Côte d’Ivoire

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Abé
[aba] Agneby Region, Agboville area; Lagunes Region, Agboville subprefecture, except Krobou canton, Tiassale subprefecture, Abbe canton, 70 villages; also in N’zi-Comoe Region, Bongouanou subprefecture. 170,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abbé, Abbey, Abi Dialects: Abbey-Ve, Kos (Khos), Morie, Tioffo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Abidji
[abi] Lagunes Region, Abidjan, Sikensi subprefecture, 12 villages, Dabou subprefecture, a few villages; Agneby Region southwest of Agboville. 50,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abiji Dialects: Enyembe, Ogbru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian.

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Abron
[abr] Zanzan Region, Tanda and Bondoukou subprefectures. 133,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: Glossonym: Abron in Côte d’Ivoire, Brong in Ghana. Christian (Protestant), Muslim, traditional religion.

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Abure
[abu] Sud-Comoe Region, Bonoua subprefecture; Lagunes Region, Grand Bassam subprefecture, Abidjan. 55,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abonwa, Abouré, Abule, Akaplass Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any] and Baoule [bci]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western Comments: Ethnic subgroups: Eyive (majority), Ehie, Ossouon. Christian.

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Adioukrou
[adj] Lagunes Region, Dabou subprefecture. 49 villages. 100,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adjukru, Adyoukrou, Adyukru, Ajukru Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aizi, Aproumu
[ahp] Lagunes Region, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Attoutou A (new quarter), Attoutou B, Tefredji, Koko, Bapo (Allaba B, Taboth) villages; Dabou subprefecture, Allaba village. 6,500 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Aprou, Aproumu, Aprwe, Oprou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: Ethnonym: Chicalé for Lélémrin (Tiagbamrin); Amaboué for Mobumrin; Akabu, Opro, Saptomrin, and Tchavamrin used in different Mobu and Lélé villages to refer to Apro; Ed-eyng by Adioukrou, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all the Aizi groups. Christian.

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Aizi, Mobumrin
[ahm] Lagunes Region, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon north bank. 2 villages (Abraco and Abraniamiambo). 2,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: Ethnic autonym: Frukpu. Ethnonym: Mouin; Ed-eyng by Adioukrou, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all Aizi groups. Christian.

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Aizi, Tiagbamrin
[ahi] Lagunes Region, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Tiagba, Nigui-Assoko, Nigui-Saff, Tiémié, and Attoutou B (old quarter) villages. 9,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Lélémrin, Tiagba Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of Mobumrin Aizi [ahm], even though both are Kru languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: ‘Tiagbamrin’, language of Tiagba. Others speak Lélémrin. Ethnonym: Prokpo, Krokpo in Tiagba town; Ed-eyng by Adioukro, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all Aizi groups. Christian.

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Alladian
[ald] Lagunes Region, Jacqueville subprefecture, plain between the coast and Ebrie lagoon. 21 villages. 23,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alladyan, Allagia, Allagian Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian Comments: Christian.

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Anyin
[any] Mainly N’zi-Comoe Region, M’bahiakro, Bongouanou and Daoukro subprefectures; Zanzan Region, Bondoukou and Tanda subprefectures; also in Moyen-Comoe, Sud-Comoe, and Lagunes regions. 610,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 860,000. L2 users: 10,000 in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Anyi Dialects: Abe, Alangua, Ano, Barabo, Bini, Bona, Djuablin (Juablin), Indenie (Ndenye), Sanvi. Reportedly most similar to Baoulé [bci]. Also similar to Nzema [nzi] and Sehwi [sfw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Anyin Morofo
[mtb] Lagunes Region, Southern, Eastern, and Central departments; Lacs Region, Moronou area; N’zi-Comoe Region, southwest corner. 300,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Morofo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: ‘Morofue’ refers to a Morofo speaker.

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Attié
[ati] Lagunes Region, Anyama and Alepe subprefectures; Agneby Region, Adzope, Affery, Agou, Akoupe, and Yakasse-Attobrou subprefectures; southeast N’zi-Comoe Region. 381,000 (1993 SIL). 34,000 live in Abidjan. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akie, Akye, Atche, Atie, Atshe Dialects: Bodin, Ketin, Naindin. Bodin dialect is the most prestigious and numerous. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Attie Comments: Christian.

