Congo

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Aka
[axk] Northeast corner. 15,000 in Congo (Cavalli-Sforza 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Babinga, Beka, Binga, Mòáka, Yaka Dialects: Bambenzele (Western Aka), Basese (Eastern Aka). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.104) Comments: Mraka (sg.), Beka (pl.). Different from the Baka [bkc] language of Cameroon and Gabon, which is Ubangi. Possibly more than one pygmy language in Congo. Nomadic. Pygmies. Traditional religion.

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Akwa
[akw] Cuvette Region, Makoua district. 24,100 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mboshi (C.22)

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Beembe
[beq] Bouenza Region, Mouyondzi and Mabgombo districts, some in Sibiti and Kingoué. 40,000 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bembe, Kibeembe Dialects: Keenge (Kikeenge, kinkeenge), Yari (Kiyari). Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.11) Comments: Different from Bembe [bmb] of Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Bekwel
[bkw] Sangha Region, along Cameroon border, near Gabon border, almost to Ouesso. 9,600 in Congo (2003). Population total all countries: 12,060. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bakwele, Bakwil, Bekwil Dialects: Ebaa, Koolo, Mebeeza, Mekwoob, Zalagee. Reportedly similar to Mpumpong [mgg]. Lexical similarity: 85% with Koonzime [ozm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.85) Comments: Different from Baakpe [bri] (Bakwiri) of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bobangi
[bni] Cuvette Region, Mossaka district, on the Congo River. 60,400 in Congo (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangi, Bubangi, Bungi, Dzamba, Lobobangi, Rebu, Zamba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.32)

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Bomitaba
[zmx] Likouala Region, Epena district, along Likouala-aux-Herbes river. 9,600 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 9,820. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bamitaba, Leke, Mbomitaba, Mbomotaba Dialects: Central Bomitaba (Epena), Northern Bomitaba (Matoki). Related to Bongili [bui]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.14) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bomwali
[bmw] Sangha Region, Ouesso district. 33,200 in Congo (2002). Population total all countries: 39,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bomali, Boumoali, Bumali, Lino, Sangasanga, Sanghasangha Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.87)

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Bongili
[bui] Sangha Region, Sangha river area, southeast of Ouesso, to Pikounda area; southwest of Ouesso, Liouesso district. 4000 Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bokiba, Bongiri, Bungili, Bungiri Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.15) Comments: Different from Bukongo [bkj] of Central African Republic.

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Bonjo
[bok] Likouala Region, Dongou and Impfondo districts, Oubangui, Motaba, and Ibenga river areas. 3000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Impfondo, Mbonzo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.143)

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Bwisi
[bwz] Niari Region, Kibangou district, Banda area, on Gabon border. 3,020 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 4,250. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibwisi, Mbwisi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Shira-Punu (B.401) Comments: Different from Talinga-Bwisi [tlj] of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda.

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Dibole
[bvx] Northeast, south Epena district, 16 villages. 4,000 (Leitch 2004). 800 monolinguals (Leitch 2004). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Babole, Southern Bomitaba Dialects: Central Dibole (Kinami), Northern Dibole (Dzeke), Southern Dibole (Bouanila). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.101) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Doondo
[dde] Bouenza Department; Madingou, Mfouati, and Boko-Songho districts; Pool Department, southwest Mindouli district. 75,000 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dondo, Kidoondo Dialects: None known. Part of Kongo subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.112)

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Fang
[fan] Extreme northwest. 8,100 in Congo (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pahouin, Pamue Dialects: Make, Ntum (Ntumu), Ogowe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.75)

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French
[fra] 28,000 in Congo (1993). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2002, Constitution, Article 6). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Sole language of formal education.

