Ethiopia

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Aari
[aiw] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Central North Omo zone, south tip of Ethiopia plateau, near the Hamer-Banna [amf] language area. 235,000 (2007). 129,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aarai, Ara, Ari, Aro, “Shankilla” (pej.), “Shankilligna” (pej.), “Shankillinya” (pej.) Dialects: Bako (Baco), Biyo (Bio), Laydo, Seyki, Shangama, Sido, Wubahamer (Ubamer), Zeddo. Most similar to Gayil [gyl]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Comments: Patrilineal. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Afar
[aar] Eastern lowlands, Afar Region. May be in Somalia. Also in Djibouti, Eritrea. 1,280,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 906,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Population total all countries: 1,379,200. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Afar Region (1994, Constitution, Art 47). Alternate Names: Adal, ’Afar Af, Afaraf, “Danakil” (pej.), “Denkel” (pej.), Qafar Dialects: Aussa, Baadu (Ba’adu), Central Afar, Northern Afar. Related to Saho [ssy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar Comments: Called “Danakil” in Arabic and by others, but that is considered offensive by the Afar. Called Adal in Amharic. Nomadic. Muslim, Christian.

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Alaba-K’abeena
[alw] Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala. Separated by Belate river from Kambatta [ktb] language area. 278,000 (2007 census). 111,000 monolinguals (1994 census). 234,000 Alaba, 52,700 K’abeena (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alaaba, Allaaba, Halaba, K’abena, Qebena Dialects: K’abeena, Wanbasana (Alaba). Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambaata [ktb], 64% with Sidamo [sid], 56% with Libido [liq], 54% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Comments: Muslim.

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Amharic
[amh] North central, Amhara Region; Addis Ababa. Also in Canada, Djibouti, Egypt, Israel, United States. 21,600,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 14,750,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 21,811,560. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1994, Constitution, Art 5(2)), also statutory provincial language. Alternate Names: Abyssinian, Amarigna, Amarinya, Amhara, Ethiopian Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba Comments: People suffer from famines. Christian, Jewish.

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Anfillo
[myo] Anfillo forest, west of Dembi Dolo. 500 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Southern Mao Dialects: Lexical similarity: 53% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, Central

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Anuak
[anu] Southwest, Gambela Region, along Baro, Alworo, and Gilo rivers and Akobo river right bank. Gambela town is center. 88,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 34,300 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Anyuak, Anywa, Anywak, Bar, Burjin, Jambo, Miroy, Moojanga, Nuro, Yambo, Yembo Dialects: Adoyo, Coro, Lul, Opëno. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak Comments: Traditional religion.

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Arbore
[arv] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), South Omo zone, near Lake Chew Bahir. 7,210 (2007 census). 3,900 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arbora, Erbore, Irbore Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana

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Argobba
[agj] Northeast, Amhara, Oromiya, and Afar regions; Rift Valley in Yimlawo, Gusa, Shonke, Berehet, Khayr Amba, Melkajillo, Metehara, and Shewa Robit villages area. 43,700 (2007 census). 100 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Aliyu Amba-Ankober, Shagura, Shonke-T’allaha. The, purest, Argobba is spoken in Shonke and T’allaha. Lexical similarity: with Amharic [amh] 74%–83% with Amba-Ankober and Shagura dialects south, 53% with Shonke-T’allaha north. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba Comments: Muslim.

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Awngi
[awn] Amhara Region, Awi zone, southwest of Lake Tana, scattered in Agew Midir and Metekel. 489,000 (2007 census), increasing. At least two-thirds monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Agau, Agaw, Agew, Agow, Awawar, Awi, Awiya, Damot, Kumfel, “Kunfäl” (pej.), Kunfel, Kwollanyoch Dialects: Dega, Kunfäl (Northern Awngi), Kwolla. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern

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Baiso
[bsw] Halfway between Soddo and Arba Minch, Merab Abaya area, Alge village (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima villages (200); Welege island on Lake Abaya (420), and west shore. 5,480 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alkali, Bayso Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana Comments: Are the minority in all their locations.

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Bambassi
[myf] Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Bambassi area and Didessa river valley. 5,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amam, Bambeshi, Didessa, Fadiro, Northern Mao, Siggoyo Dialects: Bambassi, Didessa. Lexical similarity: 31% with other Omotic languages, 17% with Hozo-Sezo [hoz] (Bender 1983). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, East Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Basketo
[bst] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, plateau west of Bulki. 92,600 (2007 census). 42,800 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Baskatta, Basketto, Mesketo Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Oyda [oyd]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, West Comments: Christian.

