Ecuador

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Achuar-Shiwiar
[acu] Pastaza Province, Pastaza canton, Montalvo and Simón Bolívar communities; Morona-Santiago Province, Taisha canton, Huasaga. Between Macuma and Conambo rivers, north to Copataza, Montalvo, and Conambo communities, south to the Peru border. 4000 in Ecuador (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achual, Achuale, Achuar, Achuara, Jivaro, Maina, Mayna Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awa-Cuaiquer
[kwi] Extreme north, Andes west slopes, Colombia-Ecuador border, Esmeraldes, Carchi, and Imbabura provinces. 1,000 in Ecuador (Civallero 2008), decreasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Most monolinguals are women or children under age 16. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2007 L. Henriksen). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa, Cuaiquer Classification: Barbacoan, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Awa and Înkal Awa, both in Ecuador and Colombia.

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Chachi
[cbi] North coastal jungle, Esmeraldas Province, Cayapas river and tributaries (Onzole, Canandé, Sucio, Cojimíes, and others). 9,500 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Cayapa” (pej.), Cha’ Palaachi, Cha’palaa, Cha’palaachi Classification: Barbacoan, Southern Comments: Ethnonym: Chachi (sg.), Chachilla (pl.). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cofán
[con] Colombia and Ecuador border areas, Napo Province near Santa Rosa de Sucumbios, and down Aguarico river 130 km; Sucumbios Province. 5 main centers. Also in Colombia. 900 in Ecuador (2001 SIL), increasing. Many monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,400. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: A’i, Kofán, Kofane Dialects: Variously classified as Chibchan with Western Tucanoan features (Ferndon, Borman), Barbacoan (J. Mason), or Jivaroan (Ruhlen 1987). Some Witotoan influences. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Colorado
[cof] Southeastern Pinchincha Province, along Chihuepe, Baba, Tahuazo and Poste rivers. 2,300 (2000 SIL), increasing. Some monolingual in remote communities. Ethnic population: 2,300 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tsachila, Tsafiki, Tsafiqui Dialects: Lexically similar to Chachi [cbi] and Awa-Cuaiquer [kwi], but major differences between the languages in phonology, syntax and grammatical structure (2011 W. Largo). Classification: Barbacoan, Southern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Tsachi (sg.), tsachila (pl.). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ecuadorian Sign Language
[ecs] 188,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas de Ecuador, LSEC Dialects: Coastal, Sierra. The Coastal variety appears to be most influenced by the sign variety used in Guayaquil, while the Sierra variety is most influenced by the sign variety used in Quito. Ecuadorian deaf community reports variation based on age, older generation using Old Ecuadorian signs and younger generation using a combination of old Ecuadorian signs, American Sign Language [ase], and signs from Spain. All deaf Ecuadorians appear to be able to negotiate communication and understand each other. Roughly 50% of current Ecuadorian sign language is original to the country, 30% shows influence or borrowings from American Sign Language [ase], and 20% has ties to Spanish Sign Language [ssp]. Majority of deaf Ecuadorians feel that LSEC is unique and distinct from any other country’s sign language. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Ecuadorian Sign Language has the most contact with sign languages from Peru, Colombia, and the United States.

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Epena
[sja] Northern Pacific coast, Borbón town. 250 in Ecuador (2002 N. Wiebe). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cholo, Emberá-Saija, Epená, Epéna Pedée, Epená Saija, Saija, Southern Embera, Southern Empera Dialects: Basurudo. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá

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Media Lengua
[mue] Cotopaxi Province, a few villages. 1,000 (1999 P. Bakker). No monolinguals. L1 and L2 speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Mixed language, Spanish-Quechua Comments: Quechua grammatical system with Spanish vocabulary.

