Côte d’Ivoire

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Abé
[aba] Lagunes Region, Agboville subprefecture (except Krobou canton); Tiassale subprefecture, Abbe canton. 70 villages. 170,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abbé, Abbey, Abi Dialects: Abbey-Ve, Kos (Khos), Morie, Tioffo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Abidji
[abi] Lagunes Region, Abidjan, Sikensi subprefecture (12 villages); Dabou subprefecture, a few villages. 50,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abiji Dialects: Enyembe, Ogbru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian.

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Abron
[abr] Zanzan Region, Tanda and Bondoukou subprefectures. 132,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: Glossonym: Abron in Côte d’Ivoire, Brong in Ghana. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Abure
[abu] Sud-Comoé Region, Bonoua subprefecture; Grand Bassam subprefecture, Abidjan. 55,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abonwa, Abouré, Abule, Akaplass Dialects: Most similar to Anyin [any]. Also close to Baoule [bci] and Nzema [nzi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western Comments: Ethnic subgroups: Eyive (majority), Ehie, Ossouon. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Adioukrou
[adj] Lagunes Region, Dabou subprefecture. 49 villages. 100,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adjukru, Adyoukrou, Adyukru, Ajukru Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Aizi, Aproumu
[ahp] Lagunes Region, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Attoutou A (new quarter), Attoutou B, Tefredji, Koko, Bapo (Allaba B, Taboth) villages; Dabou subprefecture, Allaba village. 6,500 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Aprou, Aproumu, Aprwe, Oprou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: Ethnonym: Chicalé for Lélémrin (Tiagbamrin); Amaboué for Mobumrin; Akabu, Opro, Saptomrin, and Tchavamrin used in different Mobu and Lélé villages to refer to Apro; Ed-eyng by Adioukrou, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all the Aizi groups. Christian, Muslim.

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Aizi, Mobumrin
[ahm] Lagunes Region, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon north bank. 2 villages (Abraco and Abraniamiambo). 2,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: Ethnic autonym: Frukpu. Ethnonym: Mouin; Ed-eyng by Adioukrou, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all Aizi groups. Christian, Muslim.

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Aizi, Tiagbamrin
[ahi] Lagunes Region, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Tiagba, Nigui-Assoko, Nigui-Saff, Tiémié, and Attoutou B (old quarter) villages. 9,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Lélémrin, Tiagba Dialects: No intelligibility of Mobumrin Aizi [ahm], even though both are Kru languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: ‘Tiagbamrin’, language of Tiagba. Others speak Lélémrin. Ethnonym: Prokpo, Krokpo in Tiagba town; Ed-eyng by Adioukro, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all Aizi groups. Christian, Muslim.

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Alladian
[ald] Lagunes Region, Jacqueville subprefecture, plain between the coast and Ebrie lagoon. 21 villages. 23,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alladyan, Allagia, Allagian Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Anyin
[any] South region, Lagunes and Sud-Comoé regions; Moyen-Comoé and Agnébi regions; Zanzan Region, Bondoukou and Tanda subprefectures; Nzi-Comoé Region, M’bahiakro, Bongouanou and Daoukro subprefectures; between Kulango and Abron [abr] north; Nzema [sfw], Abure [abu], and Lagoon languages south; Baoulé west [bci]. Also in Ghana. 610,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 860,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Anyi Dialects: Abe, Alangua, Ano, Barabo, Bini, Bona, Djuablin, Indenie, Moronou, Sanvi. Most similar to Baoulé [bcy]. Also similar to Nzema [nzi] and Sehwi [sfw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Anyin Morofo
[mtb] Southern, Eastern, and Central departments, Moronou. 300,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Morofo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: ‘Morofue’ refers to a Morofo speaker.