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Bench
[bcq] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Mizan Teferi area, Shewa Bench towns. 347,000 (2007 census). 150,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,300 Mer (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dizu, Ghimarra, Gimarra, Gimira Dialects: Bench (Bencho, Benesho), Mer (Mieru), She (Kaba, Sce). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Gimira Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Berta
[wti] Benishangul-Gumuz Region, corner formed by Blue Nile river and Sudan border north of Asosa; Dalati, Sirba Abay area east of Dabus river. Also in Sudan. 187,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census), increasing. 99,700 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 209,000. Ethnic population: 3,450 Fadashi. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Barta, Beni Shangul, Bertha, Burta, Jebelawi, Wetawit Dialects: Bake, Dabuso, Fadashi, Mayu, Shuru, Undu. Probably more than one language. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Berta Comments: ‘Beni Shangul’ is the Arabic name. Muslim.

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Borna
[bwo] Benishangul-Gumuz Region, near Blue Nile river. 37,500 (2007 census). 140 Gamila; 2,280 L2 speakers including 45 Gamila; 18,600 monolinguals including 77 Gamila. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Boro, Bworo, Scinacia, Shinasha Dialects: Amuru, Bulen-Dibat’e, Gamila, Guba, Wambera, Wenbera-Dangur. Related to Kafa [kbr]. Scattered dialect groups. Lexical similarity: 46% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, North Comments: Boro is the ethnic name.

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Burji
[bji] South of Lake Chamo. Also in Kenya. 46,400 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 29,300 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 70,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bambala, Bembala, Daashi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 41% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Bussa
[dox] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, west of Lake Chamo. 19,700 (2007 census). 4,960 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,500 Mashola. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dobase, D’oopace, D’opaasunte, Gobeze, Goraze, Gowase, Lohu, Mashelle, Mashile, Masholle, Mosiye, Musiye, Orase Dialects: There is a dialect chain with Konso-Dirasha-Dobase. Lexical similarity: 78% with Gawwada [gwd], 51% with Konso [kxc], 86% with the Gollango dialect of Gawwada, 80% with the Harso dialect of Gawwada, 61% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay

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Chara
[cra] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), South Omo zone, both sides of Omo river. 13,087 (2007 census). 5,560 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciara Dialects: Buch’a. Lexical similarity: 54% with Wolaytta [wal]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Chara Comments: Traditional religion.

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Daasanach
[dsh] Lower Omo river, along Lake Turkana. Also in Kenya. 48,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 31,400 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 60,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daasanech, Dama, Dasenech, Dathanaic, Dathanaik, Dathanik, Dhaasanac, Gallab, Galuba, Gelab, Geleb, Geleba, Gelebinya, Gelubba, Gheleba, Marille, Merile, Merille, Morille, Reshiat, Russia, “Shangilla” (pej.) Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana Comments: ‘Reshiat’ (Russia) is ethnic group name. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dawro
[dwr] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Dawro zone. 543,000 (2007 census). 260,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cullo, Dauro, Kullo, Ometay Dialects: Konta (Conta), Kucha (Koysha, Kusha). Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with Gamo [gmv], 76% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with Dorze [doz], 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central

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Dime
[dim] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), north of Omo river, just before it turns south. 574 (2007 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dima Dialects: Lexical similarity: 47% with Hamer-Banna [amf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Comments: Population diminished through disease and war.

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Dirasha
[gdl] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, hills west of Lake Chamo, Gidole town area. 65,300 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 90,000 (2005 SIL). 41,100 Gidole, 7,470 Kusumitta (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhirasha, Diraasha, Dirayta, Gardulla, Ghidole, Gidole Dialects: Kusumitta, Mosiya. Part of a dialect subgroup with Konso [kxc] and Bussa [dox]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Konso [kxc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole Comments: Christian.

