France

Print
Alsatian
[gsw] Alsace and Lorraine regions: south and west bank of Rhine river. 1,500,000 in France (Comrie 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alemannic, Alemannisch, Alsacien, Elsaessisch Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic Comments: No standardized form of Alsatian, but a variety of village dialects. Christian.

More Information

Arpitan
[frp] Rhône-Alpes region: Savoy, Ain, Rhone, Loire, northern and central Isere departments; Franche-Comté, southern Jura and Doubs departments; Bourgogne, Saone-et-Loire and Haute-Alpes departments; border area of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region. 60,000 in France (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 137,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Francoprovençal, Patois Dialects: Dauphinois, Lyonnais, Neuchatelais, Savoyard. Structurally distinct from French, Piemontese [pms], and Lombard [lmo] (1985 F. Agard). In Switzerland, every canton has its own dialect, with no standardization. Difficult intelligibility among dialects, especially Fribourg. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern

More Information

Basque
[eus] Aquitaine region: Pyrenees Atlantiques province, Labourd (Lapurdi) and Basse-Navarre departments, Bayonne and Soule areas; border with Spain. 76,200 in France (1991). 45,000 Labourdin, 22,500 Lower Navarro, 8,700 Souletin. Ethnic population: 730,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Navarro-Labourdin (Bajo Navarro Occidental, Bajo Navarro Oriental, Benaffarera, Eastern Low Navarrese, Labourdin, Lapurdiera, Western Low Navarrese), Souletin (Souletino, Suberoan, Suletino, Xiberoera, Zuberoera). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian.

More Information

Breton
[bre] Bretagne region: Finistere, western Cotes-d’Armor, and western Morbihan departments; elsewhere dispersed. 206,000 (2013 R. Milin), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Brezhoneg Dialects: Gwenedeg (Vannetais), Kerneveg (Cornouaillais), Leoneg (Leonais), Tregerieg (Tregorrois). Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic Comments: In 1914 reportedly 90% (about 1 million) of the population of the western half of Brittany spoke Breton. In 1945 it was about 75%, and today, in all of Brittany the most optimistic estimate would be that 20% of Bretons can speak Breton. Brittany has a population of roughly 4 million, including the department of Loire-Atlantique separated from official Brittany in 1941.

More Information

Caló
[rmq] Midi-Pyrénées region. 15,000 in France. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gitano, Iberian Romani Dialects: Catalonian Caló, Spanish Caló. Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani Comments: Christian.

More Information

Catalan
[cat] Languedoc-Roussillon region: Pyrenees-Orientales department. 100,000 in France (1996). Population may include L2 speakers. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian

More Information

Corsican
[cos] Corsica region; also possibly in Paris, Marseilles, other urban centers. 30,000 in France (2009), decreasing. On Corsica, 125,000 people have some command of Corsican. Population total all countries: 31,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2002, Act. No. 2002-92 (22 Jan) on Corsica, Article 7), mainly used in education. Alternate Names: Corse, Corsi, Corso, Corsu Dialects: Northern Corsican (Bastia, Cape Cors), Sartenais, Venaco, Vico-Ajaccio. Lexical similarity: 79%–89% with Bastia, Venaco, Vico, and Sartene dialects. Bonifacio on the southern tip of the island has 78% lexical similarity (highest) with Bastia at extreme north. Ajaccio dialect is central and prestigious. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican

More Information

Erromintxela
[emx] Aquitaine region. 500 in France (2009 J. McLaughlin). Population total all countries: 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basque Caló, Caló Vasco Classification: Mixed language, Basque-Romani

More Information

French
[fra] 60,000,000 in France (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 75,916,150. L2 users worldwide: 87,000,000 (Francophonie 2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, Consitution, Article 2.1). Alternate Names: Français Dialects: Angevin, Berrichon, Bourbonnais, Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Lorraine, Norman (Normand), Poitevin, Saintongeais, Standard French. Lexical similarity: 89% with Italian [ita], 80% with Logudorese Sardinian [src], 78% with Romansch [roh], 75% with Portuguese [por], Romanian [ron], and Spanish[spa], 29% with German [deu], 27% with English [eng]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Christian.

