Ecuador

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Achuar-Shiwiar
[acu] Pastaza Province, Pastaza canton, Montalvo and Simón Bolívar communities; Morona-Santiago Province, Taisha canton, Huasaga. Between Macuma and Conambo rivers, north to Copataza, Montalvo, and Conambo communities, south to the Peru border. 4,000 in Ecuador (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achual, Achuale, Achuar, Achuara, Jivaro, Maina, Mayna Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awa-Cuaiquer
[kwi] Extreme north, Andes west slopes, Colombia-Ecuador border, Esmeraldes, Carchi, and Imbabura provinces. 1,000 in Ecuador (Civallero 2008), decreasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Most monolinguals are women or children under age 16. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2007 L. Henriksen). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa, Cuaiquer Classification: Barbacoan, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Awa and Înkal Awa, both in Ecuador and Colombia.

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Chachi
[cbi] North coastal jungle, Esmeraldas Province, Cayapas river and tributaries (Onzole, Canandé, Sucio, Cojimíes, and others). 9,500 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Cayapa” (pej.), Cha’ Palaachi, Cha’palaa, Cha’palaachi Classification: Barbacoan, Southern Comments: Ethnonym: Chachi (sg.), Chachilla (pl.). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cofán
[con] Colombia and Ecuador border areas, Napo Province near Santa Rosa de Sucumbios, and down Aguarico river 130 km; Sucumbios Province. 5 main centers. 900 in Ecuador (2001 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,400. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: A’i, Kofán, Kofane Dialects: None known. Variously classified as Chibchan with Western Tucanoan features (Ferndon, Borman), Barbacoan (J. Mason), or Jivaroan (Ruhlen 1987). Some Witotoan influences. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Colorado
[cof] Southeastern Pinchincha Province, along Chihuepe, Baba, Tahuazo and Poste rivers. 2,300 (2000 SIL), increasing. Some monolingual in remote communities. Ethnic population: 2,300 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tsachila, Tsafiki, Tsafiqui Dialects: None known. Reportedly lexically similar to Chachi [cbi] and Awa-Cuaiquer [kwi], but major differences between the languages in phonology, syntax and grammatical structure (2011 W. Largo). Classification: Barbacoan, Southern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Tsachi (sg.), tsachila (pl.). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ecuadorian Sign Language
[ecs] 231,000 (2011 Consejo Nacional de Discapacidades). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas de Ecuador, LSEC Dialects: Regional variation between coastal dialect (centered in Guayaquil) and sierra dialect (centered in Quito). Ecuadorian deaf community reports variation based on age. Variant used by young signers shows borrowing from American Sign Language [ase] (30% of signs) and Spanish Sign Language [ssp] (20% of sign). (Eberle, Parks, Eberle and Parks 2012). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Instituto Nacional de Audición y Lenguaje, located in Quito, the largest deaf school in Ecuador, regards LSEC as the natural language and first language of deaf people in Ecuador, while Spanish [spa] is their second. Ecuadorian Sign Language has the most regular contact with sign languages from Peru, Colombia, and the United States. (Eberle, Parks, Eberle and Parks 2012).

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Epena
[sja] Northern Pacific coast, Borbón town. 250 in Ecuador (2002 N. Wiebe). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cholo, Emberá-Saija, Epená, Epéna Pedée, Epená Saija, Saija, Southern Embera, Southern Empera Dialects: Basurudo. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá

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Media Lengua
[mue] Cotopaxi Province, a few villages. 1,000 (1999 P. Bakker). L1 and L2 speakers. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Mixed language, Spanish-Quechua Comments: Quechua grammatical system with Spanish vocabulary.

