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Alemannic
[gsw] Baden-Württemberg state. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alemannisch. Dialects: Low Alemannisch, High Alemannisch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bavarian
[bar] Bayern state: Regensburg north to Nuremburg. 6,000,000 in Germany (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bairisch, Bavarian Austrian, Bayerisch. Dialects: Central Bavarian, North Bavarian, South Bavarian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Dialect: North Bavarian.

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Danish
[dan] Schleswig-Holstein state: South Schleswig. 21,000 in Germany (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dänisch, Dansk. Dialects: Southern Jutish (Sønderjysk). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian, Danish-Swedish, Danish-Riksmal, Danish. Comments: There are Danish schools.

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Frisian, Northern
[frr] Schleswig-Holstein state: coastal area between Eider river south and Wiedau river north; adjacent islands Föhr, Amrum, Sylt, Norstrand, Pellworm, the ten islands of Halligen group, and Helgoland. 10,000 (Stephens 1976). Ethnic population: 60,000 (Stephens 1976). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nordfriesisch. Dialects: Mooringer (Mainland Frisian, Mooringa), Ferring (Fohr-Amrum), Sölreng (Sylt), Helgoland. Ferring dialect is actively used. Not intelligible to East Frisian Low Saxon [frs] of Germany or Frisian [fry] of the Netherlands except by a few educated bilingual speakers of Frisian. Lexical similarity: 70% between the Mooringer dialect and Standard German [deu], 55% with English [eng], 66% with East Frisian Old Saxon [frs], the Föhr dialect has 69% with Standard German, 62% with English, 68% with Frisian [fry], 73% with East Frisian Low Saxon, 86% with the Mooringer dialect, 91% with the Amrum dialect; the Sylt dialect has 64% with Standard German, 61% with English, 79% with the Mooringer dialect, 85% with the Föhr dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Frisian. Comments: Education is in Standard German [deu] only. Commerce and religious services in German.

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German Sign Language
[gsg] Scattered. 80,000 (2014 German Deaf Association). 80,000 signers (2014 German Deaf Association). 200,000 signers (2014 EUD). 395,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Disability Equality Act, Section 6, paragraph 1). Alternate Names: Deutsche Gebärdensprache, DGS. Dialects: Many regional lexical variations. Dialects in eastern and western Germany are similar, with differences comparable to those between northern and southern regions (Hessmann 1992). Some similarity to French [fsl] and other European sign languages. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 500 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Teachers of the Deaf have to complete a 5-year program at one of 5 universities. Two nationwide associations of professionals in deaf education (Müller 2012). Taught as L2. Christian.

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German, Standard
[deu] Widespread. 69,800,000 in Germany (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 8,000,000 in Germany (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 129,601,230 (as L1: 76,912,230; as L2: 52,689,000). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Deutsch, Tedesco. Dialects: Major related varieties are Bavarian [bar], Schwäbian [swg], Alemannisch [gsw], Mainfränkisch [vmf], Hessisch, Palatinian, Rheinfränkisch, Westfälisch [wep], Saxonian, Thuringian, Brandenburgisch, and Low Saxon [nds]. Many varieties are not mutually intelligible. Our present treatment is incomplete. Standard German is one High German variety, developed from the chancery of Saxony, gaining acceptance as the written standard in the 16th and 17th centuries. High German refers to dialects and languages in the upper Rhine region. Lexical similarity: 60% with English [eng], 29% with French [fra]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Based equally on East Upper German and East Middle German. Christian.

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Kölsch
[ksh] Nordrhein-Westfalen state: Cologne (Köln) area. 250,000 (1997 H. Jakobs). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Ripuarian Franconian. Comments: Christian.

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Limburgish
[lim] Nordrhein-Westfalen state: Cleves, Aachen, Viersen, Heinsberg. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Limberger, Limbourgeois, Limburgan, Limburgian, Limburgic, Limburgs, Limburgs Plat. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Rhenisch Franconian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Luxembourgish
[ltz] Rheinland-Pfalz state: Bitburg area. Few in Germany. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Letzburgisch, Lëtzebuergesch, Luxemburgian, Moselle Franconian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian.

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Mainfränkisch
[vmf] Hessen state: mostly River Main area, east of Mainz and Frankfurt. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Franconian, Eastern, Ostfränkisch, Upper Franconian. Dialects: None known. Approximately 40% inherently intelligible with Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German.

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Pfaelzisch
[pfl] Rheinland-Pfalz state: Southwest Palatinate, Rheinpfalz. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pfälzisch, Pfälzische. Dialects: Various dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Rhenisch Franconian. Comments: Literature.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Rheinland-Pfalz state: east of Saarbrucken; Hessen state: south of Frankfurt; northwest Baden-Württemberg State. 90,000 in Germany (1996 R. Epp). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Plautdietsch-Freunde is an association in Germany for documentation and promotion of Plautdietsch.

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Polish
[pol] Sachsen and Brandenburg states: Silesia area; Nordrhein-Westfalen state: Ruhr area. 241,000 in Germany. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Polnisch, Polski. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Niedersachsen and Hamburg states: colonies south. 80,000 in Germany (2000). Ethnic population: 200,000. Total users in all countries: 210,390. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes, Sinte, Sinti, Sinto-Manush, Ziguener. Dialects: Gadschkene, Estracharia, Krantiki, Kranaria, Eftawagaria, Praistiki. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Seminomadic. Christian.