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Gbaya
[gya] Sangha Region, scattered on Cameroon border areas. 2,000 in Congo (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baya, Northwest Gbaya Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest

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Kaamba
[xku] Bouenza Region, Nkayi and Madingou districts. 3,020 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamba, Kikaamba Dialects: None known. Part of Kongo subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.112)

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Kako
[kkj] Extreme north Likouala Region, Ibenga and Motaba rivers, scattered. 9,060 in Congo (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaka, Nkoxo, Yaka Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kaka (A.93)

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Kituba
[mkw] Mainly between Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. 1,160,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of national identity (2002, Constitution, Article 6), recognized as lingua franca. Alternate Names: Kikoongo, Monokutuba, Munukutuba Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kituba [ktu] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Creole, Kongo based Comments: Main language of the south.

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Koongo
[kng] Pool Region, Boko district, west and northwest of Brazzaville. Possibly in Gabon. 16,500 in Congo (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Congo, Kikongo, Kikoongo, Kongo, Kongo-Nseke Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16) Comments: Kongo-Nseke is the distinguishing name for Koongo in Congo-Brazzaville. Christian, Muslim.

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Kota
[koq] Cuvette Region, west of Mbomo; Sangha Region, Liouesso district. 9,060 in Congo (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikota, Ikuta Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.25)

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Koyo
[koh] Cuvette Region, Owando district. 1000 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ekoyo, Kouyou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mboshi (C.24)

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Kunyi
[njx] Bouenza and Niari regions, south and southeast from Makabana to Democratic Republic of the Congo border. 52,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikunyi, Kugni Dialects: Nyaanga (Kinyaanga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.13)

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Laari
[ldi] South of Pool Region, west and northwest of Brazzaville. 90,600 in Congo (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kilari, Laadi, Ladi, Lari Dialects: Ghaangala (Hangala, Kighaangala), Laari de Biiza , Laari de Kinkala. A member of macrolanguage Kongo [kon]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16) Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Likuba
[kxx] Cuvette Region, on the Congo River, above Sangha river mouth. 30,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuba Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible with Likwala [kwc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mboshi (C.27)

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Likwala
[kwc] Cuvette Region, on lower reaches of Likouala-Mossaka, Sangha, and Likouala-aux-Herbes rivers. 45,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekwala, Kwala, Likouala Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible with Likuba [kxx]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mboshi (C.26)

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Lingala
[lin] Mainly Brazzaville and north. 90,600 in Congo (2000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of national identity (2002, Constitution, Article 6), generally northern. Alternate Names: Ngala Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.30)

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Lumbu
[lup] Niari Region, Kibangou district, between Kibangou and Gabon border. 3,020 in Congo (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ilumbu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Shira-Punu (B.44)

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Mbandja
[zmz] Extreme north Likouala Region, Oubangui river area. 9,060 in Congo (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banja, Mbanja, Mbanza Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southern

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Mbangwe
[zmn] Lekoumou Region, Bambama district, small groups. 1,510 in Congo (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: M’bahouin Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.23)

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Mbere
[mdt] Cuvette-Ouest Region, Kelle and north Ewo districts. 60,400 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 105,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Limbede, Mbédé, Mbété Dialects: Ngwii. Lexical similarity: 77% with Mbamba [mbm], 76% with Ngungwel [ngz], 74% with Teke-Tege [teg], 70% with Teke-Tsaayi [tyi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbete (B.61) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mboko
[mdu] Cuvette Region, west Makoua district. 27,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mboxo, Mbuku Dialects: Ngare. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mboshi (C.21)

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Mbosi
[mdw] Cuvette Region, Owando and Mossaka districts, south of Owando; Plateaux Region, Abala district. 108,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Embosi, Mbochi, Mboshe, Mboshi Dialects: Bunji (Mbonzi), Eboi, Ngolo, Olee, Ondinga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mboshi (C.25) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Moi
[mow] Oubangui river west bank, Alima river mouth, south of Mossaka. 3,020 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lemoi, Rebu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.32)

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Monzombo
[moj] Extreme northeast, on Oubangui river. 6,000 in Congo (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 12,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mondjembo, Monjombo, Munzombo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo

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Mpyemo
[mcx] Sangha Region, along Cameroon border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bimu, Mbimou, Mbimu, Mbyemo, Mpo Dialects: Bidjuki (Bidjouki), Jasoa (Jasua), Mpyemo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.86) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndasa
[nda] Lekoumou Region, west of Zanaga. 4,530 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 6,990. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andasa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.201)

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Ngbaka
[nga] Likouala Region, Oubangui river west bank, between Impfondo and Congo river confluence. 3,650 in Congo (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East Comments: Different from Ngbaka Ma’bo [nbm].

