Cameroon

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Afade
[aal] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, south Makari subdivision, Afade area. 5,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Afadeh, Affade, Mandagué. Dialects: None known. Related to Mpade [mpi], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North. Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade, Maslam, Malgbe) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan as well). Muslim.

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Aghem
[agq] North West region: Menchum division, Wum Central subdivision, Wum area. 26,700 (2000), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wum, Yum. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Weh [weh]. Minimal regional differences in speech. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Comments: Aghem Cultural and Development Association active in language development. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ajumbu
[muc] North West region: Menchum division, Wum subdivision, northeast of Wum, Ajumbu village. 200 (Good et al 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ajuh Mbuh, Mbu’. Dialects: Lung (Mesem). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi.

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Akoose
[bss] South West region: Koupé-Muanenguba division, Bangem, Nguti, and Tombel subdivisions; Littoral region: Moungo division, Manjo subdivision. 100,000 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akosi, Bakossi, Bekoose, Koose, Kosi, Nkoosi, Nkosi. Dialects: Northern Bakossi, Western Bakossi, Southern Bakossi, Mwambong, Ninong, Elung (Along, Elong, Nlong), Mwamenam (Mouamenam). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15C). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Akum
[aku] North West region: Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Nigeria border area, Akum village. 1,400 in Cameroon (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anyar, Okum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb.

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Ambele
[ael] North West region: Momo division, west Widikum-Menka subdivision, 11 villages. 2,600 (1987 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be related to Busam [bxs] or Atong [ato]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo.

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Arabic, Shuwa
[shu] Far North region: Mayo-Sava, Diamaré, Mayo-Danay, Logone-and-Chari divisions; along Chari river between Lake Chad and Kousséri, pockets south of Kousséri. 75,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). L2 users: 70,000 in Cameroon (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a LWC in the market and media, and in some churches. Originated from the migration of Arabic speakers from Chad to Cameroon from colonial period until present. Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chadian Spoken Arabic, Choa, Shoa, Shoa Arabic, Shua. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.

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Atong
[ato] North West region: Momo division, extreme northwest Widikum-Menka subdivision; 5 villages. 4,200 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Etoh. Dialects: None known. Related to Menka [mea]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo.

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Awing
[azo] North West region: Mezam division, Awing-Bambaluwe village. 19,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Awi, Bambuluwe, Mbwe’wi. Dialects: None known. Related to Bafut [bfd], Bambili-Bambui [baw], Kpati [koc], Mendankwe-Nkwen [mfd], Ngemba [nge], and Pinyin [pny]. Lexical similarity: 74% with Bamukumbit [bqt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba.

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Baba
[bbw] North West region: Ngo-Ketunjia division, Babessi subdivision, east of Ndop on Ndop plain, 1 village: Baba. 24,500 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baba 1, Bapa, Bapakum, Papia, Papiakum, Supapya, Supapya’. Dialects: None known. Related to Mungaka [mhk] and Bamun [bax]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Babanki
[bbk] North West region: Mezam division, Tuba subdivision, Kejom-Ketingo and Kejom-Keku villages. 39,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Finge, Kedjom, Kejeng, Kejom, Kidzem, Kidzom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bafanji
[bfj] North West region: Ngo-Ketunjia division, Balikumbat subdivision, southwest of Ndop on Ndop plain. 17,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bafangi, Bafanyi, Chufie’, Chuufi, Nchufie. Dialects: None known. Reportedly imilar to Bamali [bbq], Bamenyam [bce], and Bambalang [bmo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bafaw-Balong
[bwt] Littoral region: Moungo division; South West region: Meme division, Kumba area and north along Kumba-Mamfe road and southeast of Ekondo-Titi;. 8,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngoe. Dialects: Bafo (Afo, “Bafaw” (pej.), Bafowu, Lefo’, Nho), Balong (Bai, Balon, Balung, Bayi, Nlong, Valongi). May be 2 languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.13). Comments: Language community is heterogeneous. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bafia
[ksf] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Kon-Yambetta, Kiiki, and Bafia subdivisions, north of the Sanaga river. 60,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bekpak, Kpa, Rikpa, Rikpa’. Dialects: Kpa, Bape. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.53).

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Bafut
[bfd] North West region: Mezam division, Tuba subdivision, Bafut. 100,000 (Tamanji 2009), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Befe, Bufe, Fu, Fut. Dialects: Bafut, Bufe (Afughe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba.

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Baka
[bkc] Southeastern East region: Boumba and Ngoko, Kadey, and Upper Nyong divisions; South region: Dja-and-Lobo division. 40,000 in Cameroon (2007 Y. Léonard). No monolinguals. Mainly women. Ethnic population: 40,000. Total users in all countries: 43,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babinga, Bebayaga, Bebayaka, Bibaya, Pygmees Baka, Pygmees de l’Est. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi. Comments: Semi-nomadic but encouraged by the government to settle along roadways. Different from Baka of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan and from the Aka [soh] (Baaka, Bayaka, Biyaka). Although similar in culture, they are different in language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bakaka
[bqz] Littoral region: Moungo division, Nlonako, Manjo, west Loum, and south Nkongsamba subdivisions. 30,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Mbo, Ehob Mkaa. Dialects: Babong (Ihobe Mbog, Ihobe Mboong), Baneka (Mwaneka), Bakaka (Ehob Mkaa, Kaa, Kaka), Manehas (Mvae, Mwahed, Mwahet), Balondo (Ehobe Belon), Bafun (Mbwase Nghuy, Miamilo, Pendia). Related to Akoose [bss], Bassossi [bsi], and Mbo [mtk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15C). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bakoko
[bkh] Littoral region: scattered communities; Wouri division, south of Douala; Moungo division, south of Dibombari; Nkam division, Nkondjok area; Sanaga-Maritime division, southwest of Edéa; South region: northwest Océan division; West region: Haut-Nkam division. 50,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Basoo. Dialects: Adie (Basoo Ba Die, Basoo D’edea, Elog Mpoo), Bisoo (Adiangok, Basoo Ba Likol, Basso), Mbang (Dimbambang), Yabyang (Yabyang-Yapeke), Yakalak (Yakalag), Yapoma, Yassuku (Yasoukou, Yasug, Yasuku). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.43). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bakole
[kme] South West region: Ndian division, south of Meme estuary, Bamusso area. 300 (1982 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bakolle, Bamusso, Kole. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.231).

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Baldemu
[bdn] Far North region: Diamaré division, Bogo, Balda, and Guingley area east of Maroua; Lara, south of Maroua. 4 (2003 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baldamu, Baldare, Mbazla. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Shifted to Fulfulde [fub].

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Balo
[bqo] South West region: Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision. 2,230 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Osatu [ost], 40% with Ipulo [ass] and Caka [ckx], 35% with Esimbi [ags] and Mesaka [iyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bamali
[bbq] North West region: Ngo-Ketunjia division, Ndop subdivision, southwest of Ndop town, on Ndop plain. 10,800 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chopechop, Ngoobechop. Dialects: None known. Related to Bafanji [bfj], Bamenyam [bce], Bambalang [bmo], and Bangolan [bgj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bambalang
[bmo] North West region: Ngo-Ketunjia division, Ndop subdivision, southeast of Ndop town, on Ndop plain. 29,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bambolang, Chirambo, Chrambo, Mbawyakum, Mboyakum, Tshirambo. Dialects: None known. Related to Bafanji [bfj], Bamenyam [bce], Bamun [bax], Bamali [bbq], and Bangolan [bgj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bambili-Bambui
[baw] North West region: Mezam division, Tuba subdivision, along Ring road, northeast of Bamenda. Bambili, Bambui villages. 10,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bambili. Dialects: Bambili (Mbele, Mbili, Mbogoe), Bambui (Mbui). Mutual inherent intelligibility is low with Mendankwe-Nkwen [mfd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Comments: They interact more with Bafut than with Nkwen and Mendankwe-Nkwen. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bamenyam
[bce] North West region: southeast Mezam division; West region: Bamboutos division, northwest Galim subdivision, Bamenyam area. 4,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamenyan, Mamenyan, Mengambo, Pamenyan. Dialects: Bati [btc] may be a dialect of Bamenyam. Reportedly similar to Bamali [bbq], Bafanji [bfj], and Bambalang [bmo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Stronger commercial links with Mbouda than with Ndop. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bamukumbit
[bqt] North West region: Ngo-Ketunjia division, Balikumbat subdivision, southwest of Ndop on Ndop plain. 12,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamenkombit, Bamenkoumbit, Bamoukoumbit, Bamunkum, Bamunkumbit, Mangkong, Mankong. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% witih Bamali [bbq], 85% with Bafanji [bfj] and Bamenyam [bce], 80% with Bambalang [bmo], 74% with Awing [azo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bamun
[bax] West region: most of Noun division, Foumban area, extreme north Mifi division, extreme southeast Bamboutos division; North West region: Ngo-Ketunjia division, north Lake Bamendjing, Ndop plain; Centre region: border areas. 420,000 (2005 SIL). Based on actual population of the subdivisions where the Bamun people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bamoum, Bamoun, Bamum, Shupamem. Dialects: None known. Related to Bafanji [bfj], Bamali [bbq], Bambalang [bmo], and Bangolan [bgj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Bamunka
[bvm] North West region: Ngo Ketunjia division, Ndop subdivision, Ndop town, and directly south and east of Ndop, on Ndop plain. 31,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamunkun, Mbika, Mekoh, Muka, Ndop-Bamunka, Ngiemekohke, Niemeng. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Wushi [bse], Vengo [bav], and Kenswei-Nsei [ndb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, South. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bana
[bcw] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Bourrah subdivision, north and northeast of Bourrah, on Nigeria border. 23,000 (2007 SIL). 14,000 Gamboura and 9,000 Guili. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baza, Ka-Bana, Koma, Mizeran, Parole des Bana. Dialects: Gamboura, Gili (Guili). Reportedly similar to Psikye [kvj], Hya [hya], and Kamwe [hig]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3.

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Bangandu
[bgf] East region: Boumba-and-Ngoko division, Moloundou subdivision. 2,700 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagando, Bangando, Bangantu, Southern Bangantu. Dialects: None known. May be related to Ngombe [nmj] in Central African Republic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest.

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Bangolan
[bgj] North West region: Ngo-Ketunjia division, Babessi subdivision, east of Ndop, south of Jakiri, on Ndop plain. 14,000 (2008 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mendenkye. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Bambalang [bmo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bankon
[abb] Littoral region: Moungo division, north of Douala and west of Wouri river, and Dibombari. 12,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abaw, Abo, Bo, Bon. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Barombi [bbi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.42).

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Barombi
[bbi] South West region: Meme division, north of Mount Cameroon, Lake Barombi-Koto area; west of Kumba town, Lake Barombi-Mbo; Ndian division, northeast of Ekondo-Titi. 3,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Balombi, Barumbi, Lambi, Lombe, Lombi, Rambi, Rombi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Bankon [abb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.41).

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Basaa
[bas] Littoral region: Nkam and Sanaga-Maritime divisions; Centre region: spread throughout Nyong-and-Kéllé division; South region: Océan division; West region: Menoua division. 300,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Basaa people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basa, Bassa, Bicek, Bikyek, Bisaa, Mbele, Mee, Mvele, Northern Mbene, Tupen. Dialects: Bakem, Bon, Bibeng, Diboum, Log, Mpo, Mbang, Ndokama, Basso, Ndokbele, Ndokpenda, Nyamtam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.43).

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Bassossi
[bsi] South West region: Koupé-Muanenguba division; central Nguti subdivision, Nguti town, and east and south. 5,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asobse, Basosi, Basossi, Ngen, Nsose, Nswase, Nswose, Sosi, Swose. Dialects: Mienge (Lower Mbo). Related to Mbo [mbo], Akoose [bss], and Bakaka [bqz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15B). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bata
[bta] North region: Bénoué division along Nigeria border, 30 km northeast of Garoua town; along Bénoué river, west of Garoua; north Faro division, along Faro river. 2,500 in Cameroon. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batta, Dii, Gbwata, Gwate. Dialects: Ndeewe (Bata-Ndeewe). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8.

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Batanga
[bnm] South region: Océan division, Kribi area along Bight of Biafra coast. 6,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Banoho, Banoo, Bapuku, Batanga-Banda, Noho, Noku. Dialects: Bano’o (Banaka, Banoko, Banoo, Nohu, Noko), Bapuku (Bapoko, Bapuu, Naka, Poko, Puku), Batanga-Banda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.32). Comments: Different from Batanga [bdu] of South West Region (Oroko).