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Avikam
[avi] Lagunes Region, Grand Lahou coastal plain area, Avikam Canton; Sud-Bandama Region, along coast west of Tagbo Lagoon. 21,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Avekom, Brignan, Brinya, Gbanda, Kwakwa, Lahu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian Comments: Christian.

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Bakwé
[bjw] Bas-Sassandra Region, Sassandra, Soubre, and San Pedro prefectures. 10,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dafa, Defa, Deple, Nigagba, Nyinagbi. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe Comments: Christian.

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Bambara
[bam] Denguele Region, center and northeast; Savanes Region, Tingréla department, Ségélon subprefecture; Malian diaspora in all major cities. 5,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bamako, Bamana, Bamanakan Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Muslim.

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Baoulé
[bci] N’zi-Comoe, Lacs, Vallee du Bandama, Lagunes, Marahoue, Fromager, Sud-Bandama, and Worodougou regions, widespread in the south. 2,130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baule, Bawule Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any]. Many subgroups, but all claim to understand the standard variety. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Largest ethnic group in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Beng
[nhb] N’zi-Comoe Region, M’bahiakro subprefecture, northeast corner, 20 villages, Prikro subprefecture, 2 villages. 17,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben, Gan, Ngain, Ngan, Ngen, Ngin, Nguin Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bété, Daloa
[bev] Haut-Sassandra Region, Daloa subprefecture. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daloua Bété, Northern Bété Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bété, Gagnoa
[btg] Fromager Region, Gagnoa subprefecture; Marahoue Region, Sinfra subprefecture; some in northern Sud-Bandama Region. 150,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Bété, Gagnoua-Bété, Shyen Dialects: Gbadi (Badie, Gbadie), Guebie, Kpakolo, Nekedi, Niabre, Zadie, Zebie. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bété, Guiberoua
[bet] Bas-Sassandra Region, Soubre, Buyo, Gregbeu, and Ouaragahio subprefectures; Haut-Sassandra Region, Daloua, Issia, and Guiberoua subprefectures; western Fromager and southwest Marahoue regions. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Bété, Western Bété Dialects: Guiberoua, Soubré. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Different from Bete [byf] of Nigeria. Christian, traditional religion.

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Beti
[eot] Sud-Comoe Region, Vitre I and Vitre II villages, Grand Bassam subprefecture. 200 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Ethnic population: 3,180 (1988 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Eotile Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western Comments: Christian.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Northeast corner of Zanzan Region. 4,310 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cerma
[cme] Savanes Region, Ouangolodougou area, north of Ferkessedougou, 5 villages. 1,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gouin, Guin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Comments: Traditional religion.

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Daho-Doo
[das] Moyen-Cavally Region, Tai area and south; Doo are in 5 villages south of Guiglo; northwestern Bas-Sassandra Region. 4,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Although the Daho and Doo are considered Wè, their speech is not understood by other Wè. Greatest lexical similarity: at least 30%–80% with any Wè variety, 92% with Daho and Doo dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn

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Dan
[dnj] Dix-Huit Montagnes Region, Man (except Kouibly and Facoubly), Danané, Biankouma prefectures, 19 villages; Bafing Region, Liberian border area west of Touba. 1,300,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). 650,000 in Eastern Dan, 650,000 in western Dan. Population total all countries: 1,610,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Ya, Yacouba, Yakuba Dialects: Blowo (Western Dan), Gweetaawu (Eastern Dan). At least 38 subdialects. In Liberia speakers in Garplay understood Côte d’Ivoire Yacouba dialect recordings as follows: Danane, Koulinle, Kale: very well; Blosse: quite well; Bloundo: reasonably well; dialects east of Blouno: considerable difficulty (Bolli and Frick 1971). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Deg
[mzw] Possibly in Zanzan Region. 1,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buro, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western

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Dida, Lakota
[dic] Sud-Bandama Region, Lakota town area; Lagunes Region, south of Lake Taabo; several small areas in Fromager Region. 93,800 (1993 SIL). All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brabori, Dieko, Gabo, Guébie, Satro, Ziki Dialects: Vata. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: Distinct from Yocoboué Dida [gud]. Traditional religion.