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Attié
[ati] Lagunes Region, Anyama and Alepe subprefectures; Agnébi Region, Adzope, Affery, Agou, Akoupe, and Yakasse-Attobrou subprefectures. 381,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akie, Akye, Atche, Atie, Atshe Dialects: Bodin, Ketin, Naindin. Bodin dialect is the most prestigious and numerous. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Attie Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Avikam
[avi] Lagunes Region, Grand Lahou coastal plain area, Avikam Canton. 21,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Avekom, Brignan, Brinya, Gbanda, Kwakwa, Lahu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bakwé
[bjw] Bas-Sassandra Region, Sassandra, Soubre, and San Pedro prefectures. 10,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dafa, Defa, Deple, Nigagba, Nyinagbi. Most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bambara
[bam] Savanes Region, Tingréla department, Ségélon subprefecture. Malian diaspora in all major cities. 5,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bamako, Bamana, Bamanakan Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Baoulé
[bci] Nzi-Comoé, Lacs, and Vallée du Bandama regions, widespread in the south. 2,130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baule, Bawule Dialects: Similar to Anyin [any]. Many subgroups, but all claim to understand the standard variety. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Largest ethnic group in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Beng
[nhb] Nzi-Comoé Region, M’bahiakro subprefecture, northeast corner. 20 villages; Prikro subprefecture. 2 villages. 17,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben, Gan, Ngain, Ngan, Ngen, Ngin, Nguin Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Bété, Daloa
[bev] Haut-Sassandra Region, Daloa subprefecture. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daloua Bété, Northern Bété Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bété, Gagnoa
[btg] Haut-Sassandra Region, Gagnoa subprefecture. 150,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Bété, Gagnoua-Bété, Shyen Dialects: Gbadi (Badie, Gbadie), Guebie, Kpakolo, Nekedi, Niabre, Zadie, Zebie. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bété, Guiberoua
[bet] Haut-Sassandra Region, Daloua, Issia, and Guiberoua subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra Region, Soubre, Buyo, Gregbeu, and Ouaragahio subprefectures. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Bété, Western Bété Dialects: Guiberoua, Soubré. Most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Different from Bete [byf] of Nigeria. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Beti
[eot] Sud-Comoé Region, Vitre I and Vitre II villages, Grand Bassam subprefecture. 200 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Ethnic population: 3,180 (1988 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Eotile Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Northeast corner of Zanzan Region. 4,310 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Cerma
[cme] Savannes Region, Ouangolodougo area, north of Ferkessedougou. 5 villages. 1,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gouin, Guin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Comments: Traditional religion.

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Daho-Doo
[das] 18 Montagnes Region, north of Tai and south of the Guéré. Doo are in 5 villages south of Guiglo. 4,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Although the Daho and Doo are considered Wè, their speech is not understood by other Wè. Greatest lexical similarity: at least 30%–80% with any Wè variety, 92% with Daho and Doo dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn

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Dan
[dnj] 18 Montagnes Region, Man (except Kouibly and Facoubly), Danané, Biankouma prefectures. 19 villages. Also in Guinea, Liberia. 1,300,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). 650,000 in Eastern Dan, 650,000 in western Dan. Population total all countries: 1,610,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Ya, Yacouba, Yakuba Dialects: Blowo (Western Dan), Gweetaawu (Eastern Dan). At least 38 subdialects. In Liberia speakers in Garplay understood Côte d’Ivoire Yacouba dialect recordings as follows: Danane, Koulinle, Kale: very well; Blosse: quite well; Bloundo: reasonably well; dialects east of Blouno: considerable difficulty (M. Bolli 1971). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan

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Deg
[mzw] 1,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buro, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western

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Dida, Lakota
[dic] Sud-Bandama Region, Lakota town area. 93,800 (1993 SIL). All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brabori, Dieko, Gabo, Guébie, Satro, Ziki Dialects: Vata. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: Distinct from Yocoboué Dida [gud]. Traditional religion.

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Dida, Yocoboué
[gud] Sud-Bandama Region, Guitry subprefecture, Guitry town area. 102,000 (1993 SIL). 7,100 Guitry, 94,500 Divo. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Divo, Lozoua (Gakpa, Goudou, Guitry, Kagoué, Yocoboue, Yokouboué). Lakota Dida [dic] marginally intelligible with Yocoboué Dida. Guitry is prestigious. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: More survey needed in Dida area. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ebrié
[ebr] Lagunes Region, urban Abidjan, Dabou subprefecture, Bingerville subprefecture. 57 villages, including 27 in Abidjan. 75,900 (1988 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cama, Caman, Kyama, Tchaman, Tsama, Tyama Dialects: Not related to surrounding languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou Comments: Christian.

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Ega
[ega] Sud-Bandama Region, Diés canton, Borondoukou village near Gly. 2,500 (2001 B. Connell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diés, Egwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Ega Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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French
[fra] 17,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1988 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 29). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Gban
[ggu] Marahoué Region, Oume subprefecture. 60,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gagou, Gagu, Kago, Sodua Dialects: Boka, Bokabo, N’da, Touka. N’da dialect is central. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Glio-Oubi
[oub] 18 Montagnes Region, Tai subprefecture, Tai canton. 6 towns on each side of the border. 2,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Glio, Oubi, Ubi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi Comments: Glossonym: Glio in Liberia. Traditional religion.