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Bati
[btc] Littoral region: Sanaga-Maritime division, Ndom subdivision, Bati canton, 4 villages; Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division. 800 (1975 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bati Ba Ngong, Bati de Brousse. Dialects: None known. Considered closely related to the Yambassa languages of the Mbam, in particular Nubaca [baf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.65).

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Beba
[bfp] North West region: Mezam division, Benakuma subdivision; South West region: Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision. 3,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Babadji, Baba’zhi, Batadji, Bazhi, Beba’, Bebadji, Biba, Bombe, Mubadji, Shishong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bebele
[beb] Centre region: Upper Sanaga division, Minta subdivision; East region: Lom-and-Djerem division, Diang subdivision. 24,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bamvele. Dialects: Eki, Manyok. Related to Bulu [bum], Eton [eto], Ewondo [ewo], Fang [fan], and Mengisa [mct]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.73).

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Bebil
[bxp] East region: Lom-and-Djerem division, Bélabo subdivision, Bélabo area. 6,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bobilis, Gbigbil. Dialects: None known. Related to Bebele [beb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.73).

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Beezen
[bnz] North West region: Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Kpep (Beezen) village. 450 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb.

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Befang
[bby] North West region: straddling Mezam division, Tuba Subdivision; Menchum division, Wum dubdivision, Befang area. 2,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beba-Befang, Biba-Bifang, Bifang, Menchum. Dialects: Modele (Aku, Ambabiko, Beekuru, Idele, Iku, Modeli, Modelle, Usheida), Ushaku (Mokuru, Mukuru), Befang (Abefang, Beba-Befang, Bifang, Ge), Bangui (Bangwe, Bangwi), Obang, Okomanjang (Okoromandjang). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Menchum.

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Bekwel
[bkw] East region: Boumba-and-Ngoko division, along Ngoko river north side, Moloundou area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakwele, Bakwil, Bekwil, Okpele. Dialects: Esel (Essel). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.85). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bikya
[byb] North West region: Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Furubana village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Furu. Dialects: None known. In Furu subgroup (2000 B. Connell). May be Eastern Beboid. Lexical similarity: 24% with Noone [nhu] (Beboid), 14% with Akum [aku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified.

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Bishuo
[bwh] North West region: Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biyam, Furu. Dialects: None known. May be Jukunoid. Lexical similarity: 16%–17% with Noone [nhu], 11% with Bikya [byb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified. Comments: Formerly called ‘Biyam’.

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Bitare
[brt] Adamawa region: Mayo-Banyo division, near Banyo. 6,000 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Njwande, Yukutare. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid.

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Bokyi
[bky] South West region: Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, along Nigeria border northwest of Mamfe. 3,700 in Cameroon. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boki, Byoki, Nfua, Nki, Okii, Osikom, Osukam, Uki, Vaaneroki. Dialects: Basua, Boki, Iruan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi.

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Bomwali
[bmw] East region: east of Moloundou, Malapa village. 6,100 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bomali, Boumoali, Bumali, Lino, Sangasanga, Sanghasangha. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.87). Comments: A distinct language from Bekwel [bkw].

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Bonkeng
[bvg] Littoral region: Moungo division, Loum subdivision. 3,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bongken, Bonkenge, Bonkeng-Pendia. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.14).

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Bubia
[bbx] South West region: Fako division, Limbé subdivision, Wovea village. 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bobe, Bobea, Bota, Ewota, Wovea, Wuvia. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Bube [bvb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.31).

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Buduma
[bdm] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, islands of Lake Chad. 200 in Cameroon. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudouma, Yadena, Yedima, Yedina. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bulu
[bum] South region: northern Mvila and Dja-and-Lobo divisions, into Océan division; Centre region: southern Upper Sanaga division, northern Nyong-and-Mfoumou division; East region: western tip Upper Nyong division. 858,000 (2007). L2 users: 800,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a LWC throughout the South region and also (less so) in the East. Chosen as the church language of the American Presbyterian Mission in circa 1887. It is still the official church language. Another important factor in the spread of Bulu is the pattern of intermarriage: many if not most Bulu women marry outside the Bulu community. Alternate Names: Boulou. Dialects: Yelinda, Yembana, Yengono, Bene. Intelligible with Eton [eto], Ewondo [ewo], and Fang [fan] in Beti group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.74).

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Bum
[bmv] North West region: Boyo division, Bum subdivision, mainly Fonfuka village. 21,400 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bom. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Kom [bkm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bung
[bqd] Adamawa region: Mayo-Banyo division. 3 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Nearly extinct in 1998 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. It may be a form of Kwanja [knp]. Classification: Unclassified.

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Busam
[bxs] North West region: Momo division, Batibo subdivision, Bifang, Ambambo, and Dinku villages. 1,490 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Ambele [ael] and Atong [ato]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo.

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Busuu
[bju] North West region: Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision. 8 (1986 R. Breton). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Awa, Furu. Dialects: None known. May be Jukunoid. Lexical similarity: 10% with Jukun languages, 7%–8% with Beboid languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified.

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Buwal
[bhs] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Gadala area, south of Mokolo. 10,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bual, Gadala, Ma Buwal. Dialects: None known. Distinct phonological, grammatical and sociolinguistic differences with Gavar [gou]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Gavar [gou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. Comments: Outsiders’ name for Buwal is often Gadala, which is not offensive to Buwal speakers. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Byep
[mkk] East region: Lom-and-Djerem division, east Diang subdivision, west of Bertoua town. 9,500 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maka, Makya, Meka, Mekae, Mekay, Mekey, Mekye, Mika, Moka, North Makaa. Dialects: Byep, Besep (Besha, Bindafum). Not intelligible with South Makaa [mcp]. Related to South Makaa and Kol [biw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.831).

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Caka
[ckx] South West region: northeast Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, Asaka, Basaka, and Batanga villages. 5,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Assaka (Adzu Balaka), Batanga (Adzu Batanga). Lexical similarity: 50% with Ipulo [ass], 40% with Balo [bqo], Osatu [ost], Iceve-Maci [bec], and Otank [uta], 35% with Esimbi [ags], 30% with Mesaka [iyo], 80% between the Assaka and Batanga dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Different from Batanga [bnm] in the Bube-Benga group and the Batanga dialect of Oroko [bdu]. Traditional religion.

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Chungmboko
[cug] North West Region: Menchum division, Bum subdivision, Chung and Mbuk villages, west of Nkambe, northeast of Wum. 2,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chung, Cung. Dialects: Chung, Mbuk. Lexical similarity: 83% with Ncane [ncr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Cuvok
[cuv] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Tchouvok area, Matakam South canton, near Zamay. 5,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tchouvok. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Daba
[dbq] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Hina and Bourrah subdivisions; North region: Mayo-Louti division, Mayo-Oulo and Guider subdivisions northwest of Guider. 24,000 in Cameroon (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 25,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabba. Dialects: Nive, Pologozom, Gamdugun. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7.

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Dama
[dmm] North region: Bénoué division, Rey-Bouba subdivision, a small enclave. 50 Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: May be a dialect of Mono [mru]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke.

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Dek
[dek] North region. 2,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. It may be intelligible of Kari [kbn] or Mbum [mdd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified.

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Denya
[anv] South West region: Manyu division, central and south Akwaya subdivisions; north Mamfe Central subdivision, Takamanda Forest Reserve. 11,200 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agnang, Anyah, Anyan, Anyang, Eyan, Nyang, Obonya, Takamanda. Dialects: Basho, Bitieku, Takamanda, Bajwo. Dialect subgroup. Kendem [kvm] is linguistically between Denya [anv] and Kenyang [ken]. Lexical similarity: 70%–80% between dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dii
[dur] Adamawa region: Vina division, Ngaoundéré subdivision, north and east of Ngaoundéré; North region: Mayo-Rey division, Tcholliré subdivision. 50,000 (2010 L. Bohnhoff). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dourou, Durru, Duru, Nyag Dii, Yag Dii, Zaa. Dialects: Mambe’, Mamna’a, Goom, Boow, Ngbang, Sagzee (Saadje, Saakye), Vaazin, Home, Nyok. Goom may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dimbong
[dii] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, northwest of Bafia. 2 villages. 140 (1992 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bape, Bumbong, Kaalong, Kalong, Lakaalong, Lambong, Mbong, Palong. Dialects: Ripey. Related to Bafia [ksf] and Lefa [lfa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.52).

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Doyayo
[dow] North region: Bénoué division, north Poli subdivision and Poli area. 18,000 (1985 Église Évangélique Lutherienne du Cameroun). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doayo, Donyanyo, Donyayo, Doohyaayo, Doowaayo, Dooyaangyo, Dooyaayo, Dooyayo, Dowayayo, Dowayo, Doyaayo, Doyau, “Namchi” (pej.), “Namci” (pej.), “Namshi” (pej.), Nomai, Tunga, Tungbo, Tuuno. Dialects: Marke, Teere (Poli), Sewe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Dowayo. Comments: Whistle speech reported. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Duala
[dua] Littoral region: Nkam division, toward Yabassi town along Wouri river; Moungo division, Dibombari area; Wouri division, Cameroon estuary area; South West region: Fako division, both sides of Mungo river. 87,700 (1982 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Duala is the most widely spoken language in the largest city in Cameroon. It is used in all domains (church, market, business and media). There are a number of centers which teach Duala. It became a LWC due to its size and location. It has been used in the church for over a century. Alternate Names: Diwala, Douala, Dualla, Dwala, Dwela, Sawa. Dialects: Bodiman, Mungo (Mongo, Mungu, Muungo), Oli (Ewodi, Koli, Ouri, Uli, Wouri, Wuri), Pongo. Related to Malimba [mzd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.24). Comments: Christian.

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Dugun
[ndu] North region: Faro division, Poli subdivision, southeast of Poli. 7,000 (1997 L. Lode). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pani, Panon, Pa’non, Pape, Saa. Dialects: Saan, Naan. Reportedly similar to Duupa [dae]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Dii [dur]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii.

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Dugwor
[dme] Far North region: Diamaré division, Meri subdivision, west of Tchere canton between Maroua and Meri, 6 villages. 5,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dougour, Memekere, Mofu-Dugwor, Tchakidjebe. Dialects: Mikere. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5.

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Duli-Gey
[duz] North region: Bénoué division, near Pitoa town. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,900 (1982 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dui, Duli, Gewe, Gey, Gueve. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Duli.

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Duupa
[dae] North region: Faro and Bénoué divisions, east of Poli. 5,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doupa, Dupa, Nduupa, Saa. Dialects: None known. Related to Dugun [ndu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dzodinka
[add] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, extreme north Nwa subdivision, Adere village. 2,600 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adere, Adiri, Arderi, Dzodzinka, Lidzonka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Comments: Consider themselves ethnically Mfumte. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ejagham
[etu] South West region: Manyu division, Eyumodjok subdivision; south Mamfe subdivision west of Mamfe. 49,400 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Edjagam, Ejagam, Ejaham, Ejwe, Ekoi, Etung, Keaka, Kwa, Obang. Dialects: Western Ejagham, Eastern Ejagham, Southern Ejagham (Abakpa, Aqua, Ekin, Kwa, Qua). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Comments: Western Ejagham includes Bendeghe Etung (Bindege, Dindiga, Mbuma), Northern Etung, Southern Etung, Ekwe, Akamkpa-Ejagham. Eastern Ejagham includes Keaka (Keaqa, Kejaka, Edjagam), Obang (Eeafeng). Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Elip
[ekm] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, southeast of Bokito town, in watershed of Mbam and Sanaga rivers. Yambasa village. 6,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Belibi, Belip, Central Yambassa, Libie, Nulibie, Nulibié. Dialects: Nuyambassa, Nulamba, Nukanya. Lexical similarity: 72% with Nubaca [baf], 43% with Mbule [mlb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.62). Comments: Christian.

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Eman
[emn] South West region: northeast Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, Amayo, Amanavil, Akalabo, and Akalam Gomo towns. 800 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emane. Dialects: Amayo, Amanavil (Aman, Amana, Amani, Elaka). Lexical similarity: 70% with Caka [ckx], 60% with Ipulo [ass], 40% with Iceve-Maci [bec] and Otank [uta], 35% with Esimbi [ags], 30% with Mesaka [iyo], and 80% with Amayo and Amanavil dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion.