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Dida, Yocoboué
[gud] Sud-Bandama Region, Guitry subprefecture, Guitry town area; Lagunes Region, Tagbo Lagoon. 102,000 (1993 SIL). 7,100 Guitry, 94,500 Divo. All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Divo, Lozoua (Gakpa, Goudou, Guitry, Kagoué, Yocoboue, Yokouboué). Lakota Dida [dic] marginally intelligible with Yocoboué Dida. Guitry is prestigious. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: More survey needed in Dida area. Christian, Muslim.

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Ebrié
[ebr] Lagunes Region, urban Abidjan, Dabou subprefecture, Bingerville subprefecture. 57 villages, including 27 in Abidjan. 75,900 (1988 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cama, Caman, Kyama, Tchaman, Tsama, Tyama Dialects: None known. Not related to surrounding languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou Comments: Christian, Christian.

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Ega
[ega] Sud-Bandama Region, Diés canton, Borondoukou village near Gly. 2,500 (2001 B. Connell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diés, Egwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Ega Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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French
[fra] 17,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1988 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 29). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Gban
[ggu] Fromager Region, Oume subprefecture; Sud-Bandama Region south of Laouda. 60,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gagou, Gagu, Kago, Sodua Dialects: Boka, Bokabo, N’da, Touka. N’da dialect is central. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Glio-Oubi
[oub] Southwest corner; Bas-Sassandra Region, north of Tabou, east bank of Cavally. 2,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Glio, Oubi, Ubi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi Comments: Glossonym: Glio in Liberia. Traditional religion.

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Godié
[god] Sud-Bandama Region, Fresco subprefecture, Kotrohou canton, Koyo; Bas-Sassandra Region, Sassandra subprefecture; some in Fromager Region. 26,400 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Godye Dialects: Dagli, Dlogo, Glibe, Jluko, Kagbo, Koyo, Nugbo, Nyago, Tiglu. The Koyo dialect may be more similar to a Dida language than to Godié [god]. Kagbo is the most widely understood dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Grebo, Southern
[grj] Possibly in Bas-Sassandra Region. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Seaside Grebo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian Comments: Mainly refugees in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion.

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Guro
[goa] Mainly Marahoue, Haut-Sassandra, and Fromager regions, Zuénoula, Vavoua, Gouitafla, Bouaflé, Sinfra, and Oumé subprefectures; smaller areas in Vallee du Bandama, Worodougou and Lacs regions. 500,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baba, Dalo, Dipa, Gouro, Ku, Kwéndré, Kweni, Lo Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Jeri Kuo
[jek] Savanes Region, Korhogo area, 3 enclaves. 1,500 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Celle, Jeli Kuo Dialects: None known. Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Tongon, an extinct blacksmith argot of the Djimini Senoufo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri

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Jula
[dyu] Savanes and Zanzan regions; widespread in all major cities. 1,500,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 2,550,000. L2 users: 7,000,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Widespread in all major cities. Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan Dialects: None known. Spoken as L1 or L2 by millions of people of diverse ethnic backgrounds in West Africa. Mutually intelligible with Bambara [bam], Kita Maninkakan [mwk], and Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Majority ethnic Jula. Government designated as 1 of 5 languages to be developed for literature. Muslim.

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Khisa
[kqm] Northern Zanzan Region. 5,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 8,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu Dialects: Speakers say they can understand Kaansa [gna] and Senoufo, given time. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dogosé [dos], 72% with Kpatogo dialect of Kaansa, 71% with Kaansa [gna], 16% with Dogoso [dgs], 13% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: Muslim.

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Kla-Dan
[lda] Worodougou Region, Touba department, 25 villages; Dix-Huit Montagnes Region, Biankouma department, Zouzoupleu village. 25,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Santa, Zouzoupleu. Reportedly similar to Dan [dnj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kodia
[kwp] Bas-Sassandra Region. 840 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kwadia, Kwadya Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Kwadia Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koro
[kfo] Worodougou Region, Mankono department, Tiéningboué subprefecture. 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koro Jula Dialects: None known. High comprehension of Koyaga [kga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koyaga. Muslim.