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Dizin
[mdx] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), near Maji town. 33,900 (2007 census), increasing. 17,600 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dizi, Dizi-Maji, Dizinog, Dizinya, Maji, Majinya, Sizi, Twoyu Dialects: Related to Sheko [she] and Nayi [noz]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dorze
[doz] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, Chencha area; Addis Ababa. 20,800 (1994 census). 9,910 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 29,000 (1994 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82%–87% with Gamo [gmv], 77%–81% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with Dawro [dwr], 54% with Koorete [kqy], 48% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central

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English
[eng] 1,990 in Ethiopia (1994 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Ethiopian Sign Language
[eth] 1,000,000 (2005 ENAD). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Deaf sign language

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Gamo
[gmv] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Gamo-Gofa zone. 1,110,000 (2007 census), increasing. 600,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gemu Dialects: Dache. Lexical similarity: 79%–91% with Gofa [gof], 82%–87% with Dorze [doz], 73%–80% with Dawro [dwr], 79%–89% with Wolaytta [wal], 49% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central

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Ganza
[gza] South of Yabus bridge along Sudan border, Yamasala village. 400 in Ethiopia (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganzo, Gwami, Koma Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West Comments: The LWC is Kwama [kmq]. Different from Gumuz [guk]. Ganza came originally from Sudan; most have now returned.

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Gawwada
[gwd] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, west of Lake Chamo. 68,600 (2007 census). 27,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gauwada, Gawata, Kawwada, Kawwad’a Dialects: Dihina (Tihina, Tihinte), Gergere (K’ark’arte), Gobeze, Gollango (Kollanko), Gorose (Gorrose, Korrose), Harso (Worase). Lexical similarity: 78% with Bussa [dox], 73% with Tsamai [tsb], 77% with the Harso dialect, 92% with the Gollango dialect, 41% with Konso [kxc]. The Harso dialect has 80% with the Dobase dialect of Bussa [dox], 56% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay

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Gayil
[gyl] Southwest, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional Region (SNNPR), South Omo zone, North Aari wereda. 55,700 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galila, Gayi, Gayl, Gelila, Northern Ari Dialects: Related to Aari [aiw], Dime [dim], Hamer-Banna [amf], and Karo [kxh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South

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Gedeo
[drs] Central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. 975,000 (2007 census). 439,000 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Darasa” (pej.), “Darassa” (pej.), “Derasa” (pej.), “Derasanya” (pej.), “Deresa” (pej.), Geddeo Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar), 57% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 54% with Kambaata [ktb], 51% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Geez
[gez] Also in Eritrea. No known L1 speakers in Ethiopia. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Ancient Ethiopic, Ethiopic, Ge’ez, Giiz Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Comments: Christian.

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Gofa
[gof] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Gamo-Gofa zone. 363,000 (2007 census), increasing. 190,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Goffa Dialects: Lexical similarity: 79%–91% with Gamo [gmv], 76% with Dawro [dwr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central

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Gumuz
[guk] Metemma area on Sudan border south through Gondar and Gojjam; along Blue Nile and south into Wellaga and Didessa valley up to Leqemt-Gimbi road; southwest of Addis Ababa, Welqite area villages (possibly 1,000). Also in Sudan. 179,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 88,200 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 219,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bega, Bega-Tse, Debatsa, Debuga, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Gumuzinya, Mendeya, “Shankilligna” (pej.), “Shankillinya” (pej.), “Shanqilla” (pej.), Sigumza Dialects: Agalo, Dibate, Guba, Mandura, Metemma, Sirba, Wenbera, Yaso. Noticeable dialect differences, and not all dialects are inherently intelligible. Mandura, Dibate, and Metemma form a distinct dialect subgroup. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz Comments: Connections between villages for intermarriage and trade. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Hadiyya
[hdy] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Gurage, Kambaata, and Hadiyya zones, between Omo and Billate rivers, Hosaina town area. 1,250,000 (2007 census). 595,000 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adea, Adiya, Adiye, Hadia, Hadiya, Hadya Dialects: Leemo, Soro. Lexical similarity: 82% with Libido [liq], 56% with Kambaata [ktb], 54% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Hamer-Banna
[amf] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), South Omo zone, near Omo river; north of Lake Turkana, southwest corner, near Kenya, Uganda, and Sudan borders. 74,400 (2007 census). 38,400 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 46,500 Hamer, 27,000 Banna (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amar, Amarcocche, Amer, Ammar, Bana, Banna, Beshada, Cocche, Hamar, Hamar-Koke, Hamer, Hammer, Hammercoche, Kara Kerre Dialects: Hamer and Banna are separate ethnic groups who speak virtually the same language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Harari
[har] East, walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. 25,800 (2007 census). 2,350 monolinguals. 20,000 in Addis Ababa, outside Harar City (Hetzron 1997:486). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adare, Adarinnya, Adere, Aderinya, Gey Sinan, Hararri Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage Comments: Muslim.