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English
[eng] Mainly South West and North West regions. L2 users: 7,700,000 in Cameroon (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 1(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Esimbi
[ags] North West region: Menchum division, Menchum Valley subdivision, from Benakuma into Nigeria. 20,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aage, Age, Bogen, Bogue, Eshimbi, Essimbi, Isimbi, Mburugam, Simpi. Dialects: Upper Esimbi, Lower Esimbi. 100% mutual intelligibility between Upper and Lower Esimbi. Lexical similarity: 35% with Balo [bqo], Ipulo [ass], Iceve-Maci [bec], Caka [ckx], Eman [emn], and Osatu [ost]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Eton
[eto] Centre region: most of Lekié division. 250,000 (2005 census). Based on census results for whole Lekie division. Delpech (1985: 161), cited in Van de Velde 2006, gives 250,000 in 1982 (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iton. Dialects: Southern Eton (Iton Nke, Upper Eton), Northern Eton (Iton Ekwe, Lower Eton). Intelligible of Bulu [bum], Ewondo [ewo], and Fang [fan]. Reportedly most similar to Mengisa [mct]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.71). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Evant
[bzz] South West region: Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, Atolo and Matene I villages. 1,000 in Cameroon (1996 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Avand, Avande, Balegete, Belegete, Evand, Ovand, Ovande, Ovando. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ewondo
[ewo] Centre region: all except east Méfou division; Mfoundi and Nyong-and-So’o divisions; southern Nyong-and-Mfoumou division; South region: north Océan division. 578,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ewundu, Jaunde, Yaounde, Yaunde. Dialects: Badjia (Bakja, Bakjo), Bafeuk, Bamvele (Mvele, Yesoum, Yezum), Bane, Beti, Fong, Mbida-Bani, Mvete (Mvele), Mvog-Niengue, Omvang, Yabekolo (Yebekolo), Yabeka, Yabekanga, Enoah, Evouzok, Yangafek. It is intelligible of Bulu [bum], Eton [eto], and Fang [fan] as part of the Beti group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.72).

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Fali, North
[fll] North region: Mayo-Louti division, Mayo-Oulo subdivision, Dourbeye and Mayo-Oulo area. 16,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dourbeye (Fali-Dourbeye), Bossoum (Bonum, Fali-Bossoum), Bveri (Bori, Fali du Peske-Bori, Peske). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Fali. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Fali, South
[fal] North region: Bénoué division, northeast of Garoua, Pitoa subdivision, south of Dembo, Hossere Bapara area, Tsolaram, Hossere Toro, and Ndoudja. 20,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Fali-Tinguelin (Mango, Ndoudja, Ram, Toro), Kangou (Fali Kangou, Kaang, Kangu), Bele (Fali du Bele-Fere, Fali-Bele, Ngoutchoumi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Fali. Comments: Different from North Fali [fll], Fali of Baissa [fah], or Fali [fli] of Nigeria and Cameroon, which is Chadic.

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Fang
[fan] South region: southern part of Mvila (south of Ebolowa and Mvangan), Dja-and-Lobo division, south of Djoum; Vallée-du-Ntem division; Océan division, isolated locations between Lolodorf and Kribi towns, and east of Campo. 111,000 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Pahouin, Pamue. Dialects: Fang (Okak), Mvae (Mvan, Mvang, Mvay, Mveny), Ntoumou (Ntumu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.75). Comments: Different from Fang [fak].

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Fang
[fak] North West region: Menchum division, Wum subdivision, northeast of Wum, Fang village. 4,000 (Good et al 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pamoué, Pangwe. Dialects: Zaman (Nzaman). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi. Comments: Different from Fang [fan].

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Fe’fe’
[fmp] West region: Upper Nkam division, except Kekem area and small section in southeast corner; some in Mifi division, Bangam. 140,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the population of the subdivision where the Fe’fe’ people are present; this is the best estimate available since the 1982 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bafang, Bamileke-Fe’fe’, Feefee, Fe’efe’e, Fefe, Fotouni, Nufi. Dialects: Fa’ (Bafang), Nka’ (Banka), Nee (Bana), Njee-Poantu (Bandja-Babountou), Ntii (Fondanti), Mkwet (Fondjomekwet), La’fi (Balafi), Tungi’ (Fotouni), Ngam (Bangan), Ca’. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke.

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French
[fra] Mainly Littoral, West, Centre, South, East, Adamawa, North, and Far North regions. L2 users: 8,440,000 in Cameroon (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 1(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Widespead in Adamawa, Far North, and North regions. 669,000 in Cameroon (1986). Possibly 13,000,000 speakers of all Fulfulde varieties. Total users in all countries: 999,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Fulfulde [fub] is the LWC in 3 regions of northern Cameroon. Alternate Names: Adamawa Fulani, Boulbe, Domona, Dzemay, Eastern Fulani, Foulfoulde, Ful, Fula, Fulata, Fulbe, Fulfulde, Mbororo, Palata, Peul, Peulh. Dialects: Maroua, Garoua, Ngaondéré, Nomadic Fulfulde - Mbororoore, Bilkire (Bilkiri), Akuure. Lexical similarity: high with Maroua, Garoua, and Ngaoundere dialects. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Fulfulde, Mbororo
[fuv] Widespread by clans in Adamawa, North West, and Far North regions; Fulfulde-Jaafun and Fulfulde-Aku varieties are in the North West region. 85,000 in Cameroon (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Peul. Dialects: Kano-Katsina, Mbororo (Aku, Bororo, Jaafun, Nomadic Fulfulde). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Gavar
[gou] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Mogode canton, Gawar area, south of Mokolo. Some Gavar Hossere live among Gavar-Fulfulde, and some isolated in Kortchi village mountain area. 15,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gauar, Gawar, Gouwar, Kortchi, Ma-Gavar, Rtchi. Dialects: None known. Distinct phonological, grammatical and sociolinguistic differences with Buwal [bhs]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Buwal [bhs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gbaya, Northwest
[gya] Adamawa region: Mbere division, Meiganga subdivision; Djerem division, Ngaoundal and Tibati subdivisions; Faro and Deo divisions, Tignere subdivision; East region: Lom and Djerem divisions, Garoua Boulay, Betare-Oya, and Bertoua subdivisions; Kadey division, Kette subdivision; Boumba and Ngoko divisions, Gari-Gombo subdivision; North region: Mayo-Rey division, south of Touboro. 65,000 in Cameroon (1980). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baya. Dialects: Banginda, Mbai, Gaymona, Lai (Lay), Lombu, Mbere, Mombe, Yaáyuwee (Kalla, Yaiwe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Gbaya-Mbodomo
[gmm] East region: Lom-and-Djerem division, Bétaré-Oya subdivision; Ngoura district. 8,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mbodomo. Dialects: None known. 45% with Biyanda [gso], 56% with Yaayuwee (Northwest Gbaya) [gya] among Mbodomo speakers (Tong 2005). Lexical similarity: 70% with Mbodomo and Yaayuwee (Cameroon), and Mbodomo and Biyanda [gso] (Central African Republic) (Tong 2005). A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ghomálá’
[bbj] West region: Mifi division, except south and pockets north and west, Bamendjou subdivision; east Menoua division, some in south Bamboutos division. 350,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Ghomala’ people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloum, Bamileke-Bandjoun, Bandjoun, Banjoun-Baham, Banjun, Batie, Mahum, Mandju. Dialects: Ghomálá’ Central (Baham, Bandjoun, Hom, Jo, We, Yogam), Ghomálá’ North (Fusap, Lang), Ghomálá’ South (Dengkwop, Pa, Te), Ngemba (Bamenjou, Fu’da, Meka, Monjo, Mugum, Sa). Bameka, Bansoa, and Balessing are subvarieties of South Ghomálá’, North Ghomálá’ has 2 subvarieties, Central Ghomálá’ 4, and Ngemba 5. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gidar
[gid] Far North region: a small section of Diamaré division; North region: Mayo- Louti division, Guider and Figuil subdivisions. 54,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Total users in all countries: 65,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baynawa, Gidder, Guidar, Guider, Kada. Dialects: Zlam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Gimme
[kmp] North region: Faro division, on Saptou plain, west of Poli along Nigeria border in Atlantika Mountains. 3,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gimma, Koma Kompana, Kompana, Kompara, Panbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Gimme. Comments: Distinct from Koma [kmy] (Koma Ndera) and Gimnime [gmn] (Komlama).

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Gimnime
[gmn] North region: Faro division, Wangay area in Atlantika Mountains, northwest of Poli along Nigeria border. 3,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gimbe, Kadam, Koma Kadam, Komlama, Laame, Yotubo. Dialects: Ritime. Reportedly similar to Gimme [kmp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Gimme. Comments: Distinct from Koma [kmy] (Koma Ndera) of Cameroon.

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Giziga, North
[gis] Far North region: Diamaré division, Meri subdivision, Tchere and Mogazang massifs and Dogba plains, north and west of Maroua. 20,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dogba, Gisiga, Gisika, Giziga de, Guiziga, Maroua, Marva, Mi Marva, Tchere. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Giziga, South
[giz] Far North region: Diamaré and Kaélé divisions, Diamare plains, southwest of Maroua. 60,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gisiga, Gisika, Guiziga. Dialects: Muturami (Giziga de Moutouroua, Loulou, Muturua, Muturwa), Mi Mijivin (Giziga de Midjivin), Rum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Glavda
[glw] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Koza subdivision, on Nigeria border, south of Ashigashia, Gelvaxdaxa village area. 2,800 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galavda, Galvaxdaxa, Gelvaxdaxa, Guelebda, Vale. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. Comments: Different from Vale [vae] of Chad and Central African Republic, which is Central Sudanic.

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Gude
[gde] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, south Bourrah subdivision, north and northwest of Dourbeye; North region: Mayo-Louti division, extreme northwest Mayo-Oulo subdivision. 20,000 in Cameroon (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cheke, Goude, Mapodi, Mocigin, Motchekin, Mubi, Mudaye, Shede, Tchade, Tcheke. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gvoko
[ngs] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, north of Tourou, Ngoshi village (different from Nggoshe). 1,000 in Cameroon (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gavoko, Gevoko, Ghboko, Kuvoko, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngoshi, Ngossi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda.

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Gyele
[gyi] South region: Océan division, Bipindi, Campo, Kribi, and Lolodorf subdivisions, forested areas between Nyong and Ntem rivers, many near Campo-Maan Reserve; Centre region: Nyong-et-Kéllé division. 4,250 in Cameroon (2012 SIL). Total users in all countries: 4,279. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Babinga, Bagiele, Bagyele, Bajele, Bajeli, Bako, Bakola, Bakuele, Bekoe, Bogyel, Bogyeli, Bondjiel, Giele, Gieli, Gyeli, Likoya. Dialects: Bagyeli, Bakola, Likoya. Lexical similarity: high with Kwasio [nmg]. Much shared vocabulary in Bakola dialect with Basaa [bas]. Likoya is a contact variety; Gyele who live near Bulu [bum] speakers borrow from that language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.801). Comments: Pygmies, dispersed in small groups in the forest. Probably different from Bakola (Bakoya) pygmies of Gabon. Traditional religion.

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Hausa
[hau] Widespread. 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Haoussa, Hawsa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Hdi
[xed] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Nigeria border northwest of Mokolo. 15 villages. 25,000 in Cameroon (2001 SIL). Total users in all countries: 29,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hedi, Hide, Turu-Hide, Xadi, Xdi, Xedi. Dialects: Tur (Ftour, Tourou, Turu). 51% intelligibility of Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 48% of Lamang [hia], 35% of Gvoko [ngs]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 64% with Lamang [hia], 56% with Gvoko [ngs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang.

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Hijuk
[hij] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Bokito subdivision, southwest of Bokito, Batanga village, 2 quartiers. 400 (1992 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 31% with Bafia [ksf], 87% with Basaa [bas], 30% with Yangben [yav], 40% with Mbule [mlb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.501).

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Hya
[hya] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Amsa. 940 in Cameroon (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 2,940. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ghye, Za. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kamwe [hig]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Psikye [kvj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3.