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Quichua, Calderón Highland
[qud] Pichincha Province, Quito, Calderón and Cayambe areas. 25,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 35,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Calderón Quichua, Cayambe Quichua, Pichincha Quichua Dialects: Distinct from Chimborazo [qug], Imbabura [qvi], and Salasaca [qxl]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Quichua, Cañar Highland
[qxr] Southern highlands, Cañar Province. 100,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical differences and a strong sense of linguistic and cultural identity. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Chimborazo Highland
[qug] Central highlands, Chimborazo and Bolívar provinces. 800,000 (2010 UBS). High percentage of monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Imbabura Highland
[qvi] Northern highlands, Imbabura Province. 300,000 (1977 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Otavalo Quichua Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Loja Highland
[qvj] Northern Loja Province, in southern highlands. Many in Zamora. 30,500 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Loja Quichua, Saraguro Quichua Dialects: Similar to Cañar Highland Quichua [qxr]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Trend to see Unified Quichua as proper grammar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Eastern jungle along Napo, Aguarico, and Putomayo rivers, concentrated near schools. 14,000 in Ecuador (2009), increasing. 8% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ingano, Lowland Napo Quichua, Napo Quichua Dialects: Santa Rosa Quechua. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Ingano is a name for all lowland Quichua. Locations along the Putomayo River not confirmed. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Northern Pastaza
[qvz] Pastaza Province, eastern jungle along Bobonaza and Conambo rivers. Also in Peru. 8,000 in Ecuador (2007), decreasing. 15% monolingual. Population total all countries: 10,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alama, Bobonaza Quichua, Canelos Quichua, Pastaza Quichua, Sarayacu Quichua Dialects: Tigre Quechua. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Distinct from Southern Pastaza Quechua [qup] of Peru. Spanish [spa] is used for education. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Salasaca Highland
[qxl] Tungurahua Province, Salasaca area, 17 towns south and east of Ambato. Dialects in Cotopaxi and throughout Tungurahua. 14,300 (2000). About 25% monolingual; children 0–5 and older adults. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Salasaca Quichua, Tungurahua Highland Quichua, Tungurahua Quichua Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Lexically distinct from Chimborazo [qug], Imbabura [qvi], and Calderón [qud]. Population growing in the Galápagos Islands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Tena Lowland
[quw] Eastern jungle, Tena, Arajuno, Shandia area. 20,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Napo Kichwa, Yumbo Dialects: Napo [qvo], Pastaza [qvz] and Tena [quw] Quichua understand each other’s spoken language, but not written texts. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Notable differences in vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Secoya
[sey] Northeastern jungle, Aguarico, Cuyabeno, and Eno rivers, near Colombian border. Also in Peru. 550 in Ecuador (2007 M. Johnson). A few elderly monolinguals (2007 M. Johnson). Population total all countries: 1,230. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Angotero, Ecuadorian Siona. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Shuar
[jiv] Between Pastaza and Marañón rivers, east of Cuenca City. 35,000 (2007 CODENPE). Ethnic population: 15,000 to 50,000 (Montaluisa). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Morona Santiago Province (2008, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Chiwaro, “Jibaro” (pej.), Jivaro, Shuara, Xivaro Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro Comments: Different from Achuar Jívaro [acu] of Peru. Preferred ethnic autonym: Shuar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Siona
[snn] Along Shushufindi, Eno, Aguarico, and Cuyabeno rivers, in Biaña, Puerto Bolívar and Orawaya communities. 300 in Ecuador (2000 CODENPE). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baicoca Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje

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Spanish
[spa] 13,200,000 in Ecuador (2011). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2008, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: Christian.

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Tetete
[teb] Near Colombia border, eastern Cofán jungle area. No remaining speakers. Only 3 ethnic group members reported in 1969 (SIL). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Similar to Secoya [sey] but intelligible only with difficulty. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan

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Waorani
[auc] Eastern jungle between Napo and Curaray rivers. 1,650 (2004). Ethnic population: 1,800–2,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Auca” (pej.), Huaorani, Sabela, Waodani Classification: Language isolate Comments: “Auca”, non-Quichua, in Quichua. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Záparo
[zro] Pastaza Province, Peru border, between Curaray and Bobonaza rivers. 5 (2007 UNESCO). About 20 elderly Záparo still have some variable degree of knowledge of the language (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (2007 UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kayapwe, Sápara, Zápara Classification: Zaparoan, Záparo Comments: Distinct from Andoa [anb] (Shimagae) of Peru.

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