[ayr] Mountains of extreme north, Tarapacá; Arica, Parinacota, Iquique. 19,000 in Chile (Fabre 2007). About half have some knowledge of the language (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 48,500 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Aymaran, Aymara Comments: Only one-third of the Aymaras still live in the rural communities of their traditional homeland; most now live in the urban areas (Fabre 2007).
Chilean Sign Language
[csg] Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Chilena, LSCh Dialects: Intelligibility of American Sign Language [ase] is very low in Chile. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Chilean Sign Language is recognized by the government as the language of the Chilean deaf community. Its use is encouraged in the country’s bilingual-bicultural approach to education and is found throughout deaf Chilean life, including deaf schools, deaf association meetings, interpretation for television news broadcasts, and casual deaf interaction.
[huh] South of Mapuche, Tenth region, Valdivia to Chiloé. 2,000 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 17,000 on the Greater Island of Chiloé. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Huiliche, Veliche Dialects: Tsesungún. Related to Mapudungun [arn], but barely intelligible with it. Classification: Mapudungu
[kuz] Peine, Socaire (Salar de Atacama), and Caspana. No known L1 speakers. A few located in 1949 and since by anthropologists. Ethnic population: 21,000 (2002 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Atacameño, Likanantaí, Lipe, Ulipe Dialects: Classified as Macro-Chibchan. Classification: Language isolate
[arn] Central-south, mainly in IX Region, Cautín and Malleco provinces; also in VIII and X regions, Arauco, Bío-Bío, Valdivia, Osorno provinces. Also in Argentina, United States. 250,000 in Chile (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 258,620. Ethnic population: 604,000 (2002). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Araucano” (pej.), Mapuche, Mapudungu Dialects: Moluche (Manzanero, Ngoluche), Pehuenche, Picunche. Easy intelligibility among dialects. Pehuenche and Moluche are very similar. Classification: Mapudungu Comments: Ethnic autonym: Mapuche. Traditional religion, Christian.
[alc] West Patagonia, Channel Region, Isle of Wellington off south Chilean coast, 49 degrees south. Center is Puerto Edén. 12 (2006 O. Aguilera). 10 in Puerto Edén. Ethnic population: 2,620 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Alacaluf, Alacalufe, Halakwulup, Kaweskar, Kawesqar Dialects: Aksanás (Aksana). Classification: Kaweskaran Comments: Aksanás vocabulary differences might be explained by word taboo (Suárez 1977).
[rap] Easter Island, 3,800 km from Chile, 4,000 km from Tahiti. Also in French Polynesia, United States. 2,400 in Chile (Wurm 2007). 2,200 on Easter Island; 200 to 300 on Chile mainland, Tahiti, and the United States. Population total all countries: 2,600. Ethnic population: 4,650 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Easter Island, Pascuense, Rapanui Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Hawaiian [haw], Mangareva [mrv], and Rarotongan [rar]; 63% with Marquesan [mrq]; 62% with Tahitian [tah] and Tuamotuan [pmt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Rapanui
[yag] Patagonia, Isla Navarino, Puerto Williams, Ukika hamlet. Also in Argentina. 1 in Chile (2003). In the 1990s, the last speaker was over 60 years old (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,690 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tequenica, Yagán, Yaghan, Yahgan Dialects: Most similar to Qawasqar [alc], and had some relationship to Siane [snp] (Tovar 1961). Earlier there were up to 5 dialects. Classification: Language isolate