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Iceve-Maci
[bec] South West region: Manyu division, north and south of Akwaya town. 7,000 in Cameroon (1990). Total users in all countries: 12,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bacheve, Bechere, Becheve, Icheve, Ocebe, Ochebe, Ocheve, Utse, Utser, Utseu. Dialects: Icheve (Bacheve), Oliti (Akwaya Motom, Ici, Ihekwot, Kwaya, Maci, Matchi, Motomo, Olit, Olithi, Oliti-Akwaya). Lexical similarity: 80% between the Maci and Bacheve dialects, 60% with Otank [uta], 50% with Evant [bzz] and Tiv [tiv], 40% with Eman [emn] and Mesaka [iyo], 35% with Esimbi [ags]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ipulo
[ass] South West region: Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, south and southeast of Akwaya town; North West region: Menchum division. 2,500 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Assumbo, Asumbo, Badzumbo. Dialects: Olulu, Tinta, Etongo. Lexical similarity: 90% between the Olulu and Tinta dialects, 60% with Eman [emn], 50% with Caka [ckx], 40% with Balo [bqo] and Osatu [ost], 35% with Esimbi [ags]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Isu
[isu] North West region: Menchum division, Wum Central subdivision, widespread to Nigeria border. 15,400 (1993 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Comments: Different from Isu [szv] (Subu, Bimbia), which is Narrow Bantu A.20. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Isu
[szv] South West region: Fako division, Tiko subdivision, Bimbia estuary area east of Limbé and west of Douala, at the foot of Mount Cameroon, 3 villages; Littoral region: Wouri division. 800 (1982 SIL). Few speakers (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bimbia, Isubu, Isuwu, Su, Subu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.23). Comments: Distinct from Isu [isu], which is Narrow Grassfields.

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Iyive
[uiv] South West region: Manyu division, northeast of Akwaya town on Nigeria border, Yive village. 1,000 in Cameroon (1996 WT). Total users in all countries: 2,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Uive, Yiive. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Tiv [tiv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Jimi
[jim] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division. Bourrha area, on Nigeria border. 3,500 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimi, Jimjimen, ’Um Falin. Dialects: Djimi, Zumo (Zame, Zomo, Zumu), Jimo, Wadi (Wa’i), Malabu. Reportedly similar to Gude [gde]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Different from Jimi [jmi] of Nigeria in Bauchi State, which is West Chadic. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Jina
[jia] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, south Logone-Birni subdivision, Zina area and east of Waza town. 1,500 (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zina. Dialects: Jina (Zine), Sarassara, Tchide (Sede), Muxule (Muxuli, Ngodeni), Mae. People in Zina say they understand Lagwan [kot] and Musgu [mug] better than Jina. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina. Comments: Muxule may be a separate language. Glossonym: Mida’a and Da’a by the Mandage. Muslim.

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Jukun Takum
[jbu] North West region: Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Ntjieka, Furu-Turuwa, and Furu-Sambari villages. 2,440 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diyu, Jukun, Njikum. Dialects: Takum, Donga (Akpanzhi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun. Comments: ‘Njikum’ is preferred in Cameroon.

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Kako
[kkj] East region: Kadey division, Batouri and Ndelele subdivisions. 100,000 in Cameroon (2003 SIL). Total users in all countries: 119,460. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaka, Mkako. Dialects: Mbonjoku, Besembo, Bera, Ngbako. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kaka (A.93). Comments: Different from Kaka [yam] (Yamba), which is Grassfields Bantu. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kamkam
[bgu] Adamawa region: Mayo-Banyo division, Mambila plateau. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bungnu, Bungun, Bunu, Gbunhu, Kakaba, Mbongno. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, mainly north of Mora between Limani and Boundéri, and Kolofata subdivisions; Diamaré division, Maroua and Bogo subdivisions; Mayo Kani and Mayo Danay divisions, as far as Mindif and Guirvidig. 56,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: “Baribari” (pej.), “Beriberi” (pej.), Bornouan, Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Kolere, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri. Dialects: Mowor (Movar), Dagara, Kaga (Kagama), Sugurti, Lare, Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa, Maiduguri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Muslim.

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Karang
[kzr] North region: Mayo-Rey division, Madingring district (homeland), south border of Bouba Ndjida National Park, south from Madingring, southeast to Lawzigoy. 25 villages. Displaced: Garoua, Ngong, Ngaoundéré, Touboro (and surrounding villages), Tcholliré. 17,000 in Cameroon (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Very few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 18,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbum, Mbum-East. Dialects: Ngumi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kare
[kbn] Adamawa region: Vina division, Belel area; North Region, Mayo-Rey division. 4,460 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kali, Kari, Karré. Dialects: Tale, Kari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang. Comments: Different from the Kari [kbj] of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is Benue-Congo.

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Kemedzung
[dmo] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Misaje subdivision, northwest of Nkambe, Dumbu area, Kwei village. 3,540 (2008 Misaje council). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dumbo, Dzumbo, Kemezung, Kumaju. Dialects: Kemedzung, Kwe (Kwei). Lexical similarity: 85% with Naami [bzv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kendem
[kvm] South West region: Manyu division, Tinto and Upper Bayang subdivisions, east of Mamfe: Kendem, Kekpoti, and Bokwa villages. 1,500 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bokwa-Kendem. Dialects: None known. Reportedly higher lexical similarity with Denya [anv] but higher intelligibility of Kenyang [ken]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe.

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Kenswei Nsei
[ndb] North West region: Ngo Ketunjia division, Ndop subdivision, west of Ndop on Ndop plain, Bamessing village. 25,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamessing, Befi, Calebasses, Kensense, Kenswey Nsey, Melamba, Mesing, Ndop-Bamessing, Nsei, Veteng, Vetweng. Dialects: None known. Related to Vengo [bav] and Wushi [bse]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, South. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kenyang
[ken] South West region: Manyu division, Mamfe Central and Upper Banyang subdivisions, around and southwest of Mamfe; Koupé-Muanengouba division, west corner of Nguti subdivision. 65,000 (1992 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banjangi, Banyang, Banyangi, Bayangi, Manyang, Nyang. Dialects: Upper Kenyang (Haut-Kenyang), Lower Kenyang (Bas-Kenyang), Bakoni (Kicwe, Kitwii, Manyeman, Manyemen, Northern Balong, Twii, Upper Balong). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe. Comments: Upper Balong is distinct from Bafaw-Balong [bwt]. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kera
[ker] Far North region: Mayo-Danay division, southeast of Doukoula. 6,000 in Cameroon. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3.

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Kol
[biw] East region: Upper Nyong division, Messamena subdivision, on both sides of the Nyong river. 12,000 (2007 B. Henson). 1,000 in Bikeng. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bekol, Bikele, Bikele-Bikay, Bikele-Bikeng, Bokol. Dialects: Bikeng, Kol North, Kol South. Part of language chain together with Makaa [mcp] and Koonzime [ozm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.832). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kolbila
[klc] North region: Faro division, Bantadje canton, southeast of Poli, and east between Ngaoundéré and Garoua. 2,500 (1997 L. Lode). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kolbilari, Kolbili, Kolbilla, Kolena, Zoono. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kom
[bkm] North West region: south Boyo division, southeast of Wum town, northeast of Bamenda city. Also in major urban centers. 233,000 (2005 CABTAL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 233,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used by speakers of many other languages. Alternate Names: Bamekon, Bikom, Itangikom, Kong, Nkom. Dialects: Mbizenaku (Itangimbesa, Mbesa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Koma
[kmy] North region: Faro division, northwest of Tchamba in Alantika Mountains along Nigeria border. 3,000 in Cameroon (1984 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuma. Dialects: Koma Ndera, Koma Damti, Leelu, Bangru, Zanu, LIU, Yeru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere. Comments: Different from Gimme [kmp] (Kompara), Gimnime [gmn] (Komlama), Koma (Komo) [xom] of Ethiopia and Sudan. Traditional religion.

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Koonzime
[ozm] East region: Upper Nyong division, north and northwest Dja river, Lomie, Messok, Mindourou, Somalomo, and Alouma villages; South region: Dja-and-Lobo division. 40,000 (2011 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimu, Dzimou, Kooncimo, Koozhime, Koozime, Nzime. Dialects: Nzime (Koonzime), Badwe’e (Badjoue, Bajue, Bajwe’e, Koozime). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.842). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Korop
[krp] South West region: Ndian division, along Nigeria border, northwest of Mundemba. 7,440 in Cameroon (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Durop, Dyurop, Erorup, Ododop. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop.

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Koshin
[kid] North West region: Menchum division, Wum subdivision, Koshin village. 3,000 (Good et al 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaw, Kosin, Kusheen Benubcouh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi.

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Kuk
[kfn] North West region: Menchum division, Fungom subdivision, on the Ring Road and on the road between Weh and Bafmeng. 6 villages: Kuk, Kumfutu, Achaf, Nzela, Echuapo, and Ebo. 3,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kung
[kfl] North West region: Menchum division, Fungom subdivision, 1 village. 600 (Good et al 2011). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kuo
[xuo] North region: between Sorombeo and Chad border, and Garoua area. 7,950 in Cameroon (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ko, Koh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Koh. Comments: Different from Oku [oku] which is Narrow Grassfields. Refugees only in Cameroon; their place of origin for many, several generations ago now, is Chad.

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Kutep
[kub] North West region: Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Baji and Lubu villages near Nigeria border. 1,400 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ati, “Jompre” (pej.), Kuteb, Kutev, Mbarike, Zumper. Dialects: Jenuwa, Lissam, Fikyu, Kunabe, Kentin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kwa’
[bko] Littoral region: Nkam division, east Nkondjok subdivision; West region: southwest corner of Ndé division. 1,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bakoa, Bakwa, Bamileke-Kwa. Dialects: Kwa’ (Babwa, Bakoua, Bekwa’, Mipa), Mbyam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Comments: ‘Bamaha’ may be an alternate name. Distinct from Kwa [kwb] (Ba) of Nigeria in the Adamawa branch.

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Kwaja
[kdz] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Nkambe subdivision. 2,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Possibly intelligible with other Mfumte languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Comments: Consider themselves ethnically Mfumte.

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Kwakum
[kwu] East region: Upper Nyong division, Dimako and Doumé subdivisions; Lom-and-Djerem division, north of Bertoua, Bélabo subdivision. 10,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abakoum, Abakum, Akpwakum, Bakum, Kpakum, Pakum. Dialects: Kwakum, Beten (Bethen, Petem), Til, Baki (Mbaki). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kaka (A.91).

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Kwanja
[knp] Adamawa region: most south of Banyo between Mayo Darle and Bankim, west to Mbojdanga, east to Mbam river. 10,000 (2011 LBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kondja, Konja. Dialects: Ndung (Ndungani), Sundani (Sun), Njanga (Njang), Twendi. The two Kwanja dialects are mutually intelligible for those who are in the Kwanja home area where they hear both dialects, more difficult for those who have not heard the other dialect. Sundani dialect is reportedly similar to Mambila [mcu]; Ndung dialect is similar to Vute [vut]. Twendi is the most divergent dialect, ethnically Kwanja, but linguistically more similar to Mambila [mcu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Konja. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kwasio
[nmg] South region: Océan division, Kribi and Lolodorf subdivisions, Kribi forests area; Kribi and Lolodorf areas. 9,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), increasing. Total users in all countries: 22,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Magbea, Mvumbo, Ngumba. Dialects: Mvumbo (Mekuk, Ngoumba, Ngumba), Mabi. Dialects mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: high with Makaa [mcp], Njyem [njy], and Koonzime [ozm] and grammatically similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.81). Comments: Distinct from Ngomba [jgo], which is in West Province. Christian.

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La’bi
[lbi] North region: Mayo-Rey division, Touboro subdivision. No known L1 speakers (Samarin 1971). L2 users: 4,400 (2006). Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, La’bi. Comments: The language of initiation rites practiced by the Gbaya, Mbum, and some Sara-Laka. Vocabulary is borrowed from Sara languages (Samarin 1971).

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Lagwan
[kot] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, north of Waza National Park, Logone-Birni subdivision, Logone river bank across to Nigeria border. 10,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone. Dialects: Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South. Comments: The term Mandage is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade, Maslam, Malgbe) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan). Muslim.

