Finland

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Estonian, Standard
[ekk] South coast. 6,000 in Finland (1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Eesti Dialects: Muly (Mulgi), Tallinn (Northern Estonian, Reval), Tartu (Dorpat, Southern Estonian, Tatu). Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Refugees from World War II or recent immigrants. The traditional community was assimilated to the Swedish-speaking community. Christian.

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Finland-Swedish Sign Language
[fss] 150 (2001). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Finlandssvenskt Teckenspråk, FinSSL, Suomenruotsalainen Viittomakieli Classification: Deaf sign language

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Finnish
[fin] Also in Canada, Estonia, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden, United States. 4,700,000 in Finland (1993). 30,000 speakers of Tornedalen Finnish. Population total all countries: 4,994,490. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 17(1,2)). Alternate Names: Suomi Dialects: Central and North Pohjanmaa, Häme (Tavast), Peräpohja, Savo (Savolax), South Pohjanmaa, Southeastern Finnish (Finnish Karelian, Finnish Karjala), Southwestern Finnish. Southeastern dialects called, Karelian, in colloquial Finnish are distinct from true Karelian [krl] (1988 T. Salminen). Finnish is closely related to Karelian [krl] and Livvi [olo]. In the Russian Federation eastern dialects merge gradually into Karelian. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian.

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Finnish Sign Language
[fse] 5,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Viittomakieli Dialects: 2 major dialects from the Finnish (17 schools) and Swedish (1 school) communities. Apparent influence from Swedish Sign Language [swl] merged with local indigenous varieties. Not intelligible with Danish Sign Language [dsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: First deaf school founded 1850s. Signed Finnish is distinct, but used by some teachers of the deaf.

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Finnish, Tornedalen
[fit] 30,000 in Finland (1997 B. Winsa). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Uralic, Finnic

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Karelian
[krl] Northern Karelian: Oulu Province, Russian border area; Southern Karelian scattered. 10,000 in Finland (1994). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Karelian Proper, Karely Dialects: Norgorod, Northern Karelian, Southern Karelian, Tver (Kalinin). Classification: Uralic, Finnic

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Livvi
[olo] Karelia, eastern Pitkyaranta county, Suoyarvi county south corner. 5,170 in Finland (2000). Ethnic population: 140,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aunus, Livvikovian, Olonets, Olonetsian Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Resettled from areas ceded to Russia between 1940 and 1944.

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Romani, Kalo Finnish
[rmf] West and south. Also in Sweden. 10,000 in Finland (2001 census). Population total all countries: 11,650. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fíntika Rómma, Gypsy Dialects: Not inherently intelligible of Tavringer Romani [rmu], Traveller Norwegian [rmg], Traveller Danish [rmd], or Angloromani [rme]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Originally from Scotland. Christian.

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Saami, Inari
[smn] Lapland, above 68.00 N latitude, between Lake Inari and Norway border, mostly Utsjoki border town area. 300 (2001 census). 4,700 all Saami in Finland (1995). Ethnic population: 700 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sodankyla in Lapland, 3 municipalities elsewhere (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Anar, “Finnish Lapp” (pej.), “Inari Lappish” (pej.), “Lapp” (pej.), Saam, Saame, Sámi, Samic Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Some literature.

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Saami, North
[sme] Vuotso Region, Lapland province, Utsjoki, Sodankylä, and Enontekiö counties, western Inari county. 1,700 in Finland (2001 census). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory provincial language in Sodankyla in Lapland, 3 municipalities elsewhere (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Davvin, “Lapp” (pej.), Northern Lapp, Saame, Same Dialects: Ruija, Sea Lappish, Torne. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern Comments: The most widely spoken Saami language in Finland.

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Saami, Skolt
[sms] Lapland, Inari county, Sevettijärvi region. Also in Russian Federation. 300 in Finland (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 650. Ethnic population: 500 in Finland (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in Sodankyla in Lapland, 3 municipalities elsewhere (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Kolta, Koltta, “Lapp” (pej.), Lopar, Russian Lapp, Saame, Same, Skolt Lappish Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Moved to Finland from Russia during World War II. Christian.

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Swedish
[swe] Central Österbotten (Ostrobothnia), Vasa (Vaasa), Southwest Finland, Nyland (Uusimaa) (Helsingfors), Åland islands, Kymenlaakso. 296,000 in Finland (1997). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2000, Constitution, Article 17(1,2)). Statutory provincial language in Åland Islands (1920, Autonomy Act, Article 36). Dialects: Åland Islands Swedish, Österbotten (Ostrobothnian), Southwest Finland Swedish, Standard Swedish, Uusimaa Swedish (Nyland Swedish). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian, Danish-Swedish, Swedish Comments: Swedish Finns have distinctive pronunciation compared to the dialect in Sweden, but no apparent difficulty in intelligibility. Some Österbotten dialects are intelligible to others with difficulty.

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