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Kouya
[kyf] Haut-Sassandra Region, Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton, 12 villages; small area, Marahoue Region, west of Bonefla. 10,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kowya, Kuya, Sokya Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Gbadi Bété [btg] and Dida. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koyaga
[kga] Worodougou Region, Mankono department, western 4 subprefectures. 60,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koya, Koyaa, Koyaga Jula, Koyagakan, Koyaka, Koyara Dialects: Koyaga, Nigbi, Sagaka, Siaka. High comprehension of Koro [kfo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koro. Muslim.

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Krahn, Eastern
[kqo] Possibly in Moyen-Cavally Region. 10,600 in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Konobo Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Krahn, Western
[krw] Moyen-Cavally Region, Toulépleu subprefecture; also in Dix-Huit Montagnes Region. 12,200 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Krahn, Northern Krahn Dialects: Biai, Pewa (Peewa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Local French influences, but in Liberia from Liberian English, from which there are Orthographic differences. Traditional religion.

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Krobu
[kxb] Agneby Region, Agboville subprefecture, 4 villages. 9,920 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krobou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Krobu Comments: Christian.

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Krumen, Plapo
[ktj] Southwest corner, Bas-Sassandra Region, between Bapo and Honpo dialects of Tepo Krumen [ted]. 100 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Plapo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian

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Krumen, Pye
[pye] Bas-Sassandra Region, Tai, Bereby, and in San Pedro subprefectures. 20,000 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Northeastern Krumen, Southeastern Krumen Dialects: Dugbo, Gbowe-Hran, Pie (Pie-Pli-Mahon-Kuse-Gblapo-Henekwe, Pye), Trepo, Wlepo, Wluwe-Hawlo (Haoulo), Yapo, Yrewe (Giriwe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian Comments: Christian.

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Krumen, Tepo
[ted] Bas-Sassandra Region, Tabou and Grabo subprefectures. 28,300 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 31,210. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Kru, Krumen, Southern Krumen, Southwestern Kroumen Dialects: Bapo, Dapo, Glawlo, Honpo, Tepo, Wlopo (Ropo), Yrepo (Kapo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian Comments: Christian.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] Zanzan Region, Bondoukou subprefecture. 77,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 104,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] Zanzan Region, Nassian subprefecture. 14,400 in Côte d’Ivoire (1998). Population total all countries: 29,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koulango, Kulange, Nkuraeng, Nkurange Dialects: Nabanj. Bouna dialect speakers understand Bondoukou [kzc], but not the reverse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ligbi
[lig] Zanzan Region, Bineto village; Bouna community; Slil town near Boundoukou; Ourodougou near Malinke [loi] territory. 4,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda, Jogo, Ligwi, Nigbi, Nigwi, Tuba Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo Comments: Ethnonym: Banda, is also the name for speakers of Nafaanra [nfr]. Numu (Noumou, Numun) is the name of a caste of blacksmiths; not a separate language. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Lobi
[lob] Zanzan Region, north strip. 156,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Loma
[loi] Zanzan Region, Téén and Kulango areas. 8,010 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lomakka, Lomapo, Lomasse, Malinke Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Téén [lor] and Kulango [kzc] but not inherently intelligible. More similar to Kulango than Téén is to Kulango. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen Comments: Different from Loma [lom] of Liberia.

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Mahou
[mxx] Bafing Region, Touba department; northeast Dix-Huit Montagnes Region; Denguele Region south of Bako. 300,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahu, Maou, Mau, Mauka, Mauke Dialects: Baralaka (Barala), Finanga, Koroka, Mahouka, Tenenga. Some listed dialect speakers may not be able to use Mahou literature. Barala may be dialect of Wojenaka [jod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Mauka is the indigenous ethnonym; Mawu is the indigenous toponym and should not be confused with Mawu, the autoglottonym for Siwu [akp]. Muslim.

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Mbato
[gwa] Lagunes Region, Petit Alépé subprefecture; east bank, Komoe river, Sud-Comoe Region. 25,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goaa, Gwa, M’bato, Mbatto, Mgbato, N-Batto, Nglwa, Ogwia, Potu Dialects: None known. Related to Ebrii [ebr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou Comments: Christian.