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Laimbue
[lmx] North West region: Menchum division, Wum Central subdivision; Boyo division, Fundong subdivision. 5,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lamnso’
[lns] North West region: Bui division, east Kumbo and Jakiri subdivisions, northeast of Bamenda, Kumbo area. 240,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 240,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used by speakers of many other languages. Alternate Names: Bansaw, Banso, Banso’, Lamnsok, Lamso, Nsaw, Nsho’, Nso, Nso’, Panso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lefa
[lfa] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Deuk subdivision. 15,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balom, Fa’, Fak, Lefa’. Dialects: Lefa, Cama (Tempanye), Tingong, Letia. Intelligibility 81% of Bafia [ksf] (2001 M. Ayotte and M. Lamberty). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.51). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Leti
[leo] Centre region: Lekié division, Sa’a subdivision, Nkolebassimbi and Nkolndzomo villages; Mbam-and-Inoubou division, north of the Sanaga river. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Mengissa, Tungidjo, Tungijo. Dialects: Leti is closely related to and may be a dialect of Tuki [bag] (2014 SIL). Lexical similarity: 82%–84% with Tuki [bag], 23% with Ewondo [ewo], Eton [eto], and Mengisa [mct]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.601). Comments: Ethnically, Leti speakers consider themselves Mengissa people, even though their language is very different from Mengisa [mct], the other language spoken by their ethnic group.

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Limbum
[lmp] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Nkambe subdivision, Nkambe and Ndu areas. 130,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL), increasing. Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Limbum people are present as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bojiin, Limbom, Llimbumi, Ndzungle, Ndzungli, Njungene, Nsungali, Nsungli, Nsungni, Wimbum. Dialects: Wiyeh, Tang, Wat. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe.

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Longto
[wok] North region: Faro division, Poli subdivision, southwest of Poli to Faro Reserve, Voko area. 2,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boko, Gobeyo, Longa, Longbo, Lonto, Voko, Woko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Voko. Comments: Muslim.

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Luo
[luw] Adamawa region: Mayo-Banyo division, Bankim subdivision. 1 (1995 B. Connell). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Unclassified. Comments: May be extinct.

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Mada
[mxu] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Tokombéré subdivision, Mada massif at edge of Mandara mountains and neighboring plain. 17,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ma’da. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Distinct from Mada [mda] of Nigeria, which is Benue-Congo.

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Mafa
[maf] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division. From Mokolo town north. 210,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the sub-divisions where the Mafa people are present (2014 C. Hamm). Total users in all countries: 214,910. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Matakam” (pej.), Mofa, Natakan. Dialects: West Mafa (Magoumaz, Mavoumay, Moskota), Central Mafa (Djingliya, Gouzda, Koza, Ldamtsai, Mokola, Mokolo, Ouzal), East Mafa (Bao, Mazam, Midre, Soulede), Roua. The Roua dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Majera
[xmj] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, extreme south Logone-Birni subdivision, Majera area. 500 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mazera. Dialects: Majera (Mazra), Kajire-’dulo, Hwalem (Holom). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina. Comments: Included in what the Mandage call Mida’a and Da’a. Muslim.

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Makaa
[mcp] East region: north Upper Nyong division, Abong-Mbang, Doumé, and Nguelemendouka subdivisions. 80,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mekaa, South Makaa, South Mekaa. Dialects: Bebent (Bebend, Bebende, Bemina, Bewil, Biken), Mbwaanz, Shekunda (Sekunda, Shikunda), Besep. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.83). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Malgbe
[mxf] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, Chari river area, Goulfey subdivision, north of Kousseri. 6,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goulfei, Gulfe, Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe. Dialects: Malgbe (Goulfei), Mara, Dro, Douguia (Dugiya). Related to Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North. Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade, Maslam, Malgbe) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan). Muslim.

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Malimba
[mzd] Littoral region: Sanaga-Maritime division, small pocket north of Edéa, and Sanaga river mouth area. 2,230 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lemba, Limba, Mudima, Mulimba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.27).

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Mambai
[mcs] North region: along Mayo-Kebi river near Chad border: Mayo Louti division, Guider and Figuil subdivisions; Bénoué division, Bibemi and Pitoa subdivisions. 12,000 in Cameroon (2011 E. Anonby). Total users in all countries: 14,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambay, Mamgbay, Mamgbei, Manbai, Mangbai, Mangbei, Mongbay. Dialects: None known. Most similar with Mundang [mua], Mono [mru] and Tupuri [tui]. Lexical similarity: 10% with Mundang [mua]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Mambila, Cameroon
[mcu] Adamawa region: on Nigeria border, northwest Mayo-Banyo division, Banyo and Bankim subdivisions; North West region: eastern Donga-Mantung division. 30,000 (1993 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bang, Bea, Ble, Juli, Lagubi, Mambere, Mambilla, Nor, Tagbo, Tongbo, Torbi. Dialects: Ju Ba, Sunu Torbi (Torbi), Ju Naare (Mambila de Gembu), Langa. Closely related to Mvanlip [mcj] (Magu) in Nigeria. Reportedly similar to Mambila [mzk] of Nigeria. A continuum of related varieties; one end unintelligible to speakers of the other. Langa inherently intelligible to some, but not most others. At least 4 dialects in Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Manta
[myg] South West region: Manyu division northeast of Mamfe, from Mom border, Akwaya subdivision, to Manta, Mamfe subdivision. 5,300 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anta, Banta, Bantakpa, Kisam, Menta, Tinta. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Atong [ato]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Masana
[mcn] Far North region: southeast Mayo-Danay division, Yagoua town area. 103,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Banana” (pej.), Masa, Massa, Walia. Dialects: Yagwa (Yagoua), Domo, Walya, Bongor, Wina (Viri), Gizay (Guissey), Budugum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Comments: The first 3 dialects listed are West Masa; Wina and Gizay are Central Masa. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maslam
[msv] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, Makari subdivision, northwest of Kousséri, Maltam, and Saho. 250 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu). Related to Afade [aal], Mpade [mpi], Malgbe [mxf], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot]. Speakers may be able to use literature in one of these languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North. Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade, Maslam [msv], Malgbe) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan). Muslim.

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Matal
[mfh] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Mora subdivision, southwest of Mora, to the south, east edge of Mandara mountains. 18,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balda, Mouktele, Muktele, Muktile. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5.

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Mazagway
[dkx] Far North region: southwest corner of Diamaré division, Ndoukoula district, Kpala, Dagaï; Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Hina district, Zouvoul, Mayo-Ladde; North region: Mayo-Louti division, northwest of Guider, Mazagway, Baila, Boula Ibbi, Tam Djidde. 17,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mazagway-Hidi. Dialects: Mazagway (Daba-Mousgoy, Musgoi, Musgoy), Kpala (Daba-Kola, Kola). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Mbembe, Tigon
[nza] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Ako subdivision, north of Nkambe. 40,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL), increasing. Based on the actual population of the subdivision where the Tigon Mbembe people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Total users in all countries: 60,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akonto, Tigon, Tigong, Tigum, Tigun, Tikun. Dialects: Ashuku (Kitsipki), Nama (Dama, Namu), Nzare (Izale, Izare, Ndzale, Njari, Nsare), Kporo, Eneeme. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe. Comments: Distinct from Mbembe [mfn] of Nigeria, which is in the Cross River group. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mbo
[mbo] Littoral region: Moungo division, Nkongsamba and Melong subdivisions; West region: Menoua division, Santchou subdivision and Upper Nkam division, Kekem subdivision; South West region: Noun division, border area northwest of Nkongsamba, Mbo plain. 45,000 (Ewané Etamé 1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mboo, Sambo. Dialects: Melong (Eho Mbo), Bareko (Ehow Mba, Minahe), Kekem (Nlembuu), Santchou (Nla Mboo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15). Comments: Different from Mbo [zmw] of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is Bantu D.30.

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Mbo’
[mtk] North West region: Donga-Mantung division. North of Magba town on regional boundary. West region: Noun division. 1,490 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Mbaw, Mbe’. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Comments: People are shifting to Tikar [tik] outside of the home. Distinct from Mbe [mfo] of Nigeria, which is in the Ekoid group.

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Mbonga
[xmb] East region: Lom-and-Djerem division, west of Bétaré-Oya town. 1,490 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mboa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Cameroon.

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Mbudum
[xmd] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, northeast of Hina. 6,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudoum, Ma Mbudum, Mbedam, Mboudoum. Dialects: Mbudum, Membeng. Most closely related to Mina [hna]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mbuko
[mqb] Far North region: Diamaré division, Meri subdivision east of Meri, Mbuko massif and neighboring Mayo-Raneo plain. 15,000 (2008 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbokou, Mboku, Mbuku. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mbule
[mlb] Littoral region: Sanaga-Maritime division, Mbola village. 110 (2009 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dumbule, Mbola, Mbure. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Yambasa languages. Lexical similarity: 59% with Nubaca [baf], 51% with Yangben [yav], 43% with Elip [ekm], 44% with Mmaala [mmu] (2015 G. Boyd). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.623). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mbum
[mdd] Adamawa region: Vina and Djérem divisions, south and southwest of Ngaoundéré; East region: Lom-and-Djerem division, Bélabo subdivision, Gbete; Centre region: Mbam-and-Kim division, border area; North region: Faro division, Ngaoundéré area to border of Faro Reserve. 38,600 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Total users in all countries: 51,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buna, Mboum, Mboumtiba, Wuna. Dialects: Mboum (Bum, West Mbum), Gbete (Byrre, Kepere, Kpere, Pere, Pono, Ripere, Vana). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Medumba
[byv] West region: Ndé division, Tonga and Bangangté subdivisions east of Bangangté; Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division; Littoral region: Nkam division, border area. 210,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a church language. Alternate Names: Bagangte, Bamileke-Medumba, Bangangte. Dialects: Batongtou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mefele
[mfj] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, south and east of Mokolo. 6 villages. 11,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baitsawara, Boulahay, Bula, Bulahai. Dialects: Mefele (Mofouele), Serak (Sirak), Muhura (Moughour, Mouhour), Shugule (Chougoule). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5.

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Mendankwe-Nkwen
[mfd] North West region: Mezam division, Bamenda Central subdivision, north and east of Bamenda town, either side of Ring Road, and mountainous circle of Menda Nkwe. 23,100 (2001 SIL). 10,200 Mendankwe, 12,900 Nkwen. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mandankwe, Mendankwe. Dialects: Nkwen (Bafreng), Mendankwe (Bamenda, Munda). The Mendankwe dialect has 74% intelligibility of the Nkwen dialect; Nkwen 79% intelligibility of Mendankwe. Socially very distinct groups. Related to Ngemba [nge], Bafut [bfd], Pinyin [pny], Awing [azo], and Bambili-Bambui [baw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba.

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Mengaka
[xmg] West region: Bamboutos division, South Galim subdivision, Bagam, Galim, and Bamendjing; North West region: Mezam division. 20,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Mengaka, Benzing, Eghap, Ghap, Megaka. Dialects: Bagam, Bamendjing (Bamendjin). Lexical similarity: 91% among villages, but no dialect differences reported. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Comments: Distinct from Mungaka [mhk] (Bali), which is Mbam-Nkam, Noone [nhu].

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Mengisa
[mct] Centre region: Lekié division, Sa’a subdivision, Sanaga river bend area between the river and Sa’a. 20,000 (1979 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mangisa, Mengisa-Njowe, Njowe, Njowi. Dialects: High exposure to and 97% intelligibility of Ewondo [ewo]. But Ewondo speakers have only 46% with Mengisa. The Mangisa people speak 2 languages: the Mengisa (Njowi) [mct], spoken in the Lekie division, and Leti [leo], closely related to, and perhaps a dialect of, Tuki [bag]. Eton [eto], the A70 variety reportedly most similar to Mengisa (Njowi) is 90% cognate with Mengisa, but a lower comprehension level (91%) (1990 D. Hatfield and C. Regnier). Lexical similarity: 90%–91% with Eton [eto], 81%–97% with Ewondo [ewo] (Risnes 1989). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.71). Comments: The Mangisa people speak 2 languages: Mengisa (Njowi) and Leti [leo]. Christian.

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Menka
[mea] North West region: Momo division, Widikum-Menka subdivision, west of Mbengwi, northwest of Batibo. 10 villages. 5,200 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mamwoh, Wando Bando. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo.

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Merey
[meq] Far North region: Diamaré division. West of Meri town, near Meri massif. 10,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mere, Meri, Mofu de Méri. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5.