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Godié
[god] Bas-Sassandra Region, Sassandra subprefecture; Sud-Bandama Region, Fresco subprefecture; Kotrohou canton, Koyo. 26,400 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Godye Dialects: Dagli, Dlogo, Glibe, Jluko, Kagbo, Koyo, Nugbo, Nyago, Tiglu. The Koyo dialect may be more similar to Dida than to Godié. Kagbo is the most widely understood dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Grebo, Southern
[grj] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Seaside Grebo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian Comments: Mainly refugees in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion.

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Guro
[goa] Marahoué and Haut-Sassandra regions, Zuénoula, Vavoua, Gouitafla, Bouaflé, Sinfra, and Oumé subprefectures. 500,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baba, Dalo, Dipa, Gouro, Ku, Kwéndré, Kweni, Lo Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Jeri Kuo
[jek] Southwest; some north of Korhogo. 1,500 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Celle, Jeli Kuo Dialects: Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Tongon, an extinct blacksmith argot of the Djimini Senoufo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri

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Jula
[dyu] Widespread in all major cities. 1,500,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). 7,000,000–12,000,000 L2 speakers (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Majority ethnic Jula. Government designated as 1 of 5 languages to be developed for literature. Muslim.

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Khisa
[kqm] Also in Burkina Faso. 5,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 8,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu Dialects: Speakers say they can understand Kaansa [gna] and Senoufo, given time. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dogosé [dos], 72% with Kpatogo dialect of Kaansa, 71% with Kaansa [gna], 16% with Dogoso [dgs], 13% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: Muslim.

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Kla-Dan
[lda] Worodougou Region, Touba department, 25 villages. 18 Montagnes Region, Biankouma department, Zouzoupleu village. Also in Guinea. 25,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Santa, Zouzoupleu. Similar to Dan [dnj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan

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Kodia
[kwp] Bas-Sassandra Region. 840 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kwadia, Kwadya Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Kwadia Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Koro
[kfo] Worodougou Region, Mankono department, Tiéningboué subprefecture. 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koro Jula Dialects: High comprehension of Koyaga [kga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koyaga. Muslim.

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Kouya
[kyf] Haut-Sassandra Region, Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton. 12 villages. 10,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kowya, Kuya, Sokya Dialects: Most similar to Gbadi Bété [btg] and Dida. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Koyaga
[kga] Worodougou Region, Mankono department, western 4 subprefectures. 60,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koya, Koyaa, Koyaga Jula, Koyagakan, Koyaka, Koyara Dialects: Koyaga, Nigbi, Sagaka, Siaka. High comprehension of Koro [kfo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koro. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Krahn, Eastern
[kqo] 10,600 in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Konobo Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Krahn, Western
[krw] 18 Montagnes Region, Toulépleu area. 12,200 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Krahn, Northern Krahn Dialects: Biai, Pewa (Peewa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Local French influences, but in Liberia from Liberian English, from which there are Orthographic differences. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Krobu
[kxb] Agnébi Region, Agboville subprefecture. 4 villages. 9,920 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krobou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Krobu Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Krumen, Plapo
[ktj] Southwest corner, Bas-Sassandra Region, between Bapo and Honpo dialects of Tepo Krumen [ted]. 100 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Plapo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian

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Krumen, Pye
[pye] Bas-Sassandra Region, Tai, Bereby, and in San Pedro subprefectures. 20,000 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Northeastern Krumen, Southeastern Krumen Dialects: Dugbo, Gbowe-Hran, Pie (Pie-Pli-Mahon-Kuse-Gblapo-Henekwe, Pye), Trepo, Wlepo, Wluwe-Hawlo (Haoulo), Yapo, Yrewe (Giriwe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Krumen, Tepo
[ted] Bas-Sassandra Region, Tabou and Grabo subprefectures. Also in Liberia. 28,300 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 31,210. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Kru, Krumen, Southern Krumen, Southwestern Kroumen Dialects: Bapo, Dapo, Glawlo, Honpo, Tepo, Wlopo (Ropo), Yrepo (Kapo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] Zanzan Region, Bondoukou subprefecture. Also in Ghana. 77,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 104,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] Zanzan Region, Nassian subprefecture. Also in Ghana. 14,400 in Côte d’Ivoire (1998). Population total all countries: 29,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koulango, Kulange, Nkuraeng, Nkurange Dialects: Nabanj. Bouna dialect speakers understand Bondoukou [kzc], but not the reverse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ligbi
[lig] Zanzan Region, Bineto village; Bouna community; Slil town near Boundoukou; Ourodougou near Malinke [loi] territory. 4,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda, Jogo, Ligwi, Nigbi, Nigwi, Tuba Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo Comments: Ethnonym: Banda, is also the name for speakers of Nafaanra [nfr]. Numu (Noumou, Numun) is the name of a caste of blacksmiths; not a separate language. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Lobi
[lob] Zanzan Region, north strip. 156,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Loma
[loi] Zanzan Region, Téén and Kulango areas. 8,010 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lomakka, Lomapo, Lomasse, Malinke Dialects: Similar to Téén [lor] and Kulango [kzc] but not inherently intelligible. More similar to Kulango than Téén is to Kulango. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen Comments: Different from Loma [lom] of Liberia.