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Mbre
[mka] Worodougou Region; a few in Vallee du Bandama Region, Marabadiassa area, Bondosso and Niantibo villages. 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bere, Bre, Pre, Pre Pisia Dialects: None known. Considerably different from surrounding Mande and nearby Kwa languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Unclassified

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Mwan
[moa] Worodougou Region, Kongasso subprefecture and south Mankono subprefecture. 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mona, Mouan, Muan, Muana, Mwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Neyo
[ney] Bas-Sassandra Region, Sassandra subprefecture, Neyo, and Kébé cantons, from Niégba west to Dagbégo east and Niabayo north. 9,200 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gwibwen, Towi Dialects: Reportedly most similar to the Kagbo dialect of Godié [god], but they consider themselves a separate ethnic group. May be more similar to a Dida language than to a Bété language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: Ethnic autonym: Neyo. Christian, traditional religion.

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N’ko
[nqo] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Mixed language

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Nyabwa
[nwb] Lake Buyo area; Haut-Sassandra Region, southwest corner, Vavoua (Nyedebwa), Issia, Buyo, Zoukougbeu (Nyabwa), and Daloua subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra Region, northwest. 42,700 (1993 SIL). 32,500 Nyabwa, 7,700 Nyedebwa, 2,500 Kouzié. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Niaboua, Nyaboa, Nyabwa-Nyédébwa Dialects: Kouzié, Nyabwa, Nyedebwa (Niédéboua). Lexical similarity: 90% with Nyabwa and Nyedebwa dialects, 74%–80% between them and Wè Southern [gxx] and Wè Northern [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Nyabwa Comments: Ethnonym: Bété not wanted. Kouzii is an ethnic subgroup of Nyabwa, not a dialect. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nzema
[nzi] Sud-Comoe Region, Aboisso department, Tiapoum subprefecture, southeast coast; Abidjan. 66,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: Christian.

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Sénoufo, Cebaara
[sef] Savanes Region, around Korhogo city and west; substantial areas in Denguele and Worodougou regions; some in Vallee du Bandama west of Bandama Blanc river. 862,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Senadi, Senari, Syenere, Tiebaara, Tyebala Dialects: Fodara, Kafire, Kandere (Tengrela), Kasara, Kufuru, Kulere, Nafara, Papara, Patara, Pogara, Southwest Senari, Tagara, Tagbari (Mbengui-Niellé), Takpasyeeri (Messeni), Tenere, Tyebara. Korhogo dialect is central. The Kulele speak Kulere dialect scattered throughout the Senoufo area. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Djimini
[dyi] Vallee du Bandama Region, Dabakala department, northeast corner; N’zi-Comoe Region, northwest of Kouandkro; Savanes Region, Ferkessedougou department. 95,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimini, Dyimini, Jinmini Dialects: Diamala (Djamala, Dyamala), Djafolo, Dofana, Foolo, Singala. Dabakala prestige dialect is Singala. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Tagwana Senoufo [tgw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Nyarafolo
[sev] Savanes Region, northeast Ferkessédougou area; some border areas in northern Vallee du Bandama Region. 60,000 (2009 L. Boese). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niarafolo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Palaka
[plr] Savanes Region, east of Bandama Blanc river; Vallee du Bandama Region, Sikolo area, north of Djimini. 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpalagha, Palaka, Palara, Pallakha, Pilara Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with other Senufo languages and dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Kpalaga Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Savanes Region, north of Tingréla. 100,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1996). Population total all countries: 114,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shenpire, Syempire Dialects: 3 or 4 dialects. Relationship to Supyire Senoufo [spp] in Mali is undetermined. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara

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Sénoufo, Tagwana
[tgw] Vallee du Bandama Region, north central area, west of Djimini area; Savanes Region, east of Korhogo city; Worodougou Region north of Lake Kossou. 138,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tagbana, Tagouna, Tagwana Dialects: Djidanan, Fondebougou, Fourgoula, Gbo (Zoro), Katiara, Katiola, Niakaramadougou, Niangbo, Niediekaha, Tafire. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Djimini [dyi] dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Téén
[lor] Zanzan Region, Bouna department, Téhini subprefecture. 6,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Population total all countries: 8,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé Dialects: None known. Different from Kulango. Reportedly most similar to Loma [loi] and Bouna Kulango [nku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tonjon
[tjn] Vallée du Bandama Region, Dabakala department, among the Djimini Senoufo [dyi]. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo Comments: Formerly spoken by blacksmiths.