More Information

French Sign Language
[fsl] Scattered. 100,000 in France (2014 EUD). 169,000 (2014 IMB). Of these, approximately 1,000 use Marseille Sign Language (Sallagoity 1975). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Langue des Signes Française, LSF Dialects: Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language). Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language), is used in Marseille, Toulon, La Ciotat and Salon de Provence. Many sign languages have been derived from or influenced by LSF, but are not necessarily intelligible with it. When Deaf and hearing people interact in sign, they use a mixture of elements drawn from LSF and French, and deaf people themselves vary in how much their signing is influenced by French. Lexical similarity: 58% with American Sign Language [ase] in an 872-word list (Woodward 1978). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Promoted by the educational efforts of Charles Michel de l’Épée in the 18th century and one of the first sign languages in the western world to gain recognition as an actual language. Consequently it has influenced several other sign languages, especially in Europe and the Americas. 360 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Taught as an L2 to parents and others. Christian (Roman Catholic).

More Information

Greek
[ell] Corsica region; Île-de-France region: Paris and environs; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: Marseilles; Rhône-Alpes region: Grenoble. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Cargese. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic

More Information

Italian
[ita] Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur and Rhône-Alpes regions: Nice, Savoy, and Provence. 1,000,000 in France (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

More Information

Ligurian
[lij] Corsica region: Bonifacio town; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: between Italy and Monaco borders. 300–400 in Corsica (Salminen 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ligure Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

More Information

Luxembourgish
[ltz] Lorraine region: Moselle river area, Germany border to Luxembourg, Thionville. 40,000 in France (2001 J. Nousse). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Frankish, Luxembourgeois, Platt Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian

More Information

Lyons Sign Language
[lsg] Rhône-Alpes region: Lyons city. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. 405 km from Paris, but reportedly little intelligibility with French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Very little information about it is available. Survey needed to determine if it is still used, and if so, what is its relationship to French Sign Language [fsl].

More Information

Occitan
[oci] Aquitaine, Midi-Pyrénées, and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur regions: Languedoc-Roussillon except for Pyrenees-Orientales department; Auvergne region: Puy-de-Dome, Cantal, and Haute-Loire departments; Rhône-Alpes region: Loire, Drome, Isere, and Ardeche departments; Limousin region: Haute-Vienne and Correze departments; Poitou-Charentes region: Charentes department. 110,000 in France (Bernissan 2012). Population total all countries: 218,310. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Occitani Dialects: Auvergnat (Auverne, Auvernhas), Gascon, Languedocien (Langadoc, Languedoc, Lengadoucian), Limousin (Lemosin), Provençal (Alpine Provençal, Mistralien, Prouvençau, Provençal). Highly fragmented dialect situation, with limited intelligibility between some varieties. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

More Information

Picard
[pcd] Picardy region: Amiens, Abbeville, Beauvais, Saint Quentin; Nord-Pas-de-Calais region: Lille, Douai, Cambrai, Arras, Valenciennes, Boulogne sur Mer, Calais (except Dunkerque district); Haute-Normandie region: near Dieppe, Picardie border. Population total all countries: 200,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chtimi, Rouchi Dialects: Amienois (Amies), Artois, Boulonnais, Calaisis, Cambresis, Hainaut, Lillois, Ponthieu, Santerre, Vermandois, Vimeu. All dialects, including those in Belgium, are mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Christian.

More Information

Portuguese
[por] Scattered. Aquitaine region: Bordeaux; Corsica region; Île-de-France region: Paris; Midi-Pyrénées region: Toulouse; Nord-Pas-de-Calais region: Roubaix, near Belgian border. 750,000 in France (1989 National Geographic). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician

More Information

Romani, Balkan
[rmn] 10,500 in France. 10,000 Arlija, 500 Dzambazi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Arli, Dzambazi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Romani, Sinte
[rmo] 28,400 in France (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rommanes, Sinti, Tsigane Dialects: Manouche (Manuche, Manush). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian.

More Information

Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 10,000 in France. 8,000 Kalderash, 2,000 Lovari. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom, Romenes, Tsigane, Vlax Dialects: Kalderash, Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

More Information

Shuadit
[sdt] Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: Avignon area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-Comtadine, Judeo-Provençal, Shuadi Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

More Information

Spanish
[spa] Aquitaine region: Bordeaux; Île-de-France region: Paris; Midi-Pyrénées region: Toulouse; Rhône-Alpes region: Lyon; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: Nice and Marseiiles. 444,000 in France (2014). L2 users: 8,400,000 in France (European Commission 2012). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Castillan Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

More Information

Vlaams
[vls] Nord-Pas-de-Calais region: Dunkerque area and southeast to Belgium border. 10,000 in France (1993 M. Evenhuis). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Frans Vlaams, Vlaemsch Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Ethnonym in France: Vlamingen. Glossonym: Vlaemsch. Dutch [nld] sometimes referred to as Vlaams. Different orthographies used in the 3 countries. Christian (Roman Catholic).

More Information

Zarphatic
[zrp] Alsace and Lorraine regions: Moselle and Rhineland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-French Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

More Information