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Alemannic
[gsw] Southwest, south Baden-Wuerttemberg. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alemannisch Dialects: High Alemannisch, Low Alemannisch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

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Bavarian
[bar] North Bavarian: north of Regensburg, to Nuremburg and Western Bohemia, Czech Republic; Central Bavarian: Alps and Salzburg; South Bavarian: Bavarian Alps, Tyrol, Styria, including the Heanzian dialect of Burgenland. 6,000,000 in Germany (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bairisch, Bavarian Austrian, Bayerisch Dialects: Central Bavarian, North Bavarian, South Bavarian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian

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Danish
[dan] South Schleswig. 21,000 in Germany (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dänisch, Dansk Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian, Danish-Swedish, Danish-Riksmal, Danish Comments: There are Danish schools.

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Frankish
[frk] No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Fränkisch, Old Frankish Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Eastern Franconian Comments: Different from present day German language varieties.

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Frisian, Northern
[frr] Schleswig-Holstein, coastal between Eider river south and Wiedau river north; adjacent islands Föhr, Amrum, Sylt, Norstrand, Pellworm, the ten islands of Halligen group, and Helgoland. 10,000 (Stephens 1976). Ethnic population: 60,000 (Stephens 1976). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nordfriesisch Dialects: Ferring (Fohr-Amrum), Helgoland, Mooringer (Mainland Frisian, Mooringa), Sölreng (Sylt). Ferring dialect is actively used. Not intelligible to East Frisian Low Saxon [frs] of Germany or Frisian [fry] of the Netherlands except by a few educated bilingual speakers of Frisian. Lexical similarity: 70% between the Mooringer dialect and Standard German [deu], 55% with English [eng], 66% with East Frisian Old Saxon [frs], the Föhr dialect has 69% with Standard German, 62% with English, 68% with Frisian [fry], 73% with East Frisian Low Saxon, 86% with the Mooringer dialect, 91% with the Amrum dialect; the Sylt dialect has 64% with Standard German, 61% with English, 79% with the Mooringer dialect, 85% with the Föhr dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Frisian Comments: Education is in Standard German only. Commerce and religious services in German.

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German Sign Language
[gsg] West. 50,000 (Van Cleve 1986). 22,000 members of German Deaf Association. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Deutsche Gebärdensprache, Dgs Dialects: Many regional lexical variations. Some similarity to French [fsl] and other European sign languages. Relation to sign languages of eastern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland is not known. More than one sign language used in eastern Germany. Classification: Deaf sign language

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German, Standard
[deu] Widespread. 69,800,000 in Germany (ELDIA 2012). Population total all countries: 78,245,280. L2 users: 8,000,000 in Germany (ELDIA 2012). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Deutsch, Tedesco Dialects: Major related varieties are Bavarian [bar], Schwäbian [swg], Alemannisch [gsw], Mainfränkisch [vmf], Hessisch, Palatinian, Rheinfränkisch, Westfälisch [wep], Saxonian, Thuringian, Brandenburgisch, and Low Saxon [nds]. Many varieties are not mutually intelligible. Our present treatment is incomplete. Standard German is one High German variety, developed from the chancery of Saxony, gaining acceptance as the written standard in the 16th and 17th centuries. High German refers to dialects and languages in the upper Rhine region. Lexical similarity: 60% with English [eng], 29% with French [fra]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German Comments: Based equally on East Upper German and East Middle German. Christian.

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Kabardian
[kbd] 14,000 in Germany (2005 Circassian Association). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Kölsch
[ksh] Cologne (Köln) area. 250,000 (1997 H. Jakobs). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Ripuarian Franconian Comments: Christian.

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Limburgish
[lim] German-administered Limburg: Cleves, Aachen, Viersen, Heinsberg. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Limberger, Limburgan, Limburgian, Limburgic, Limburgs Plat Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Rhenisch Franconian Comments: Christian.

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Luxembourgish
[ltz] West, Bitburg area. Few in Germany. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Letzburgisch, Lëtzebuergesch, Luxemburgian, Moselle Franconian Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian

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Mainfränkisch
[vmf] Mostly River Main area, east of Mainz and Frankfurt. 4,910,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Franconian, Eastern, Ostfränkisch, Upper Franconian Dialects: None known. Approximately 40% inherently intelligible with Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German

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Pfaelzisch
[pfl] Southwest Palatinate, Rheinpfalz. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pfälzisch, Pfälzische Dialects: Various dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Rhenisch Franconian Comments: Literature.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] 90,000 in Germany (1996 R. Epp). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Plautdietsch-Freunde is an association in Germany for documentation and promotion of Plautdietsch.

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Polish
[pol] 241,000 in Germany. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Polnisch, Polski Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] 3,500 in Germany. 2,000 Arlija and 1,500 Dzambazi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Arlija (Erli), Dzambazi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Muslim.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Hamburg; colonies south. 80,000 in Germany (2000). Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rommanes, Sinte, Sintí, Ziguener Dialects: Eftawagaria, Estracharia, Gadschkene, Kranaria, Krantiki, Praistiki. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Seminomadic. Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 5,000 in Germany. 2,500 Lovari, 2,500–4,000 Kalderash. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kalderash, Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Saterfriesisch
[stq] Saterland, East Frisia, Strücklingen, Ramsloh, and Scharrel towns. 1,000 (Salminen 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Saterfriesiesch, Saterlandic, Saterlandic Frisian, Saterländisch Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of East Frisian Low Saxon [frs]. Related to Frisian [fry] and Northern Frisian [frr]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Frisian Comments: Ethnic group name is Saterfriesen or Friesen. Christian.