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Hozo
[hoz] West Oromiya Region, Begi area. 50 or more villages. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Begi-Mao Dialects: Related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West

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Inor
[ior] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), west Gurage zone, Innemor and Endegeny woredas. 280,000. 50,000 Endegeny. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ennemor Dialects: Endegeny (Enner). Part of Gurage subgroup of languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group

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Kachama-Ganjule
[kcx] Lake Abaya, Gidicho island, Kachama; Lake Chamo, Ganjule on west shore, Shela-Mela village. 4,070 (1994 census). 1,000 monolinguals including 820 Kachama, 190 Ganjule. 2,680 Kachama, 1,390 Ganjule; 420 L2 speakers including 220 Kachama, 200 Ganjule. Ethnic population: 3,890 (1994 census) including 2,740 Kachama, 1,150 Ganjule. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Ganjule (Ganjawle), Ganta, Gats’ame (Gatame, Get’eme, Makka), Kachama. Lexical similarity: 46% with Wolaytta [wal]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East

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Kacipo-Balesi
[koe] South border with Sudan. 4,120 in Ethiopia (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Silmamo, Tsilmano, Zelmamu, Zilmamu, Zulmamu Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi Comments: Ethnonym: Baale may be Tirmaga-Chai. Baale ethnic autonym: Suri, although their language is completely different from Tirmaga-Chai dialects also referred to as Suri.

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Kafa
[kbr] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Bonga town area. May be some in Sudan. 834,000 (2007 census). 445,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caffino, Kaffa, Kaficho, Kefa, Keffa, Manjo Dialects: Bosha (Garo), Kafa. Related to Shekkacho [mpy]. Bosha may be a distinct language. Manjo is an argot based on Kafa [kbr] (Bender 1983). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kambaata
[ktb] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), southwest Gurage, Kambaata, and Hadiyya zones. Durame is main town. 615,000 (2007 census). 330,000 monolinguals including 279,000 Kambaata, 51,600 Timbaro. Population includes 488,000 Kambaata, 82,800 Timbaro. Ethnic population: 98,600 Timbaro, 35,000 Donga (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Donga, Kambara, Kambata, Kambatta, Kemata, Kembata Dialects: Tambaro, Timbaro (Timbaaro, Timbara). Lexical similarity: 95% between dialects, 81% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Sidamo [sid], 57% with Libido [liq], 56% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Comments: Christian.

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Karo
[kxh] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), South Omo zone, upstream from Daasanach [dsh] language area, riverside settlements near the Hamer-Banna [amf] language area. 1,480 (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cherre, Kere, Kerre Dialects: May be a dialect or a closely related language with Hamer-Banna [amf]. More similar to Hamer variety than Banna. Lexical similarity: 81% with Hamer-Banna [amf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Comments: Different from Gula [kcm] of Sudan which is Central Sudanic.

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Kistane
[gru] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Gurage, Kambaata, and Hadiyya zones, southwest of Addis Ababa. 255,000 (1994 census). Ethnic population: 364,000 (1994 census) including 4,000 Gogot. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Gurage, Soddo, Soddo Gurage Dialects: Dobi (Dobbi, Goggot, Gogot), Soddo (Aymallal, Aymellel, Kestane, Kistane). Not intelligible with Silt’e [stv] or Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw]. Dobi dialect comprehension of Soddo is 76%, and Soddo speakers’ of Dobi is 90%. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group Comments: Not used in media. Christian.