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Mahou
[mxx] Worodougou Region, Touba department. 300,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahu, Maou, Mau, Mauka, Mauke Dialects: Baralaka (Barala), Finanga, Koroka, Mahouka, Tenenga. Some listed dialect speakers may not be able to use Mahou literature. Barala may be dialect of Wojenaka [jod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Mauka is the indigenous ethnonym; Mawu is the indigenous toponym and should not be confused with Mawu, the autoglottonym for Siwu [akp]. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mbato
[gwa] Lagunes Region, Petit Alépé subprefecture. 25,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goaa, Gwa, M’bato, Mbatto, Mgbato, N-Batto, Ogwia, Potu Dialects: Related to Ebrii [ebr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mbre
[mka] Vallée du Bandama Region, Marabadiassa area, northwest of Bouaké and Diabo, Bondosso and Niantibo villages. 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bere, Bre, Pre, Pre Pisia Dialects: Considerably different from surrounding Mande and nearby Kwa languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Unclassified

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Mwan
[moa] Worodougou Region, Kongasso subprefecture and south Mankono subprefecture. 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mona, Mouan, Muan, Muana, Mwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Neyo
[ney] Bas-Sassandra Region, Sassandra subprefecture, Neyo, and Kébé cantons, from Niégba west to Dagbégo east and Niabayo north. 9,200 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gwibwen, Towi Dialects: Most similar to the Kagbo dialect of Godié [god], but they consider themselves a separate ethnic group. May be more similar to Dida than to Bété. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: Ethnic autonym: Neyo. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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N’ko
[nqo] No known L1 speakers in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Mixed language

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Nyabwa
[nwb] Haut-Sassandra Region, northwest corner, Vavoua (Nyedebwa), Issia, Buyo, Zoukougbeu (Nyabwa), and Daloua subprefectures. 42,700 (1993 SIL). 32,500 Nyabwa, 7,700 Nyedebwa, 2,500 Kouzié. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Niaboua, Nyaboa, Nyabwa-Nyédébwa Dialects: Nyabwa, Nyedebwa (Niédéboua). Lexical similarity: 90% with Nyabwa and Nyedebwa dialects, 74%–80% between them and Wè Southern [gxx] and Wè Northern [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Nyabwa Comments: Ethnonym: Bété not wanted. Kouzii is an ethnic subgroup of Nyabwa, not a dialect. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nzema
[nzi] Sud-Comoé Region, Aboisso department, Tiapoum subprefecture, southeast coast; Abidjan. 66,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Cebaara
[sef] Savannes Region, around Korhogo. 862,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Senadi, Senari, Syenere, Tiebaara, Tyebala Dialects: Fodara, Kafire, Kandere (Tengrela), Kasara, Kufuru, Kulere, Nafara, Papara, Patara, Pogara, Southwest Senari, Tagara, Tagbari (Mbengui-Niellé), Takpasyeeri (Messeni), Tenere, Tyebara. Korhogo dialect is central. The Kulele speak Kulere dialect scattered throughout the Senoufo area. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Sénoufo, Djimini
[dyi] Vallée du Bandama Region, Dabakala department, northwest corner. 95,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimini, Dyimini, Jinmini Dialects: Diamala (Djamala, Dyamala), Djafolo, Dofana, Foolo, Singala. Dabakala prestige dialect is Singala. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Tagwana Senoufo [tgw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Sénoufo, Nyarafolo
[sev] Savannes Region, northeast Ferkessédougou area. 60,000 (2009 L. Boese). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niarafolo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Palaka
[plr] Vallée du Bandama Region, Sikolo area, north of Djimini. 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpalagha, Palaka, Palara, Pallakha, Pilara Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with other Senufo languages and dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Kpalaga Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Savannes Region, north of Tingréla. Also in Mali. 100,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1996). Population total all countries: 114,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shenpire, Syempire Dialects: 3 or 4 dialects. Relationship to Supyire Senoufo [spp] in Mali is undetermined. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara

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Sénoufo, Tagwana
[tgw] Vallée du Bandama Region, north central area, west of Djimini. 138,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tagbana, Tagouna, Tagwana Dialects: Djidanan, Fondebougou, Fourgoula, Gbo (Zoro), Katiara, Katiola, Niakaramadougou, Niangbo, Niediekaha, Tafire. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Djimini [dyi] dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Téén
[lor] Zanzan Region, Bouna department, Téhini subprefecture. Also in Burkina Faso. 6,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Population total all countries: 8,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé Dialects: Different from Kulango. Most similar to Loma [loi] and Bouna Kulango [nku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tonjon
[tjn] Vallée du Bandama Region, Dabakala department, among the Djimini Senoufo [dyi]. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Jeri Kuo of Côte d’Ivoire [jek]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo Comments: Formerly spoken by blacksmiths.

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Toura
[neb] 18 Montagnes Region, east Biankouma department, mountainous region east of Man to Touba main road, north of Man to Séguéla main road, north of Bafing river; Bafing and Sassandra rivers from north and east borders. 50,000 (2005 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tura, Ween Dialects: Boo, Guse, Gwéò, Naò, Wáádú, Yiligele. Probably most similar to Dan [dnj]. Also similar to Guro [goa], Gban [ggu], and Mano [mev] (in Liberia). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wan
[wan] Southeast Worodougou Region, Kounahiri and west Beoumi subprefectures. 22,000 (1993 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nwa Dialects: Kemu, Miamu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Wané
[hwa] Southwest coast. 2,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hwane, Ngwané Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe Comments: Intermarry frequently with the Bakwe. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Wè Northern
[wob] 18 Montagnes Region, Kouibly and Fakobly subprefectures. 156,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouobe, Wèè, Wobé Dialects: Péomé, Sémien (Gbéan), Tao. Kouibly dialect intelligible to about half of Wè Southern [gxx] speakers. Lexical similarity: 90%–94% among dialects, Kouibly dialect (Tao and Gbean) has 84%–89% lexical similarity with Wè Southern dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Wobe Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wè Southern
[gxx] 18 Montagnes Region, Guiglo, Duékoué, Bangolo, and Tai subprefectures. 293,000 (1999 SIL). 20,000 Niao (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Guéré, Gere, Guéré Dialects: Beu (Zarabaon), Fleo, Gboo (Gbobo), Neao (Neabo, Niabo), Nyeo, Zaa (Zaha), Zagna, Zagne, Zibiao. Southern Wè has 7 more consonants than Northern Wè [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wèè. Consider Wè one language with many dialects. They are one ethnic group, together with Krahn in Liberia. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wè Western
[wec] 18 Montagnes Region, Toulépleu subprefecture. 25,200 (1998 SIL). 20,000 Kaoro (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gere, Guéré, Neyo Dialects: Kaoro (Kaawlu, Kaowlu), Nidrou (Nidru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wèè. Neyo [wec] is distinct from Neyo [ney], another Kru language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wojenaka
[jod] Denguélé Region, Odienné department. Juraba dialect: Savanes Region, Boundiali department. Samogo dialect: Savanes Region, Boundiali department, Kouto. 120,000 (1999 SIL). 15,000 Wasulu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malinké, Odienné Jula, Odiennekakan Dialects: Bodougouka, Juraba, Nafana, Odienneka, Samogo, Sienkoka, Toudougouka, Vandougouka, Wasulu (Wassoulounka, Wassulunka, Wassulunke). Some dialects listed may be separate languages. The Barala dialect of Mahou [mxx] may be a dialect of Wojenaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Wasulu are ethnic Fulani who adopted a Manding language. Muslim.

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Worodougou
[jud] Worodougou Region, Séguéla department; Mankono department, Tiéningboué subprefecture. 80,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakokan, Ouorodougou, Worodougou Jula, Worodougoukakan, Worodugu Dialects: Kanika, Karanjan, Worodougouka. Karanjan dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Glossonym: Bakokan by people in Mankono department. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yaouré
[yre] Marahoué Region, Bouaflé department, Bouaflé subprefecture, Yaouré canton, bounded south by Red Bandama, east by White Bandama river, north by Lake Kossou, west by Bouaflé. 40,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yaure, Yohowré, Youré Dialects: Bhoo, Klan, Taan, Yaan, Yoo. Most similar to Guro [goa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure Comments: Traditional religion.

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