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Quichua, Calderón Highland
[qud] Pichincha Province, Quito, Calderón and Cayambe areas. 25,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 35,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Calderón Quichua, Cayambe Quichua, Pichincha Quichua Dialects: None known. Distinct from Chimborazo [qug], Imbabura [qvi], and Salasaca [qxl]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Quichua, Cañar Highland
[qxr] Southern highlands, Cañar Province. 100,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical differences and a strong sense of linguistic and cultural identity. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Chimborazo Highland
[qug] Central highlands, Chimborazo and Bolívar provinces. 800,000 (2010 UBS). High percentage of monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Imbabura Highland
[qvi] Northern highlands, Imbabura Province. 150,000 (Gómez-Rendón 2007). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Imbabura Quichua, Otavalo Quichua Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Loja Highland
[qvj] Northern Loja Province, in southern highlands. Many in Zamora. 30,500 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Loja Quichua, Saraguro Quichua Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Cañar Highland Quichua [qxr]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Trend to see Unified Quichua as proper grammar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Eastern jungle along Napo, Aguarico, and Putomayo rivers, concentrated near schools. 14,000 in Ecuador (2009), increasing. 800 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ingano, Lowland Napo Quichua, Napo Quichua Dialects: Santa Rosa Quechua. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Ingano is a name for all lowland Quichua. Locations along the Putomayo River not confirmed. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Northern Pastaza
[qvz] Pastaza Province, eastern jungle along Bobonaza and Conambo rivers. 8,000 in Ecuador (2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 10,000. 300 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alama, Bobonaza Quichua, Canelos Quichua, Pastaza Quichua, Sarayacu Quichua Dialects: Tigre Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Distinct from Southern Pastaza Quechua [qup] of Peru. Spanish [spa] is used for education. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Salasaca Highland
[qxl] Tungurahua Province, Salasaca area, 17 towns south and east of Ambato. Dialects in Cotopaxi and throughout Tungurahua. 14,300 (2000). 3,580 monolinguals. Children 0–5 and older adults. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Salasaca Quichua, Tungurahua Highland Quichua, Tungurahua Quichua Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Lexically distinct from Chimborazo [qug], Imbabura [qvi], and Calderón [qud]. Population growing in the Galápagos Islands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Tena Lowland
[quw] Eastern jungle, Tena, Arajuno, Shandia area. 20,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Napo Kichwa, Yumbo Dialects: None known. Napo [qvo], Pastaza [qvz] and Tena [quw] Quichua understand each other’s spoken language, but not written texts. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Notable differences in vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Secoya
[sey] Northeastern jungle, Aguarico, Cuyabeno, and Eno rivers, near Colombian border. 550 in Ecuador (2007 M. Johnson). Population total all countries: 1,230. A few elderly monolinguals (2007 M. Johnson). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Angotero, Ecuadorian Siona. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Shuar
[jiv] Between Pastaza and Marañón rivers, east of Cuenca City. 35,000 (2007 CODENPE). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Morona Santiago Province (2008, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Chiwaro, “Jibaro” (pej.), Jivaro, Shuara, Xivaro Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro Comments: Different from Achuar Jívaro [acu] of Peru. Preferred ethnic autonym: Shuar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Siona
[snn] Along Shushufindi, Eno, Aguarico, and Cuyabeno rivers, in Biaña, Puerto Bolívar and Orawaya communities. 300 in Ecuador (2000 CODENPE). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baicoca Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje

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Spanish
[spa] 13,200,000 in Ecuador (2011). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2008, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: Christian.

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Tetete
[teb] Near Colombia border, eastern Cofán jungle area. No known L1 speakers. Only 3 ethnic group members reported in 1969 (SIL). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Secoya [sey] but intelligible only with difficulty. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan

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Waorani
[auc] Eastern jungle between Napo and Curaray rivers. 1,650 (2004). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Auca” (pej.), Huaorani, Sabela, Waodani Classification: Language isolate Comments: “Auca”, non-Quichua, in Quichua. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Záparo
[zro] Pastaza Province, Peru border, between Curaray and Bobonaza rivers. 5 (2007 UNESCO). About 20 elderly Záparo still have some variable degree of knowledge of the language (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (2007 UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kayapwe, Sápara, Zápara Classification: Zaparoan, Záparo Comments: Distinct from Andoa [anb] (Shimagae) of Peru.

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