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Saterfriesisch
[stq] Niedersachsen state: Saterland, Cloppenburg district, Strücklingen, Ramsloh, and Scharrel towns. 2,000 (2015 A. Remmers). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Friesen, Saterfriesen, Saterfriesiesch, Saterlandic, Saterlandic Frisian, Saterländisch. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of Frisian [fry] and Northern Frisian [frr] (2015 A. Remmers). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Frisian. Comments: Christian.

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Saxon, East Frisian Low
[frs] Niedersachsen state: Ostfriesland, Lower Saxony, Emden and Oldenburg towns area; Saterland, Jever, and Butjadingen. 200,000 (2015 A. Remmers). No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ostfriesisch, Ostfriesisch-Niederdeutsch. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of Frisian [fry] of the Netherlands or Northern Frisian [frr] (1978 E. Matteson) or Saterfriesisch [stq] (2001 W. Smidt). Lexical similarity: 70% with Low Saxon [nds], 60%–70% with Dutch [nld], 20%–30% with Standard German [deu] (2015 A. Remmers). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon.

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Saxon, Low
[nds] Niedersachsen state: north of a line from Aachen to Frankfurt an der Oder. 1,000. 10,000,000 understand it in Germany, but many fewer are native speakers (1996 R. Hahn). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Low German, Nedderdütsch, Neddersassisch, Nedersaksisch, Niederdeutsch, Niedersächsisch, Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch. Dialects: Northern Low Saxon (North Low Saxon), Eastphalian (Ostfaelisch, Ostfälisch), Holsteinisch (Holsatian), Mecklenburg-Anterior Pomerania (Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch, Pomeranian), Mark-Brandenburg (East Prussian, Maerkisch-Brandenburgisch, Margravian, Märkisch-Brandenburgisch), Sleswickian, Westphalian. Listed dialects are in Germany. The first 3 dialects listed are Western Low Saxon, the other 2 are Eastern Low Saxon. Not intelligible to speakers of Standard German [deu]. A direct descendant of Old Saxon, related to English [eng]. 20 to 30 dialects with differing inherent intelligibility, depending on geographic distance. They did not experience the second consonantal shift of the 8th and 9th centuries (1976 J. Thiessen). Modern forms have been largely suppressed until recently and have received much Dutch [nld] or Frisian influence, depending on the area. Low Saxon varieties are listed separately in the Netherlands, where they have official status. Pomerano is used in Latin America. Westphalian [wep] and Plautdietsch [pdt] also have separate entries. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Printed fairly widely outside Europe, particularly in North and Latin America, Australia, Southern Africa, and Eastern Europe (Siberia, Kazakhstan).

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Saxon, Upper
[sxu] Sachsen state: Dresden, Leipzig, Chemnitz; Sachsen-Anhalt state: Halle. 2,000,000 (1998 A. Thomsen). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Erzgebirgisch, Hessian (Hessisch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Sorbian, Lower
[dsb] Brandenburg state: Niederlausitz (Dolna Luzica), Cottbus (Chósebuz) main town; ethnic group in over 60 towns and villages. 6,670 in Germany (Salminen 2007). 20,000–30,000 total Sorbian, one-third in lower Lusatia, two-thirds in upper Lusatia (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 50,000. Total users in all countries: 6,860. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bas Sorabe, Delnoserbski, Dolnoserbski, Lluzykie, Lower Lusatian, Lusatian, Luzycki, Niedersorbisch, Wendish. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Sorbian. Comments: Sorbian has lost much of its former public support after the unification of Germany. Many Sorbian schools have been closed (Salminen 2007).

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Sorbian, Upper
[hsb] Sachsen state: East Bautzen (Budysin), and Kamenz; also in Brandenburg state. 13,300 in Germany (Salminen 2007). 20,000–30,000 total Sorbian, one-third in lower Lusatia and two-thirds in upper Lusatia (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 45,000. Total users in all countries: 13,490. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Haut Sorabe, Hornjoserbski, Hornoserbski, Obersorbisch, Upper Lusatian, Wendish. Dialects: Bautzen, Kamenz. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Sorbian. Comments: Sorbian has lost much of its former public support after the unification of Germany. Many Sorbian schools have been closed (Salminen 2007).

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Swabian
[swg] Baden-Württemberg state; Bayern state: Schwaben area. Ethnic population: 820,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Schwäbisch, Schwaebisch, Suabian. Dialects: None known. A variety of Alemannic [gsw]. More distinct than Bavarian [bar] from Standard German [deu]. 40% inherently intelligible of Standard German (estimate). Swabian of the Black Forest is different from Swabian in the Alb (Kloss 1978). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic.

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Westphalien
[wep] Nordrhein-Westfalen state: south of Dortmund. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Westfaelisch, Westfälisch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: See also Low Saxon [nds] entry.

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Yeniche
[yec] Baden-Württemberg state; scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: German Travellers, Jenisch, Yenishe. Dialects: None known. German with a heavy cryptolectal lexical influsion from Traveller Danish [rmd], Western Yiddish [yih], Vlax Romani [rmy], and Hebrew [heb]. Classification: Mixed language, German-Yiddish-Romani-Rotwelsch. Comments: A mixed language of certain urban nomadic groups. Not Gypsies. Possibly arose as a result of those who were dispossessed due to the Hanseatic laws (1999 I. Hancock). A distinct ethnic group.

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Yiddish, Western
[yih] Widespread. 5,000 in Germany. Ethnic population: 49,200 (2000). Total users in all countries: 5,400. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Judeo-German, Yiddish, Yidish. Dialects: Southwestern Yiddish, Midwestern Yiddish, Northwestern Yiddish. Originated in Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Alsace (France), Czechoslovakia, and western Hungary. A member of macrolanguage Yiddish [yid]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Jewish.

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