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Ngbaka Ma’bo
[nbm] 90,600 in Congo (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bouaka, Bwaka, Gbala, Ma’bo, Mbacca, Mbaka, Nbwaka, Ngbaka Limba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka

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Ngom
[nra] Cuvette-Ouest Region, northwest of Mbomo. 4,530 in Congo (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angom, Bangom, Bangomo, Ongom, Ungom, Ungomo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.22)

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Ngundi
[ndn] Sangha Region, east of Ouesso. 3,000 in Congo (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingundi, Ngondi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.11) Comments: Different from Gundi [gdi] of Central African Republic, which is an Adamawa-Ubangi language.

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Ngungwel
[ngz] Plateaux Region, Gamboma district. 45,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Engungwel, Ngangoulou, Ngungulu, Northeastern Teke Dialects: Mpu (Mpumpu, Mpumpum). Seen as separate from Teke, although part of the Teke family. Lexical similarity: 89% with Boo [ebo], 81% with Kukua [kkw], 77% with Teghe [teg], 76% with Tsaayi [tyi] and Mbere [mdt], 75% with Tyee [tyx], 68% with Laali [lli], 61% with Yaa [iyx]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.72)

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Njebi
[nzb] Niari Region, Mayoko district. 15,100 in Congo (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binzabi, Injebi, Ndjabi, Njabi, Njevi, Nzebi, Yinjebi, Yinzebi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Nzebi (B.52)

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Njyem
[njy] Sangha Region, Souanke district, along paths leading north to Cameroon. 3,500 in Congo. 2,980 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djem, Dzem, Ndjem, Ndjeme, Ndzem, Ngyeme, Njem, Nyem, Zimu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.84) Comments: Christian.

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Ombamba
[mbm] Lekoumou Region, Bambama district. 15,100 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 24,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lembaamba, Mbaama, Mbama, Mbamba Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Teghe [teg], 77% with Mbere [mdt], 66% with Tsaayi [tyi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbete (B.62)

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Pomo
[pmm] Sangha Region, north of Ouesso, on Cameroon and Central African Republic borders. 5,430 in Congo (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Congo Pol, Pol, Pori, Pul Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kaka (A.92)

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Punu
[puu] Niari Region, toward Gabon border. 9,060 in Congo (2000). Total of all Sira-Punu languages in Congo 80,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ipounou, Ipunu, Pouno, Puno, Yipunu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Shira-Punu (B.43)

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Suundi
[sdj] Pool Region, Boko, Kinkala, Kindamba, and Mayama districts. 121,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kissoundi, Kisuundi, Suundi de Kifouma, Suundi de Kimongo Dialects: Kisuundi kya Mayama, Kisuundi kya Ngwaari, Kisuundi kya Nkeleke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.131)

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Teke-Eboo
[ebo] Plateaux Region from Lefini river east to the Congo River. 20,400 in Congo (2000). 454,000 all Teke languages in Congo (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamboma, Boma, Boo, Boõ, Central Teke, Eboo Teke, Eboom, Iboo, Teke-Boma Dialects: Teke-Nzikou. Eboo is the language of the ancient Teke kings. Teke-Eboo [ebo], Teke-Nzikou [nzu], and Teke-Fuumu [ifm] are reportedly similar enough to easily share the same literature. Lexical similarity: 63% with Iyaa, 69% with Laali [lli], 75% with Tsaayi [tyi], 85% with Tyee [tyx], 86% with Kukuya [kkw], 89% with Ngungwel [ngz], 79% with Teke-Tege [teg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.74) Comments: Ethnic autonym: Aboo. Teke-Nzikou [nzu] and Teke-Eboo use the same literacy materials. A hybrid of the dialects is emerging among young people. Traditional religion.

