Costa Rica

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Boruca
[brn] Puntarenas province: south coast between Golfito and Playa Bonita. 140 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 2,590 (2011 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (1999, Constitutional amendment, Article 76), Constitutional Court ruling April 2014 recognizing indigenous languages’ status. Alternate Names: Boruka, Borunca, Brunca, Brunka, Burunca. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A.

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Bribri
[bzd] Limón province: Talamanca cantón, along Lari, Telire, and Uren rivers; Puntarenas province: Buenos Aires cantón. 7,000 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 12,800 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1999, Constitutional Amentment, Article 76), Constitutional Court ruling April 2014 recognizing indigenous languages’ status. Alternate Names: Talamanca. Dialects: Salitre-Cabagra, Amubre-Katsi, Coroma. Reportedly most similar to, but unintelligible with Cabécar [cjp], Maleku Jaika [gut], and Teribe [tfr]. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Viceitic.

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Cabécar
[cjp] Cartago, Limón, Puntarenas, San José provinces: Turrialba region. 11,100 (2011 census). 2,000 monolinguals (2015 M. Porras). The only language in Costa Rica with monolingual speakers, mostly women (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 12,700 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chirripó. Dialects: Chirripó, Telire, Estrella, Ujarrás. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Viceitic. Comments: Identified historically with Huetares.

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Costa Rican Sign Language
[csr] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Older and younger dialects differ due to influence from ASL [ase] starting in the 1970s (2008 C. Ramirez). Lexical similarity: 60% with ASL [ase]. Classification: Sign language.

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Limón Creole English
[jam] Limón province: East of San José, principally railroad area between Limón and Siquirres, road south of Limón. 55,100 in Costa Rica (1986). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Limonese Creole, Southwestern Caribbean Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jamaican migrants settled in Limón and Panama middle of the 19th century, so those varieties are similar. Some say they do not understand Islander Creole English [icr] of San Andrés.

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Maléku Jaíka
[gut] Alajuela province: Tonjibe and Margarita reservations; northern lowlands. 750 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,070 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2014, Reforma del Subsistema de Educación Indígena N° 37801-MEP). Alternate Names: Guatuso. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Votic.

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Ngäbere
[gym] Puntarenas province. 2,840 in Costa Rica (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,650 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1999, Constitutional Amendment, Article 76), Constitutional Court ruling April 2014 recognizing indigenous languages’ status. Alternate Names: Guaymí. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Guaymiíc.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Heredia province: Sarapiqui area. 2,000 in Costa Rica (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 4,440,000 in Costa Rica (2013). L2 users: 89,600 in Costa Rica (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1949, Constitution, Article 76). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Teribe
[tfr] Puntarenas province: near Boruca Reservation. 130 in Costa Rica (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,270 (2011 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (1999, Constitutional Amendment, Article 76), Constitutional Court ruling April 2014 recognizing indigenous languages’ status. Alternate Names: Naso, Terraba. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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