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Komo
[xom] Mao-Komo wereda south of Asosa, south and west of the Kwama [kmq] language area; Gambela Region, Bonga area, near Baro river. 8,530 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Koma, Koma, Madiin, South Koma Dialects: Koma of Begi, Koma of Daga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman Comments: Different from Koma [kmy] of Cameroon. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Konso
[kxc] South of Lake Chamo, Sagan river bend. A few in Kenya. 242,000 (2007 census), increasing. 139,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Af Kareti, Afa Karatti, Conso, Gato, Karate, Kareti, Komso Dialects: Duuro, Fasha, Karatti, Kholme. Lexical similarity: 55% with Dirasha [gdl], 51% with Bussa [dox], 41% with Gawwada [gwd], 31% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole Comments: Gat(t)o is a town on both sides of Gatto River; those living on Konso side speak a dialect of Konso; those on Gidole side speak a dialect of Diraytta [gdl]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koorete
[kqy] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Sidama zone, Amaro mountains east of Lake Abaya. About 60 Harro families (200 people) in Lake Abbaya, on Gidicho (Gidicció) island, Harro village. 157,000 (2007 census), increasing. 84,400 monolinguals (1994 census). Baiso [bsw] and Oromo [orm] are replacing Harro on Gidiccho Island (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 136,000 (2006 Southern Region Population and Statistics Office). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Amaarro, Amarro, Badittu, Haro, Harro, Koore, Koyra, Kwera, Nuna Dialects: Middle Koorete, North Koorete, South Koorete. The dialects are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 54% with Dorze [doz], 53% with Wolaytta [wal], 52% with Gofa [gof], 49% with Gamo [gmv], 48% with Dawro [dwr], 45% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East

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Kwama
[kmq] South Benishangul-Gumuz Region, along Sudan border, south of Asosa to Gidami; Gambela Region near Bonga. 19 villages, including one (Yabus) in Sudan. 15,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afan Mao, Amam, Gogwama, Goma, Gwama, Koma of Asosa, Nokanoka, North Koma, Takwama, T’wa Kwama Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman Comments: Called Gwama by Komo speakers. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kwegu
[xwg] Southwest, Omo River west bank, Kuchur village, and a small group north. 1,640 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 2,630 Bacha (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bacha, Koegu, Kwegi, Menja, Nidi Dialects: Muguji, Yidinich (Yidi, Yidinit). Listed dialects may not be inherently intelligible with Kwegu. May be a name for several hunter groups. Lexical similarity: 36% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Kwegu Comments: Seen as lower class by Bodi, Mursi, Karo, or Nyangatom. Men from these patron groups may marry Kwegu women. A small group who maintain a basically constant population.

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Libido
[liq] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Hadiyya, Kambaata, and Gurage zones, northeast of Hosaina. 64,400 (2007 census). 14,700 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marako, Maraqo Dialects: Syntactic, morphological, and lexical differences from Hadiyya [hdy]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Hadiyya [hdy], 57% with Kambaata [ktb], 56% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Comments: Muslim.

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Majang
[mpe] Southwest, parts of Gambela, Oromo, and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regions, a long, narrow belt between Bure (east of Gambela) and Guraferda south. 18,500 (2007 census). 10,800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 11,000 Mesengo (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ajo, Ato Majang, Ato Majanger-Onk, Majanjiro, Masango, Masongo, Mesengo, Ojanjur, Tama Dialects: Minor dialect variation. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, North, Majang Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Male
[mdy] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, southeast of Jinka. 94,746 (2007 census). 40,660 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maale Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48% with Dorze [doz], 46% with Gofa [gof], 45% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Gamo [gmv], 43% with Wolaytta [wal] and Dawro [dwr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo Comments: Different from Malo (see Zayse).

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Me’en
[mym] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Bench-Maji zone. Highlanders (Banio) in Bachuma area; lowlanders (Koruwo) south; Bodi near Omo river. 151,000 (2007 census), increasing. More than 95% monolingual. Ethnic population: 6,990 Bodi (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mekan, Men, Meqan, Mie’en, Mieken Dialects: Banio, Bodi (Mela, Podi), Koruwo. Linguistically similar to Suri [suq] and Mursi [mur]. Lexical differences between highland and lowland. Lexical similarity: 65% with the Chai and Tirma dialects of Suri [suq], 30% with Murle [mur]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Me’en Comments: Ethnonym: Suro by the Kafa [kbr] and Bench [bcq]. ‘Tishena’ (Teshina, Teshenna, Tishana), hello, in Me’en [mym], is a name given by Amhara settlers and is not well-received. Ethnic autonym: Mela by Bodi. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Melo
[mfx] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, Malo-Koza area, northeast of Basketo [bst] language area. 20,200 (1994 census). 13,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,200 (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malo Dialects: Related to Gamo [gmv], Gofa [gof] and Dawro [dwr]. Lexical similarity: 70% with the majority of Ometo language varieties. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central

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Mesmes
[mys] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Related to Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group

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Mesqan
[mvz] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), west Gurage zone, Mesqan woreda, principal villages: Mikayelo, Mesqan, Butajira and Hudat. 195,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 205,000 (Woreda Farmers’ Cooperatives Office). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masqan, Meskan Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group

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Murle
[mur] South of Akobo river. Olam is southwest and on Sudan border. 1 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Ethnic population: 970. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajibba, Beir, Merule, Mourle, Murele, Murule Dialects: Olam (Bangalam, Ngalam). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle Comments: Much intermarriage with the Nyangatom. Olam is between Murle and Majang [mpe] culturally and linguistically (Bender 1983). Traditional religion.