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Mesaka
[iyo] South West region: Manyu division, on Nigeria border northeast of Akwaya, isolated; North West region: Menchum division, Mbengwi area. 14,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banagere, Iyon, Messaga, Messaga-Ekol, Messaka, Ugare. Dialects: Batomo (Babasi). Batomo dialect may be a separate language, or may be the same as Motomo (Oliti, Matchi), a dialect of Iceve-Maci [bec]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Tiv [tiv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ugare, Mesaka is used by the government, Iyon by the Tiv. Traditional religion.

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Meta’
[mgo] North West region: Momo division, east and southeast Mbengwi and east Batibo subdivisions; Bamenda subdivision, Bafuchu and Nja village areas. 183,000 (2010 CABTAL), increasing. Menemo 83,000, Moghamo 100,000 (2013 CABTAL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bameta, Batibo, Besi, Chubo, Menemo-Mogamo, Metta, Mitaa, Moghamo-Menemo, Muta, Uta’, Widikum-Tadkon. Dialects: Menemo (Medig, Ngyen-Mbo, Zang Tabi), Moghamo (Ashong, Awyi, Iyirikum, Kugwe, Muywi, Tiwirkum, Widekum). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mfumte
[nfu] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Nwa subdivision, Mfumte canton north of Nwa and east of Nkambe. 16 villages. 24,700 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nfumte. Dialects: Lus, Kom, Mballa, Bang, Koffa (Kofa), Jui, Mbat, Manang, Mbibji, Mbah. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mina
[hna] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Hina subdivision, south of Mokolo. 20 villages. 11,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Besleri, Hina. Dialects: Besleri, Jingjing (Dzumdzum), Kefedjevreng. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Mmaala
[mmu] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Mmala canton, in and south of Bokito. 8,000 (2014 G. Boyd). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Yambassa, Mmala, Numaala, Yambassa. Dialects: Nuenie (Benyi), Nukitia (Kedia). Lexical similarity: 81% with Elip [ekm], 74% with Yangben [yav], 58% with Nubaca [baf], 44% with Mbule [mlb] (2015 G. Boyd). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.62). Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mmen
[bfm] North West region: Menchum division, Wum subdivision, along Fundong road northwest of Fundong. 35,000 (2001 SIL), increasing. 1,000 Fungom (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bafmen, Bafmeng, Bafoumeng, Bafumen, Mme. Dialects: Fungom (Northern Fungom, We), Cha’, Nyos. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Comments: Christian.

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Mofu, North
[mfk] Far North region: Diamaré division, massifs south of Meri. 27,500 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Douvangar, Mofu-Douvangar, Mofu-Nord. Dialects: Douroun (Durum, Mofu de Douroum), Wazan (Wazang). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5.

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Mofu-Gudur
[mif] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division into Diamare division, Mokolo subdivision, massifs south of Tsanaga river to Mayo-Louti river. 90,000 (2008 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mofou, Mofou de Goudour, Mofu South, Mofu-Sud. Dialects: Mokong, Gudur, Zidim, Dimeo, Massagal (Massakal), Njeleng. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mokpwe
[bri] South West region: Fako division, Muyuka, Tiko, Buéa, and Limbé subdivisions. 20,000 (2014 M. Engeler). Ethnic population: 150,000 (2014 M. Engeler). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakpwe, Bakueri, Bakwedi, Bakwele, Bakweri, Bakwiri, Bekwiri, Kpe, Kwedi, Kweli, Kwili, Kwiri, Mokpe, Ujuwa, Vakweli, Vambeng. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.22). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Moloko
[mlw] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Tokombéré subdivision, Makalingay canton, Melokwo mountain area. 8,500 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Melokwo, Mokyo, Molko, Molkoa, Molkwo, Molokwo. Dialects: Surrounded by 4 related languages, including Muyang [muy], Giziga North [gis], and the Mikiri dialect of Dugwor [dme], plus one other. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Christian.

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Mom Jango
[ver] North region: Faro division, Beka subdivision, north of Tchamba on Nigeria border. 6,520 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kobo, Vere, Verre, Were. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere.

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Mono
[mru] North region: Mayo-Rey division, north of Rey-Bouba, Kongrong area along Mayo-Godi river. 300 (2001 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mon-Non. Dialects: None known. Related to Dama [dmm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke. Comments: Distinct from Mono [mnh] in Democratic Republic of the Congo in Banda group.

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Mpade
[mpi] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, south of Lake Chad, Makari area. 16,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Makari, Makary, Makary Kotoko. Dialects: Shewe (Mani), Mpade (Makari), Bodo, Woulki, Digam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North. Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade [mpi], Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [kot]). Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Mpiemo
[mcx] East region: Boumba-and-Ngoko division, Gari-Gombo subdivision, along Gribi to Yokadouma road. 5,000 in Cameroon (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bimu, Mbimou, Mbimu, Mpo, Mpyemo. Dialects: Jasua (Jasoa), Bidjuki (Bidjouki). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.86). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mpumpong
[mgg] East region: Menzime and Bangantu are in Kadey division, Mbang subdivision, south of Batouri; others in Boumba-and-Ngoko division, south and west of Yokadouma. 45,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bombo, Mbombo, Mpompo, Mpompon, Mpongmpong, Mpopo, Mpumpoo, Pongpong. Dialects: Mbobyeng (Pobyeng), Menzime (Medjime, Medzime, Mendzime, Mezime), Bageto (Baagato, Bangantu, Northern Bangantu), Kunabembe (Konabem, Konabembe, Kunabeeb, Nkonabeeb, Nkumabem), Mpomam (Boman, Mboman). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.86).

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Mser
[kqx] Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, Kousséri subdivision. 500 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Kuseri, Kouseri, Kousseri, Kuseri. Dialects: Houlouf (Mani), Gawi (Makari), Mser (Kousseri), Kabe, Kalo (Kalakafra). Comprehension of Lagwan [kot] is marginal. Related to Lagwan, Afade [aal], Malgbe [mxf], Maslam [msv], and Mpade [mpi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South. Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade [mpi], Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [mxf]). Muslim.

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Mundabli
[boe] North West region: Menchum division, Wum subdivision; 3 villages northeast of Wum. 500 (Good et al 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buu, Ji, Mufu. Dialects: Mundabli, Buu, Mufu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi.

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Mundang
[mua] Far North region: Kaélé division, Kaélé subdivision, near Chad border north and west of Kaélé; North region: Bénoué division, south of Mayo-Kebi near Chad border. 44,700 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaele, Marhay, Moundan, Moundang, Musemban, Nda. Dialects: Kiziere, Imbana (Bana, Imbara, Mbana), Zasing (Djasing, Jasing, Yasing, Yassing, Zazing), Gelama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai. Comments: Gelama dialect may be a separate language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mundani
[mnf] South West region: Manyu division, Mamfe and north Fontem subdivisions, south of Batibo town. 34,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Bamumbo (Bamumbu), Bechati, Besali, Banti, Folepi, Iguambo (Igumbo), Bangang, Nko (Nkong). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo.

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Mungaka
[mhk] North West region: Mezam division, Bali subdivision; West region: Bamboutos division, southeast Galim subdivision; Mifi division, north Bafoussam subdivision. 50,100 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bali, Li, Munga’ka, Ngaaka, Nga’ka. Dialects: Bali Nyonga (Bali), Ti (Bati), Nde (Bandeng). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun. Comments: Different from Bali [bcp] and Ibali Teke (Bali dialect) [tek] of the Democratic Republic of Congo and Bali [bcn] of Nigeria. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mungbam
[mij] North West region: Menchum division, Wum subdivision, Bentsan, Nsun, Biya, Uba, and Bijun villages. 1,850 (Good et al 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abar. Dialects: Missong, Biya, Munken, Ngun, Abar. Missong is divergent from the other four dialects as far as mutual intelligibility is concerned. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi. Comments: Mungbam is an acronym made up of the initial syllables of the 5 villages where the language is spoken. No actual autonymn for the language.

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Musey
[mse] Far North region: Mayo-Danay division, east of Guere on Chad border. 50,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Musey people are present as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bananna, Bananna Ho, Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musaya, Musei, Museyna, Musiina, Musoi, Mussoi, Mussoy. Dialects: Pe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Musgu
[mug] Far North region: Mayo-Danay division, Maga subdivision. 140,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the sub-divisions where the Musgu people are present, as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Total users in all countries: 164,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Mulwi, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk, Muzuk. Dialects: Mpus (Mousgoum de Pouss, Pouss, Pus), Beege (Jafga), Vulum (Mulwi, Vlum), Ngilemong, Luggoy, Maniling (Mani-Iling), Muzuk (Mousgoum de Guirvidig). Vulum dialect is mainly in Chad. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Muyang
[muy] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, northeast of Tokombéré, Muyang, Mougouba, Gouadagouada, and Palbara massifs. 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mouyenge, Mouyengue, Muyenge, Myau, Myenge. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Naami
[bzv] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Misaje subdivision, west of Nkambe, north of Ring Road, Bebe-Jama and Bebe-Jatto villages. 3,550 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bebe, Yi Be Wu. Dialects: Eastern Garifuna, Bebe Kete, Bebe Jama. Member of the Eastern Beboid subgroup. Lexical similarity: 85% with Kemedzung [dmo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Nagumi
[ngv] North region: Bénoué division. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bama, Gong, Mbama, Ngong, Puuri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Cameroon.

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Naki
[mff] North West region: Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Nse chiefdom, Mashi, Mekaf, Small Mekaf, Bukpang II, and Lebo villages. 3,000 (Breton 1993). 300 in Nse chiefdom. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bunaki, Mekaf, Munkaf, Nkap. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid. Comments: In Nse chiefdom they are called ‘Bunsaa’.

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Ncane
[ncr] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Misaje subdivision, west of Nkambe, Nkanchi, Nfume, Chunge, Bem, Kibbo, and Mungong villages; Menchum division, Bum subdivision. 13,200 (2008 Misaje Council). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cane, Nchane, Nchaney, Nchanti, Ntshanti. Dialects: Ncane, Mungong (Mungom). Member of the Eastern Beboid subgroup. Lexical similarity: 84% with Sari [asj], 88% with Noone [nhu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ndai
[gke] North region: Mayo-Rey division, Tcholliré. 5 Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Galke, Pormi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke.

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Ndaktup
[ncp] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, northeast of Nkambe town. 2,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ncha, Bitui (Bitwi). Possibly intelligible of, or bilingual in, Mfumte [nfu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Comments: Consider themselves ethnically Mfumte.

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Nda’nda’
[nnz] West region: straddling Upper Nkam, east of Bana, Ndé (north and west of Banganté), and Mifi (south of Bangou) divisions; Littoral region: Nkam division. 10,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Nda’nda’, Bangwa. Dialects: Undimeha (East Nda’nda’), Ungameha (South Nda’nda’, West Nda’nda’). Batoufam is a subvariety of East Nda’nda’. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke.

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Ndemli
[nml] Littoral region: Nkam division, eastern Yabassi subdivision, extending to the Bandem river, and Nkondjock subdivision, Mbang district; Yingui subdivision, north of Yingui. 10,000 (Ngoran 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bandem, Bayong, Ndemba. Dialects: Reportedly related to Tikar [tik]. The Bandobo dialect of Tikar is very similar to Ndemli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ndemli.

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Ndoola
[ndr] Adamawa region: Faro-and-Déo division, south Mayo-Baléo subdivision, upper Mayo-Déo river, Dodeo village near Nigeria border; North West region: Donga-Mantung division, north of Nkambe. 2,120 in Cameroon (2000). 3 elderly speakers in Dodeo dialect (2014 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ndoro, Njoyame, Nundoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro.

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Ngamambo
[nbv] North West region: Momo division, east and southeast Mbengwi and east Batibo subdivisions; Mezam division, Santa subdivision, Bafuchu and Nja village areas. 8,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bafuchu, Banja, Mbu, Mungyen, Nga, Ngembo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 88% with Meta’ [mgo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo.