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Teke-Fuumu
[ifm] Pool Region. Fuumu dialect: north of Brazzaville; Wuumu dialect north and northwest of Lefini river. 8,150 (2000). 454,000 all Teke languages in Congo (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fumu, Fuumu, Kiteke, South Central Teke, Teke du Pool Dialects: Fuumu (Fumu, Ifuumu, Mfumu), Wuumu (Iwuumu, Wumbu). Teke-Eboo [ebo],Teke-Nzikou [nzu], and Teke-Fuumu [ifm] are reportedly similar enough to easily share the same literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.77)

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Teke-Ibali
[tek] Pool Region, Brazzaville area, on the Congo River. 36,200 in Congo (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bali, Eastern Teke, Ibali, Kiteke Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.75)

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Teke-Kukuya
[kkw] Plateaux Region, Lekana district, east of Leketi river. 38,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikuya, Kikuwa, Koukouya, Kukua, Kukwa, Southern Teke Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Eboo [ebo], 85% with Tyee [tyx], 81% with Ngungwel [ngz], 80% with Tsaayi [tyi], 79% with Teke-Tege [teg], 75% with Laali [lli], 70% with Yaka [iyx]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.77)

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Teke-Laali
[lli] Lekoumou Region, south of Komono. 2,100 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ilaali, Laali, West Teke Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Tsaayi [tyi], 78% with Tyee [tyx]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.73)

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Teke-Nzikou
[nzu] Plateaux Region, around Djambala. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Teke, Ndzindziu, Njiunjiu, Njyunjyu Dialects: Teke-Eboo. A hybrid of the dialects is emerging among young people. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.74) Comments: Teke-Nzikou and Teke-Eboo [ebo] can be considered dialects of the same language, though there is no group name, apart from Teke. Both dialects use the same literacy materials. A hybrid of the dialects emerging among young people. Traditional religion.

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Teke-Tege
[teg] Cuvette-Ouest Region, Ewo and Okoyo districts; Plateaux Region, Abala district, west of Mpama river. 49,300 in Congo (2000). 454,000 all Teke languages in Congo (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iteghe, Keteghe, Northern Teke, Teghe, Teke Alima, Teke Kali Dialects: Kateghe (Nzikini), Keteghe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.71)

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Teke-Tsaayi
[tyi] North Lekoumou Region, east of Mossendjo. 95,900 (2000). 454,000 all Teke languages in Congo (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Getsaayi, Tsaayi, Tsaya, Tsaye, Tsayi, West Teke Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Tyee [tyx], 80% with Kukuya [kkw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.73)

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Teke-Tyee
[tyx] Lekoumou and Bouenza regions. 14400 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kwe, Tee, Tyee, West Teke Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Kukuya [kkw] and Eboo [ebo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.73) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tsaangi
[tsa] Niari Region, north and northwest of Mossendjo. 13,600 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 22,210. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Icaangi, Itsangi, Tcengui, Tchangui, Tsengi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Nzebi (B.53)

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Vili
[vif] Kouilou Region, coast between Angola and Gabon borders; Yoombe Island. 7,310 in Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 11,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Civili, Fiot, Fiote, Tshivili, Tsivili Dialects: Civili ci Loango, Civili ci Moongo, Civili ci Waanda, Civili ci Yombe, Kotchi, Lindji, Woyo. A dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.12) Comments: Ethnonym: Bavili. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wumbvu
[wum] Niari Region, north to Gabon border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aka, Baaka, Babinga, Bambendjele, Bambenga, Beka, Biaka, Pygmy, Wumvu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.24)

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Yaka
[iyx] Lekoumou Region, Sibiti district. 10,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iyaka, West Teke, Yaa Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 91% with Laali [lli], 74% with Tsaayi [tyi], 69% with Tyee [tyx]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.73)

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Yombe
[yom] 348,000 in Congo (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bayombe, Kiombi, Kiyombe Dialects: Mbala (Mumbala), Vungunya (Kivungunya, Yombe Classique). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16) Comments: Distinct enough from Vili [vif] to need separate literature. Christian, traditional religion.

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