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Mursi
[muz] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), central Omo area, lowlands southwest of Jinka. 7,390 (2007 census). 3,160 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dama, Merdu, Meritu, Murzi, Murzu Dialects: Similar to Tirmi dialect of Suri [suq] in Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nayi
[noz] Scattered in Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Decha Awraja, Shoa Bench wereda, Dulkuma village; Sheko wereda, Aybera, Kosa, and Jomdos villages. 7,190 (2007 census). 1,140 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nao, Na’o Dialects: Related to Dizin [mdx] and Sheko [she]. Lexical similarity: 58% with Dizin [mdx]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid

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Nuer
[nus] Gambela Region, along Baro river. 151,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 61,640 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Naath Dialects: Eastern Nuer (Abigar, Door, Ji, Jikany, Kany). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer Comments: Ethnic autonym: Naath. Severe displacement caused by fighting in Ethiopia and Sudan (1991). Traditional religion.

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Nyangatom
[nnj] Extreme southwest corner, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), South Omo zone, Omo and Kibish rivers area. Follow cattle into Sudan, Moru Angipi region. 24,300 (2007 census). 13,800 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dongiro, Donyiro, Idongiro, Inyangatom Dialects: Inherently intelligible with Toposa [toq] and Turkana [tuv]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion.

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Ongota
[bxe] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), South Omo zone, west bank of Weyt’o river. 1 village. 10 (2007 census). 3,400. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Birale” (pej.), “Birelle” (pej.), Ifa, “Shanqilla” (pej.) Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Unclassified

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Opuuo
[lgn] Gambela Region, along Sudan border north of Anuak [anu] and Nuer [nus] language areas. 5 villages. Also in South Sudan. 1,750 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Most are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, “Langa” (pej.), Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Shiita, Shita Dialects: Lexical similarity: 24% with Komo [xom]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman

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Oromo
[orm] Population total all countries: 17,467,900. Comments: Member languages are: Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo [gax], Eastern Oromo [hae], Orma [orc] (Kenya), West Central Oromo [gaz]

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Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji
[gax] South Oromiya Region. Also in Kenya (Borana), Somalia. 3,630,000 in Ethiopia. 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 3,949,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afan Oromo, “Galla” (pej.), “Galligna” (pej.), “Gallinya” (pej.), Southern Oromo Dialects: Harari [har] is closely related. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Comments: In Ethiopia, Oromo is viewed as 1 people who speak 1 language. Called Borana in Kenya where Gabra and Sakuye dialects may have significant dialect and language attitude differences from Borana dialect. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Oromo, Eastern
[hae] Oromiya Region, northern Bale, East Hararghe, and West Hararghe zones. 4,530,000 (1994 census). 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Harar, Harer, Ittu, “Kwottu” (pej.), “Qottu” (pej.), “Qotu Oromo” (pej.), “Quottu” (pej.), “Qwottu” (pej.) Dialects: Similar to Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo [gax]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Comments: In Ethiopia, Oromo is viewed as 1 people who speak 1 language. Muslim.

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Oromo, West Central
[gaz] West and central Oromiya Region; Rift Valley escarpment east of Dessie and Woldiya. Also in Egypt. 8,920,000 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Population total all countries: 8,922,200. Ethnic population: All ethnic Oromo are 30,000,000 in Ethiopia. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Oromia Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). Alternate Names: Afan Oromo, “Galla” (pej.), Oromiffa, Oromoo Dialects: Central Oromo, Western Oromo. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), and Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Harar and Boran are most divergent. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Comments: In Ethiopia, Oromo is viewed as 1 people who speak 1 language. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Oyda
[oyd] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), northwestern Omo area, southwest of Sawla. 36,900 (2007 census). 6,250 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Wolaytta [wal], 61% with Basketo [bst]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central