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Ngambay
[sba] North region: along route to Garoua, Mayo-Rey division, Rey-Bouba and Mandingring subdivisions, Chad border area east of Tcholliré; Bénoué division, Garoua. 57,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Ngambay people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gamba, Gambai, Gambaye, Gamb-Lai, Ngambai, Sara, Sara Ngambai. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

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Ngemba
[nge] North West region: Mezam division, Tuba and Bamenda subdivisions. 18,800 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Megimba, Mogimba, Mundum, Ngomba, Nguemba. Dialects: Bagangu (Akum), Njong (Banjong), Mbutu (Alamatu, Bambutu, Mbotu), Songwa (Bangwa, Ngwa, Nsongwa), Mankon (Bida), Shomba (Almatson, Bamechom), Mangkunge (Bande, Bande’, Bandeng, Mukohn, Ngemba, Nkune), Mbrerewi (Bamundum 1, Mundum 1), Anyang (Bamundum 2, Mundum 2), Alatening (Alatining). Distinct from Ngiemboon [nnh] (Nguemba). Lexical similarity: 87% between the Mbrerewi and Anyang dialects, 78% between Mbrerewi and Bafut [bfd], 85% between Mbrerewi and the Mankon dialect, 74% between Bafut and Mankon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba.

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Ngie
[ngj] North West region: Momo division, west Mbengwi subdivision, Andek area. 37,000 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angie, Baminge, Baninge, Mingi, Ngi, Ugie, Ungie. Dialects: Mengum. Lexical similarity: 56% between Ngie [ngj] and the Mengum dialect, which may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ngiemboon
[nnh] West region: Bamboutos division, Batcham subdivision and west Mbouda subdivision in Balatchi; Menoua division, north of Penka-Michel. 250,000 (2000 CABTAL), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Ngiemboon, Bamileke-Ngyemboon, Nguemba, Ngyemboon, Shwoge. Dialects: Batcham, Balessing, Bangang, Bamougong, Balatchi, Batang. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Comments: Distinct from Ngemba [nge]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ngomba
[jgo] West region: Bamboutos division, south Mbouda subdivision, southeast of Mbouda. 5 villages, each a separate dialect. 63,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Ngomba, Ndaa, Nda’a. Dialects: Babete (Bamete), Bamendjinda, Bamendjo, Bamenkumbo, Bamesso. Dialect speakers appear to understand each other well. Bamendjinda, Bamesso, and Bamenkumbo are reportedly most similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Comments: Bafounda is a separate town and language (see Ghomálá’ [bbj]), but ethnically Nda’a. Different from Kwasio [nmg] in the Maka-Njem group.

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Ngombale
[nla] West region: Bamboutos division, north Mbouda subdivision, northwest of Mbouda. 45,000 (1993 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Ngombale. Dialects: Babadjou (Basso, Nchobela), Bamessingue (Bassing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ngoshie
[nsh] North West region: Momo division, east Njikwa subdivision. 9,200 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ngishe, Oshie. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo.

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Ngwe
[nwe] South West region: Lebialem division, west of Dschang town. 73,200 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Ngwe, Fomopea, Fontem, Nwe, Nweh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Comments: Part of a language subgroup which includes Yemba [ybb] and Ngiemboon [nnh].

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Ngwo
[ngn] North West region: Momo division, Njikwa subdivision. 22,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Engwo, Ngwaw. Dialects: Ngwo (Miguhni, Nguni, Ngunu, Ngwaw), Konda, Basa (Bassa), Ikweri (Ekperi), Banya, Bako, Okorobi, Zang. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo.

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Nimbari
[nmr] North region: Bénoué and Mayo-Louti divisions, Gorimbari, Padjara-Djabi, and Badjire villages. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 130. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bari, Niamniam, Nimbari-Kebi, Nyamnyam, Nyam-Nyam du Mayo-Kebi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Nimbari. Comments: Different from Suga [sgi] (Nyamnyam).

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Njen
[njj] North West region: Momo division, southeast of Batibo town, Njen village. 1,800 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nen, Nyen, Nzin. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 47% with Meta [mgo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo.

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Njyem
[njy] East region: Upper Nyong division, Ngoila subdivision. 4,400 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivision where the Njyem people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 7,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djem, Dzem, Ndjem, Ndjeme, Ndzem, Ngyeme, Njem, Njeme, Nyem, Zimu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.84). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nkongho
[nkc] South West region: Koupé-Manengouba division, Nguti subdivision; Littoral region: Moungo division. 2,230 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kinkwa, Lekongo, Upper Mbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.151).

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Nomaande
[lem] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, west and north Bokito subdivision, southwest of Bafia [ksf] language area; Littoral region: Sanaga-Maritime division, small area, eastern border. 6,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lemande, Mande, Mandi, Noomaante, Numaand, Numand, Pimenc. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.46). Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Noone
[nhu] North West region: Bui division, northwest Kumbo subdivision. 40,000 (2005 SIL). Based on actual population of the sub-divisions where the Noone people are present as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Noni, Nooni. Dialects: Upper Noone, Lower Noone. Member of the Eastern Beboid subgroup. Lexical similarity: 88% with Ncane [ncr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Nubaca
[baf] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Bokito subdivision, Yangben canton, south of Yangben, Bongo village, 8 quartiers: Puéméné, Galala, Bupili, Buyatolo, Gafogo, Buaya, Ganok, and Nikoss. 4,500 (2007 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bongo, Nu Baca, Southern Yambassa, Yambassa. Dialects: Center Nubaca, Kélendé, Nibiég. No significant dialect differences. Not intelligible with other Yambassa language varieties. Lexical similarity: 59% with Mbule [mlb], 66% with Yangben [yav], 55% with Elip [ekm], and 58% with Mmaala [mmu] (2015 G. Boyd). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.621). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nugunu
[yas] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Ombessa and Bokito subdivisions, Ombessa area southwest. 35,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Behie, Beke, Gounou, Gunu, Nu Gunu, Ombessa, Yambasa, Yambassa. Dialects: Northern Gunu, Southern Gunu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.622). Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Nyokon
[nvo] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Makénéné subdivision, Nyokon. 3,900 (Guthrie and Tucker 1956). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fung, Hung, Ni Nyo’o, Nyo’on. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tunen [tvu], Nomaande [lem], and Tuotomb [ttf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.45). Comments: Nyokon is the French [fra] version of the local name. The term is accepted by the speakers as the label used in French. It is also the official name of the town where the language is spoken. There is not yet a standardized way to write the autonym. Christian.

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Nyong
[muo] North West region: Ngo-Ketunjia division, Balikumbat subdivision, on Ndop plain in Balikumbat, Baligansin, and Baligashu villages; Mezam division, Santa subdivision, Baligham village. 30,000 in Cameroon (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daganonga, Daganyonga, Mubako, Mumbake, Ndagam, Nyongnepa, Samba Bali. Dialects: None known. They consider themselves the same ethnically as Samba Leko [ndi], but intelligibility is low. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nzakambay
[nzy] North region: Mayo-Rey division, Touboro subdivision, Touboro area. 13,000 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbay, Nzak Mbai, Nzak Mbay, Nzakmbay. Dialects: Gonge (Ngonge). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang.

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Nzanyi
[nja] North region: Mayo-Louti division, Mayo-Oulo subdivision, Doumo area, west of Dourbeye near Nigeria border. 9,000 in Cameroon. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeng, Kobochi, Kobotshi, Mzangyim, Njai, Njanyi, Njegn, Njei, Njeng, Njeny, Nzangi, Zani, Zany. Dialects: Holma. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Oblo
[obl] North region: Bénoué division, Pitoa subdivision, Gobtikéré, Ouro Bé, and Ouro Badjouma areas. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Unclassified.

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Oku
[oku] North West region: Bui division, west Jakiri subdivision, Mt. Oku and Lake Oku areas. 87,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivision where the Oku people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bvukoo, Ebkuo, Ekpwo, Kuo, Ukfwo, Uku. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center. Comments: Distinct from Kuo [xuo] which is Adamawa.

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Oroko
[bdu] South West region: Meme division, southwestern corner of Kumba subdivision, all but eastern edge of Konye subdivision, northern two-thirds of Mbonge subdivision; Ndian division, most of Mundemba subdivision, except eastern edge, most of Ekondo-Titi subdivision, Dikome Balue subdivision. 106,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bakundu, Bakundu-Balue, Oroko-East, Oroko-West. Dialects: Lokundu (Bakundu, Bawo, Bekunde, Kundu, Lakundu, Nkundu), Lolue (Babue, Balue, Barue, Lue, Western Kundu), Mbonge, Ekombe (Bekombo, Ekumbe), Londo (Balondo Ba Diko, Balondo Ba Nanga, Lundu), Longolo (Ngolo), Bima, Lotanga (Batanga, Dotanga), Lokoko (Bakoko, Koko). The Batanga dialect is distinct from Batanga [bnm] (Banoho) and the Batanga dialect of Caka [ckx]; the Bakoko dialect is distinct from Bakoko [bkh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.11). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Osatu
[ost] South West region: Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, southeast of Asumbo. 400 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ihatum, Ossatu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Balo [bqo], 40% with Ipulo [ass] and Caka [ckx], 35% with Mesaka [iyo] and Esimbi [ags]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Pam
[pmn] North region: Mayo-Rey division, south of Tcholliré. 30 (2003 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified.

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Pana
[pnz] North region: Mayo-Rey division, Touboro subdivision. Some urban areas. 2,980 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pani. Dialects: Man. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang. Comments: Man dialect may be a separate language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Parkwa
[pbi] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Mora subdivision, west and southwest of Mora. 30,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gwadi Parekwa, Kudala, Padogo, Padokwa, Paduko, Parekwa, Pawdawkwa, Podogo, Podoko, Podokwo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Podoko. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Peere
[pfe] Adamawa region: Northwestern Tignère subdivision between Tignère and Nigeria border, Faro-and-Déo division; northeast of Banyo, Mayo-Banyo division. 15,000 in Cameroon (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kotofo, Kotopo, Kotpojo, Koutin, Koutine, Kutin, Kutine, Kutinn, Patapori, Peer, Pere, Potopo, Potopore. Dialects: Peer Muure, Zongbi (Djonbi), Dan Muure (Kotofo, Kotopo, Kpotopo, Potopo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Pévé
[lme] North region: Mayo-Rey division, northeast of Tchollire, Bouba-Ndjida Park area. 5,720 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ka’do, Lamé. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Comments: Different from Lame [bma] of Nigeria.

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Pidgin, Cameroon
[wes] Primarily South West and North West regions; Littoral and Centre regions; Douala, Yaoundé, and other urban centers. L2 users: 2,000,000 (1989 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Since 1884 used by police, prisons, urban school children at play. Now the most widespread lingua franca in Cameroon, used by about half the population (Todd and Mühlhäusler 1978). Alternate Names: Cameroon Creole English, Wes Cos. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone and Pidgin English of various West African countries; probably an offshoot of 19th century Krio. Also similar to Sranan [srn] (Todd and Mühlhäusler 1978). Dialect variations. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Pinyin
[pny] North West region: Mezam division, southwest Bamenda subdivision, southwest of Bamenda. 24,600 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bapinyi, Pelimpo. Dialects: None known. Related to Awing [aal], Ngemba [nge], Bafut [bfd], and Mendankwe-Nkwen [mfd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Pol
[pmm] East region: Upper Nyong division, Dimako subdivision, east of Doumé; Lom-and-Djerem division, east of Bélabo. 38,700 in Cameroon (2000). Total users in all countries: 44,130. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Congo Pol, Pomo, Pori, Pul. Dialects: Azom (Asom, Pori Asom), Bobili, Dondi, Mambaya, Pori Kinda (Kinda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kaka (A.92).

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Psikye
[kvj] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, southwest Mokolo subdivision. 40,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Total users in all countries: 52,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamsiki, Kapsiki, Ptsake. Dialects: Psikye (Kamu, Kapsiki), Zlenge. Reportedly similar to Hya [hya] and Kamwe [hig] of Nigeria. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Samba Leko
[ndi] North region: Faro division, between Tchamba and Mayo-Louti river, west of Poli; south Beka subdivision along Nigeria border. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chamba Leeko, Samba. Dialects: Samba Leko (Laeko, Lego, Leko, Lekon, Ndii, Suntai), Deenu (Koola), Bangla, Samba de Wangai, Sampara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Comments: Different from Samba Daka [ccg].

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Sari
[asj] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Misaje subdivision, Ring Road between Misaje and Nkambe; Mbissa, Kamine, and Akweto villages. 7,600 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akweto, Nsari, Pesaa, Saari, Sali. Dialects: None known. Member of the Eastern Beboid subgroup. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ncane [ncr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sharwa
[swq] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, south Bourrah subdivision; North region: Mayo-Louti division. 5,100 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sarwaye, Sherwin, Tchevi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Different from Sarua [swy] (Sarwa) of Chad. Muslim.

