele), Vale. Not intelligible of Sara [koj] or Ngambay [sba]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale

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Yaka
[axk] Sangha-Mbaéré Prefecture, Nola and Bambio subprefectures; Lobaye Prefecture, Mbaïki and Mongoumba subprefectures, forest along Congo border. 15,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aka, “Babinga” (pej.), “Bambenga” (pej.), Beká, Nyoyaka, Pygmée de la Lobaye, Pygmée de Mongoumba, Pygmées de la Sanghas Dialects: Beka (Bayaka, Gbayaka, Moyaka), Nzari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.104) Comments: Different from Baka [bkc], which is Ubangi. Pygmies. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yakoma
[yky] Oubangui river area and administrative centers; Mbomou Prefecture, Gambo-Ouango subprefecture; Basse-Kotto Prefecture, Kembé subprefecture; Ombella-Mpoko Prefecture, Bimbo subprefecture; Bangui. 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 110,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Ngbandi [ngb] and Sango [sag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi

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Yulu
[yul] Vakaga Prefecture, Ouanda-Djallé subprefecture; Haute-Kotto Prefecture, Ouadda subprefecture. 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 13,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Youlou Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Aja is not a dialect of Yulu, but of Kresh [krs] (1987 R. Brown). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara

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Zande
[zne] Mbomou Prefecture, Rafaï subprefecture; Haut-Mbomou Prefecture, Zémio and Obo subprefectures. 62,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Azande, Badjande, Pazande, Sande, Zandi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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