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Qimant
[ahg] Northwest Amhara Region, north of Lake Tana. Qwara or Kayla are near Addis Ababa. 1,650 (1994 census). Ethnic population: 172,000 (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimanteney, Western Agaw Dialects: Achpar, Dembiya (Dambya, Dembya), Hwarasa (“Kara” (pej.), Qwara, Qwarina), Kayla, Kwolasa (Kwolacha), Qimant (Chemant, Kamant, Kemanat, Kemant, Kimant, Qemant), Semyen. Distinct from Awngi [awn], Bilen [byn], and Xamtanga [xan]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western Comments: Ethnonym: Falashi (Kayla or Qwara people), meaning Black Jews. 2,321 Falashas in Ethiopia. Most remaining Falasha went to Israel in 1999. No evidence of a distinct Jewish language. Kara is an incorrect spelling. Christian (Qimant), Jewish (Kayla).

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Rer Bare
[rer] East Somali Region, Gode zone, Wabi Shebelle river near Somali border; along Ganale and Dawa rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adona, Rerebere Classification: Unclassified Comments: Ethnonym: Rer Bare, Bare tribe in Somali.

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Saho
[ssy] Tigray Region. 32,800 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sao, Shaho, Shiho, Shoho Dialects: Irob. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar Comments: Ethnic group names are Asa’orta, Hadu (Hazu), Miniferi. Irob, unlike others, are not nomadic. Outsiders not accepted. Christian, Muslim.

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Sebat Bet Gurage
[sgw] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), west Gurage zone. Chaha dialect: Emdibir area; Gura dialect: Gura Megenase and Wirir areas; Muher dialect: Ch’eza area, mountains north of Chaha and Ezha; Gyeto dialect: south of Ark’it’ in K’abul and K’want’e; Ezha dialect: Agenna. 440000. Chaha 130,000, Gura 20,000, Muher 90,000, Gyeto 80,000, Ezha 120,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central West Gurage, Gouraghie, Guragie, Gurague, West Gurage Dialects: Chaha (Cheha), Ezha (Eza, Izha), Gumer (Gwemarra), Gura, Gyeto, Muher. Member of Gurage subgroup of languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group

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Seze
[sze] West Oromiya Region, near Begi, north of Hozo [hoz] language area. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sezo Dialects: Related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West

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Shabo
[sbf] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Sheka zone; Gambella Region, Majangir zone between Godere and Mashi, among Majang [mpe] and Shekkacho [moy] languages. 400 (2000 M. Brenzinger), decreasing. Ethnic population: 600 or more (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Mekeyer” (pej.), “Mikair” (pej.), “Mikeyir” (pej.), Sabu, “Shako” (pej.) Dialects: Distinct from Sheko [she]. Lexical similarity: 30% with Majang [mpe], 12% with other West Cushitic (Omotic) languages. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Ethnic autonym: Sabu. Shekkacho and Majang use “Shako” and “Mekeyer”, respectively, which Shabo do not like. They live in family units, not villages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Shekkacho
[moy] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Maasha area. 79,900 (2007 census). 36,500 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mocha, Shakacho, Shekka Dialects: Similar to Kafa [kbr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South Comments: Ethnic autonym: Shekkacho. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sheko
[she] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Shako district. 38,400 (2007 census). 13,600 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Shak, Shako, Shekka, Shekko, Tschako Dialects: Distinct from Shabo [sbf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sidamo
[sid] South central, northeast of Lake Abaya and southeast of Lake Awasa. 2,980,000 (2007 census). 2,530,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sidaama, Sidaamu Afoo, Sidaminya, Sidámo ’Afó Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Kambaata [ktb], 53% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Comments: Ethnic autonym: Sidaamu Afoo. Sidaminya is Amharic name for the language.

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Silt’e
[stv] South of Addis Ababa 150 km, Silte administrative zone, Werabey town. 935,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: East Gurage, Selti, Silte, Silti Dialects: Enneqor (Inneqor), Ulbarag (Urbareg). Similar to Wolane [wle]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage

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Somali
[som] Southeast, Somali Region. 4,610,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 2,880,000 monolinguals. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Somali Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). Alternate Names: Common Somali, Standard Somali Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Comments: Daarood, Ogaadeen, Dir, Gadabuursi, Hawiye, and Isxaaq are major clan families in Ethiopia. Muslim, Christian.