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Suga
[sgi] Adamawa region: Faro-and-Déo division, Galim area southwest of Tignère; Mayo-Banyo division, north Banyo subdivision, Sambolabbo area. 10,000 (1985). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baghap, Galim, “Jemjem” (pej.), Nizaa, “Njemnjem” (pej.), “Nyamnyam” (pej.), “Nyemnyem” (pej.), Ssuga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Suga. Comments: Different from Nimbari [nmr] (Nyamnyam) of Cameroon. Sewe may be an alternate name. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Swo
[sox] Centre region: Nyong-and-Mfoumou division, Akonolinga subdivision, Melan and Emvane cantons; East region: Upper Nyong division. 9,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fo, Shwo, Sô, Sso. Dialects: Melan So, Emvane So. Dialects have vocabulary and pronunciation differences, but no reported problem with mutual intelligibility. The Melan Swo dialect has been influenced by Ewondo [ewo] and Bulu [bum]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.82).

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Tibea
[ngy] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, extreme north Ngoro subdivision, northeast of Bafia. 3 villages. 1,400 (1992 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djanti, Minjanti, Ngayaba, Njanti, Nyabea, Zangnte. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.54).

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Tikar
[tik] Adamawa region: Mayo-Banyo division, Bankim subdivision; Centre region: Mbam-and-Kim division, Ngambe-Tikar subdivision, scattered over northwest Yoko and northeast of Foumban; West region: Noun division, Magba subdivision; North West region: Donga-Mantung division, small border area. 110,000 (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Tikar people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndob, Ndome, Tikali, Tikar-East, Tikari, Tingkala. Dialects: Twumwu (Tikar de Bankim, Tumu), Tige (Tikar de Ngambe), Nditam, Kong, Mankim, Gambai, Bandobo. Bandobo may be a separate language. The Bankim call their dialect Twumwu, the Ngambe call theirs Tige. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tikar.

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Tiv
[tiv] South West region: Manyu division, northeast of Akwaya on Nigeria border, Njobo (Njawbaw) village. Few in Cameroon. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Christian.

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To
[toz] North region: Mayo-Rey division, Touboro subdivision. No known L1 speakers in Cameroon. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Total users in all countries: NaN. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified. Comments: An ancient secret male initiation language of the Gbaya.

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Tsuvan
[tsh] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, southeast Bourrah subdivision, northeast of Dourbeye, Tchevi village, 5 quartiers found in an area 10 km in diameter; some in North region: Mayo-Louti division. 2,300 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Matsuvan, Motsuvan, Tchede, Telaki, Teleki, Terki. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8.

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Tuki
[bag] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, on Sanaga river north of Saa; north of Sanaga river between Ombessa and Ntui; a few villages in Mbam-and-Kim division. 26,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bacenga, Baki, Batchenga, Betsinga, Betzinga, Ki, Oki, Osa Nanga, Sanaga. Dialects: Kombe (Bakombe, Tukombe, Wakombe), Tocenga (Bacenga, Cenga, Tiki), Tsinga (Batsingo, Chinga, Tsingo, Tutsingo), Bundum, Tonjo (Boudjou, Bunju), Ngoro (Aki, Tu Ngoro, Uki), Mbere (Bambele, Bamvele, Mbele, Mvele, Tumbele), Cangu (Tucangu). Lexical similarity: 82%–84% with Leti [leo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.601). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tunen
[tvu] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Ndikinimeki and Makénéné subdivisions; Littoral region: Nkam division, Yingui subdivision. 40,000 (1997 J. Mbongue). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1997 J. Mbongue). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banen, Banend, Nen, Penin, Penyin. Dialects: Toboany (Itundu), Tufombo (Logananga, Ndogbang, Ndokbiakat), Alinga (Eling, Tuling), Ndoktuna, Niguessen (Mese, Paningesen, Sese). Reportedly similar to Nyokon [nvo], Nomaande [lem], and Tuotomb [ttf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.44). Comments: Distinct from Pinyin [pny] in the Ngemba group. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Tuotomb
[ttf] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Bafia subdivision, Ndikinemeki area, Bonek village. 1,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bonek, Otomb, Ponek, Tuotom, Tuotomp. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.461).

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Tupuri
[tui] Far North region: Kaélé division, southeast Moulvouday plain east of Kaélé; Mayo-Danay division, Kar-Hay subdivision. 130,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivision where the Tupuri people are present, as of the official 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Total users in all countries: 284,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dema, Honya, Mata, Ndoore, Ndore, Tongoyna, Toubouri, Toupouri, Tuburi, Wina. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Twendi
[twn] Adamawa region: Mayo-Banyo division, north of Bankim, Sanga village. 30 (2000 B. Connell). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cambap. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Konja.

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Usaghade
[usk] South West region: Ndian division, Isanguele subdivision, near the coast. 10,000 in Cameroon (1990 B. Connell). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Isangele, Usakade, Usakedet. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Efik [efi] (1998 B. Connell, Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade.

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Vame
[mlr] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Mora and Tokombéré subdivisions, Southern Mora massif south of Mora. 8,500 (1992 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maslava, Ndreme, Pelasla. Dialects: Ndreme, Hurzo, Pelasla. Pelasla is reportedly more similar to Wuzlam [udl] than the other dialects are. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Pelasla is one of 6 ethnic groups: Pelasla, Mbreme, Ndereme, Afaem, Dumwa, Hurzo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Vemgo-Mabas
[vem] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mabas village on Nigeria border northwest of Mokolo. 1,000 in Cameroon (Hamm 2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Vemgo, Mabas. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang. Comments: Different from Maba of Chad. Maya may be an alternate name. Muslim, Christian.

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Vengo
[bav] North West region: Ngo Ketunjia division, Ndop subdivision, north of Ndop on Ndop plain, Babungo village. 27,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Babungo, Nge, Ngo, Nguu, Ngwa, Pengo, Vengi, Vengoo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Wushi [bse] and Kenswei-Nsei [ndb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, South. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Vute
[vut] Adamawa region: Mayo-Banyo and Djerem divisions near Tibati and Banyo; Centre region: northeast Mbam division; Upper Sanaga division, near Nanga-Eboko and Mbandjok; East region: western Lom-and-Djerem division. 20,000 in Cameroon (1997 L. Lode). 300 in Banyo (1995 B. Connell). Total users in all countries: 21,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ’Abotee, ’Abwetee, Baboute, Bamboute, Boute, Bubure, Bule, Bute, Foute, Luvure, Nbule, Pute, Voute, Voutere, Woute, Wute. Dialects: Bute Bamnyo (Vute de Banyo), Vute Mbanjo (Vute de Mbandjok), Nudoo (Vute de Yangba), Nujum (Vute de Linte), Nduvum (Vute de Tibati), Nugane (Vute de Doume), Kumbere (Vute de Sangbe), Ngoro (Vute de Ngorro). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wandala
[mfi] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, east of Mora, north and northwest in a semicircle, to Nigeria border. 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Total users in all countries: 43,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mandara, Mandara Montagnard, Ndara. Dialects: Kamburwama, Masfeima, Jampalam, Ziogba, Mazagwa, Gwanje, Wandala (Mandara), Mura (Duwe, Kirdi-Mora, Mora Brousse, Mora Massif), Gamargu (Gamergou, Gamergu, Malgo, Malgwa). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara. Comments: Muslim.

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Wawa
[www] Adamawa region: Mayo-Banyo division, Bankim subdivision, west of Banyo, 9 villages: Mbenguedje, Oumyari, Ndi, Gandoua, Yabam, Mbassewa, Kassala, Gaoula, and Dembesse. 3,000 (1991 SIL). 700 in Gandoua dialect (2014 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Gandoua (Gandua), Oumyari, Ndi, Mbengedje. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute. Comments: Muslim.

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Weh
[weh] North West region: Menchum division, Wum Central subdivision, Weh village. 8,000 (1993 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Little dialect variation. Reportedly similar to Aghem [agq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wumboko
[bqm] South West region: Fako division, Buéa subdivision; Meme division, Kumba subdivision. 4,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bamboko, Bambuku, Bomboko, Bumboko, Mboko, Womboko. Dialects: None known. Probably intelligible of Mokpwe [bri], but different enough from Duala [dua] to possibly need separate literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.21).

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Wushi
[bse] North West region: Ngo Ketunjia division, Babessi subdivision, east of Ndop, Babessi village. 25,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babessi, Cho’ Wushike, Pesii, Sii, Vesi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Vengo [bav], Kenswei-Nsei [ndb], and Bamunka [bvm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, South. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Wuzlam
[udl] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Tokombéré subdivision, Wuzlam massif south of Mora. 10,500 (1982 SIL), increasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mizlime, Ouldeme, Udlam, Uldeme, Uzam, Uzlam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yamba
[yam] North West region: Donga-Mantung division, Central Nwa subdivision; plains east of Nwa, Nkongsamba, Bafia. Seasonal immigrants in Mambila plateau, Nigeria. 80,000 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Includes those living outside the area. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bebaroe, Boenga Ko, “Kaka” (pej.), Kakayamba, Mbem, Mbubem, Muzok, Swe’nga. Dialects: Gom, Mfe, Nkot, Ntong, Kwak, Mbem, Ngung, Bom, Sih, Nwa, Ntim, Gamfe, Rom, Gwembe, Saam, Fam, Yang. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Comments: Mbem is reference dialect. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yambeta
[yat] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, northern part of Kon-Yambeta subdivision northwest of Bafia town. 3,700 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Njambeta, Yambetta. Dialects: Nedek (Begi-Nibum, Kibum), Nigii (Nigi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.462). Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Yangben
[yav] Centre region: Mbam-and-Inoubou division, Bokito subdivision, Yangben canton south of Bokito town. 2,300 (1994 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Yambassa, Kalong, Nuasue, Nukalonge, Yambassa. Dialects: Nukalonge, Nutanga, Numende. Reportedly similar to Elip [ekm] and Mmaala [mmu]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Nubaca [baf], 51% with Mbule [mlb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Sanaga (A.62). Comments: Nukalonge is the reference dialect.

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Yasa
[yko] South region: Océan division, Campo and Kribi subdivisions, on the coast near Equatorial Guinea, 15 villages. 1,490 in Cameroon (2000). Ethnic population: 3,000. Total users in all countries: 2,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bongwe, Iyasa, Lyaasa, Maasa, Yassa. Dialects: Avandje, Iyassa. Yasa (primarily in Cameroon) is closely related to Kombe [nui] and its dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.33). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yemba
[ybb] West region: Menoua division, Dschang area; South West region: Lebialem division. 300,000 (1992 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atsang-Bangwa, Bafou, Bamileke-Yemba, Dschang, Tchang. Dialects: Yemba, Foreke Dschang (Dschang, Tchang). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke. Comments: Part of a language subgroup which includes Ngwe [nwe] and Ngiemboon [nnh]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yeni
[yei] Adamawa region: Nyalang area north of Mayo Darle village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Apparently all that remains of the language is a song, known by Sandani (Kwanja [knp]) speakers.

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Yukuben
[ybl] North West region: Menchum division, west of Furu-Awa, near Nigeria border. 950 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayikiben, Balaabe, Balaaben, Boritsu, Gohum, Nyikobe, Nyikuben, Uuhum, Uuhum-Gigi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb.

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Zhoa
[zhw] North West region: Menchum division, Fungom subdivision. 1 village. 2,000 (Troyer et al 1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Weh [weh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zizilivakan
[ziz] Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Bourrah subdivision, near Nigeria border. 200 in Cameroon (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Àmzírív, Fali of Jilbu, Ziliva, Ziziliveken. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8.

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Zulgo-Gemzek
[gnd] Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Tokombéré subdivision, east edge of Mandara mountains, north of Maroua. 16 villages. 26,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gemjek, Guemshek, Zulgo. Dialects: Gemzek (Gaduwa), Mineo (Minew), Zulgo (Zelgwa, Zoulgo, Zulgwa). Slight dialect differences between villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Comments: The Mbuko [mqb], Muyang [muy], and Mada [mxu] languages are in the surrounding area. Christian, traditional religion.

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Zumaya
[zuy] Far North region: Diamaré division, Maroua subdivision, Ouro-Lamorde. No known L1 speakers (2006). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

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