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Saxon, East Frisian Low
[frs] Ostfriesland, Lower Saxony, Emden and Oldenburg towns area; Saterland, Jeverland, and Butjadingen. Used only in Saterland, Eastern Frisia (1998). 2,000 (2003). Population total all countries: 5,120. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ostfriesisch Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of Frisian [fry] of the Netherlands or Northern Frisian [frr] (1978 E. Matteson) or Saterfriesisch [stq] (2001 W. Smidt). Lexical similarity: 77% with Standard German [deu], 74% with Frisian [fry]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon

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Saxon, Low
[nds] North; Lower Rhine Region, Aachen to Wittenberg. 1,000. 10,000,000 understand it in Germany, but many fewer are native speakers (1996 R. Hahn). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Low German, Nedderdütsch, Neddersassisch, Nedersaksisch, Niedersaechsisch, Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch Dialects: Eastphalian (Ostfaelisch, Ostfälisch), Holsteinisch, Mark-Brandenburg (East Prussian, Maerkisch-Brandenburgisch, Märkisch-Brandenburgisch), Mecklenburg-Anterior Pomerania (Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch), Northern Low Saxon. Listed dialects are in Germany. The first 3 dialects listed are Western Low Saxon, the other 2 are Eastern Low Saxon. Not intelligible to speakers of Standard German [deu]. A direct descendant of Old Saxon, related to English [eng]. 20 to 30 dialects with differing inherent intelligibility, depending on geographic distance. They did not experience the second consonantal shift of the 8th and 9th centuries (1976 J. Thiessen). Modern forms have been largely suppressed until recently and have received much Dutch [nld] or Frisian influence, depending on the area. Low Saxon varieties are listed separately in the Netherlands, where they have official status. Pomerano is used in Latin America. Westphalian [wep] and Plautdietsch [pdt] also have separate entries. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Printed fairly widely outside Europe, particularly in North and Latin America, Australia, Southern Africa, and Eastern Europe (Siberia, Kazakhstan).

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Saxon, Upper
[sxu] East, southeast, Sachsen with Dresden, Leipzig, Chemnitz, Halle in Sachsen-Anhalt. 2,000,000 (1998 A. Thomsen). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Erzgebirgisch, Hessian (Hessisch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Sorbian, Lower
[dsb] East, Niederlausitz (Dolna Luzica), Cottbus (Chósebuz) main town. Ethnic group has over 60 towns and villages. 6,670 in Germany (Salminen 2007). 20,000–30,000 total Sorbian, one-third in lower Lusatia, two-thirds in upper Lusatia (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 6,860. Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bas Sorabe, Delnoserbski, Lluzykie, Lower Lusatian, Lusatian, Luzycki, Niedersorbisch, Wendish Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Sorbian Comments: Sorbian has lost much of its former public support after the unification of Germany. Many Sorbian schools have been closed (Salminen 2007).

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Sorbian, Upper
[hsb] East, Upper Saxony State, Bautzen (Budysin), and Kamenz. 13,300 in Germany (Salminen 2007). 20,000–30,000 total Sorbian, one-third in lower Lusatia and two-thirds in upper Lusatia (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 13,490. Ethnic population: 45,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Haut Sorabe, Hornjoserbski, Hornoserbski, Obersorbisch, Upper Lusatian, Wendish Dialects: Bautzen, Kamenz. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Sorbian Comments: Sorbian has lost much of its former public support after the unification of Germany. Many Sorbian schools have been closed (Salminen 2007).

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Swabian
[swg] Southwest, Wuerttemberg; east Baden-Wuerttemberg; Schwaben; west Bavaria. 819,000 (2006). Ethnic population: 820,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Schwäbisch, Schwaebisch, Suabian Dialects: None known. A variety of Alemannic [gsw]. More distinct than Bavarian [bar] from Standard German [deu]. 40% inherently intelligible of Standard German (estimate). Swabian of the Black Forest is different from Swabian in the Alb (Kloss 1978). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

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Westphalien
[wep] Northwest, Westphalia. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Westfaelisch, Westfälisch Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: See also Low Saxon [nds] entry.

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Yeniche
[yec] 16,000 in Germany (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: German Travellers, Jenisch, Yenishe Dialects: None known. German with a heavy cryptolectal lexical influsion from Traveller Danish [rmd], Western Yiddish [yih], Vlax Romani [rmy], and Hebrew [heb]. Classification: Mixed language, German-Yiddish-Romani-Rotwelsch Comments: A mixed language of certain urban nomadic groups. Not Gypsies. Possibly arose as a result of those who were dispossessed due to the Hanseatic laws (1999 I. Hancock). A distinct ethnic group.

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Yiddish, Western
[yih] Southwestern dialect is south; Midwestern is central; Northwestern is in north. 5,000 in Germany. Population total all countries: 5,400. Ethnic population: 49,200 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Judeo-German, Yiddish, Yidish Dialects: Midwestern Yiddish, Northwestern Yiddish, Southwestern Yiddish. Originated in Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Alsace (France), Czechoslovakia, and western Hungary. A member of macrolanguage Yiddish [yid]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish Comments: Jewish.

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