[ayr] Mountains of extreme north, Tarapacá; Arica, Parinacota, Iquique. 19,000 in Chile (Fabre 2007). Ethnic population: 48,500 (2002). About half have some knowledge of the language (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Aymaran, Aymara Comments: Only one-third of the Aymaras still live in the rural communities of their traditional homeland; most now live in the urban areas (Fabre 2007).
Chilean Sign Language
[csg] 21,000 (Parks, Parks, and Williams 2011). 292,700 people with some level of auditory deficiency (2005 Fondo Nacional de la Discapacidad); 66,500 people with total deafness (23,900 less than 60 years old) (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2010, Article 26 of Law No. 20.422). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Chilena, Lenguaje Chileno de Signos, Lenguaje de Señas, LENSE, LSCh Dialects: Variation based on region (northern, central, and southern), age, and educational background. Regional varieties are influenced by bordering countries. (Parks, Parks, and Williams 2011). Classification: Deaf sign language
[huh] South of Mapuche, Tenth region, Valdivia to Chiloé. 2,000 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 17,000. On the outer Island of Cholé. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Huiliche, Veliche Dialects: Tsesungún. Related to Mapudungun [arn], but barely intelligible with it. Classification: Mapudungu
[arn] Central-south, mainly in IX Region, Cautín and Malleco provinces; also in VIII and X regions, Arauco, Bío-Bío, Valdivia, Osorno provinces. 250,000 in Chile (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 258,620. Ethnic population: 604,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Araucano” (pej.), Mapuche, Mapudungu Dialects: Moluche (Manzanero, Ngoluche), Pehuenche, Picunche. Easy intelligibility among dialects. Pehuenche and Moluche are reportedly very similar. Classification: Mapudungu Comments: Ethnic autonym: Mapuche. Traditional religion, Christian.
[alc] West Patagonia, Channel Region, Isle of Wellington off south Chilean coast, 49 degrees south. Center is Puerto Edén. 12 (2006 O. Aguilera). 10 in Puerto Edén. Ethnic population: 2,620 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Alacaluf, Alacalufe, Halakwulup, Kaweskar, Kawesqar Dialects: Aksanás (Aksana). Dialects are generally divided into three groups, northern, central and southern, of which only the northern is still spoken (Barros 1990). Classification: Kaweskaran Comments: Aksanás has been shown by Clairis to be a misinterpretation of old Qawasqar; it is a phantom (Campbell and Grondona 2012).
[cqu] Northern second region. 8,200 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of, or same as, South Bolivian Quechua [quh]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua
[rap] Easter Island, 3,800 km from Chile, 4,000 km from Tahiti. 2,400 in Chile (Wurm 2007). Population total all countries: 2,700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Easter Island, Pascuense, Rapanui Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Hawaiian [haw], Mangareva [mrv], and Rarotongan [rar]; 63% with Marquesan [mrq]; 62% with Tahitian [tah] and Tuamotuan [pmt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Rapanui
[yag] Patagonia, Isla Navarino, Puerto Williams, Ukika hamlet. 1 in Chile (2013 Y. Meroz). One elderly speaker in Ukika, 85 years old (2013 Y. Meroz). Ethnic population: 1,690 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tequenica, Yagán, Yaghan, Yahgan Classification: Language isolate