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Suri
[suq] Southwest Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), toward Sudan border; west of Mizan Teferi. 26,900 (2007 census), increasing. 18,700 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Churi, Dhuri, Eastern Suri, Shuri, Shuro, Surma Dialects: Chai (Caci, Cai), Tirmaga (Cirma, Dirma, Terema, Terna, Tid, Tirima, Tirma, Tirmagi). Lexical similarity: 81% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri Comments: ‘Suri’ is an ethnonym for speakers of the Tirmaga, Chai and Baale (see Kacipo-Balesi) speech varieties. Tirmaga and Chai speakers can understand each other, but Baale [koe] is a separate language (Dimmendaal and Yigezu 1998). Dama is the Me’en [mym] name for Suri. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tigrigna
[tir] Tigray Region. Also in Canada, Djibouti, Eritrea, Germany, Israel, Sweden. 4,320,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 2,820,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 6,915,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Tigray Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). Alternate Names: Tigray, Tigrinya Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Comments: Christian.

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Tsamai
[tsb] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Omo area, lowlands west of Lake Chamo. 18,000 (2007 census). 5,300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bago S’aamakk-Ulo, Cule, Kuile, Kule, S’amai, Tamaha, Tsamakko, Tsamako, Ts’amay Dialects: The Tsamai say Gawwada [gwd] is difficult to understand. Possibly related to Birale [bxe]. The most aberrant variety in the Dullay classification. Lexical similarity: 56%–73% with Gawwada [gwd] dialects, 61% with Bussa [dox], 31% with Konso [kxc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay

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Weyto
[woy] Amhara Region, Lake Tana area. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,630 of whom 1,500 (93%) speak Amharic as L1, others speak other L1s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wayto, Weyt’o Dialects: Possibly Eastern Sudanic or an Awngi variety (Bender 1983), or Cushitic (Bender, Bowen, Cooper, and Ferguson 1976:14). Classification: Unclassified

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Wolane
[wle] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Gurage zone. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olane, Walane, Wäläne, Welene Dialects: Similar to Silt’e [stv]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage

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Wolaytta
[wal] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, Lake Abaya area. 1,710,000 (2007 census). 1,000,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Borodda, Ometo, Ualamo, Uba, Uollamo, “Walamo” (pej.), Wallamo, Welamo, Wellamo, Wolaita, Wolaitta, Wolataita, Wolayta, Wollamo Dialects: Zala. Dorze [doz], Melo [mfx], and Oyda [oyd] may be dialects of Wolaytta. Lexical similarity: 79%–93% with Gamo [gmv], 84% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Dawro [dwr] and Dorze [doz], 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Comments: Geographic names: Balta, Borodda, Ganta, Otschollo, Uba. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Xamtanga
[xan] North Amhara Region, Avergele district, Lasta and Waag zones, 100 km north of Weldiya. 213,000 (2007 census). 93,900 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Agawinya, Khamtanga, Simt’anga, Xamir, Xamta Dialects: Low inherent intelligibility of Qimant [ahg]. Lexical similarity: 45% with Qimant [ahg]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Eastern Comments: Surrounded by Amharic [amh] and Tigrigna [tir] speakers. Different from Awngi [awn]. Glossonym: Agaw. Ethnonym: Xamir. Christian.

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Yemsa
[jnj] Southwest, Oromiya Region, northeast of Jimma zone, Fofa (main village); mixed in Oromo villages; Saja, Deedoo, Sak’a, Jimma. 92,200 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Janjerinya” (pej.), “Janjero” (pej.), “Janjor” (pej.), “Yangaro” (pej.), Yem, Yemma, “Zinjero” (pej.) Dialects: Fuga of Jimma, Toba. The Fuga of Jimma dialect may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 24% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Janjero Comments: Ethnic autonym: Yem.Yemma is the feminine form of Yem. Christian, Muslim.

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Zay
[zwa] Oromiya Region, Lake Zway shores and east islands. 4,880 (1994 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,880. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gelilla, Lak’i, Laqi, Zway Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Harari [har], 70% with Silt’e [stv] (M. L. Bender 1971). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage Comments: Zway refers to the lake and town. Ethnic autonym: Zay; Lak’i (Laqi) is the Oromo name for the people.

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Zaysete
[zay] Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), North Omo zone, west of Lake Chamo. 18,500 (2007 census). 3,000 monolinguals. 10,200 Zayse, 7,600 Zergulla. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zaisse, Zayse-Zergulla, Zaysitè, Zaysse, Zergula Dialects: Zayse, Zergulla (Zargulla, Zergullinya). Similar to the Gidicho dialect of Koorete [kqy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East

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