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Toura
[neb] Dix-Huit Montagnes Region, east Biankouma department, mountainous region east of Man to Touba main road, north of Man to Séguéla main road, north of Bafing river; Bafing and Sassandra rivers from north and east borders. 50,000 (2005 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tura, Ween Dialects: Boo, Guse, Gwéò, Naò, Wáádú, Yiligele. Probably most similar to Dan [dnj]. Reportedly also similar to Guro [goa], Gban [ggu], and Mano [mev] (in Liberia). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wan
[wan] Southeast Worodougou Region, Kounahiri and west Beoumi subprefectures; Vallee du Bandama and Marahoue regions, north shore, Lake Bossou. 22,000 (1993 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nwa Dialects: Kemu, Miamu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wané
[hwa] Southwest coast, Bas-Sassandra Region, Kounoukou area. 2,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hwane, Ngwané Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe Comments: Intermarry frequently with the Bakwe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Northern
[wob] Dix-Huit Montagnes Region, Kouibly and Fakobly subprefectures. 156,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouobe, Wèè, Wobé Dialects: Péomé, Sémien (Gbéan), Tao. Kouibly dialect intelligible to about half of Wè Southern [gxx] speakers. Lexical similarity: 90%–94% among dialects, Kouibly dialect (Tao and Gbean) has 84%–89% lexical similarity with Wè Southern dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Wobe Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Southern
[gxx] Central, eastern Moyen-Cavally Region; Dix-Huit Montagnes Region, Guiglo, Duékoué, Bangolo, and Tai subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra Region, Lake Buyo area. 293,000 (1999 SIL). 20,000 Niao (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Guéré, Gere, Guéré Dialects: Beu (Zarabaon), Fleo, Gboo (Gbobo), Niao (Neabo, Neao, Niabo), Nyeo, Zaa (Zaha), Zagna, Zagne, Zibiao. Southern Wè has 7 more consonants than Northern Wè [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wèè. Consider Wè one language with many dialects. They are one ethnic group, together with Krahn in Liberia. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Western
[wec] Moyen-Cavally Region, Toulépleu subprefecture; also in Dix-Huit Montagnes Region. 25,200 (1998 SIL). 20,000 Kaoro (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gere, Guéré, Neyo Dialects: Kaoro (Kaawlu, Kaowlu), Nidrou (Nidru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wèè. Neyo [wec] is distinct from Neyo [ney], another Kru language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wojenaka
[jod] Denguele Region, Odienné department; also in Worodougou and Bafing regions; possiblly, Juraba and Samofo dialects: Boundiali department. 120,000 (1999 SIL). 15,000 Wasulu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malinké, Odienné Jula, Odiennekakan Dialects: Bodougouka, Juraba, Nafana, Odienneka, Samogo, Sienkoka, Toudougouka, Vandougouka, Wasulu (Wassoulounka, Wassulunka, Wassulunke). Some dialects listed may be separate languages. The Barala dialect of Mahou [mxx] may be a dialect of Wojenaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Wasulu are ethnic Fulani who adopted a Manding language. Muslim.

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Worodougou
[jud] Mainly, Worodougou Region, Séguéla and Mankono departments, Tiéningboué subprefecture; also in Dix-Huit Montagnes, Haut-Sassandra, Bafing, and Denguele regions. 80,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakokan, Ouorodougou, Worodougou Jula, Worodougoukakan, Worodugu Dialects: Kanika, Karanjan, Worodougouka. Karanjan dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Glossonym: Bakokan by people in Mankono department. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yaouré
[yre] Marahoue Region, Bouaflé department, Bouaflé subprefecture, Yaouré canton, bounded south by Red Bandama, east by White Bandama river, north by Lake Kossou, west by Bouaflé. 40,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yaure, Yohowré, Youré Dialects: Bhoo, Klan, Taan, Yaan, Yoo. Reportedly most similar to Guro [goa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure Comments: Traditional religion.

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