[gsw] Northeast, Alsace. 1,500,000 in France (Comrie 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alemannic, Alemannisch, Alsacien, Elsaessisch Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic Comments: No standardized form of Alsatian, but a variety of village dialects. Christian.
[frp] Savoy, Ain, Rhône, Loire, northern and central Isère, southern Jura and Doubs departments. Also in Italy, Switzerland. 60,000 in France (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 137,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Francoprovençal, Patois Dialects: Dauphinois, Lyonnais, Neuchatelais, Savoyard. Structurally distinct from French, Piemontese [pms], and Lombard [lmo] (1985 F. Agard). In Switzerland, every canton has its own dialect, with no standardization. Difficult intelligibility among dialects, especially Fribourg. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern
[eus] Pyrénées Atlantiques Province (French-Spanish border), Labourd (Lapurdi) and Basse-Navarre departments, Bayonne and Soule areas. 76,200 in France (1991). 45,000 Labourdin, 22,500 Lower Navarro, 8,700 Souletin. Ethnic population: 730,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Navarro-Labourdin (Bajo Navarro Occidental, Bajo Navarro Oriental, Benaffarera, Eastern Low Navarrese, Labourdin, Lapurdiera, Western Low Navarrese), Souletin (Souletino, Suberoan, Suletino, Xiberoera, Zuberoera). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian.
[bre] West Brittany; East Brittany dispersed. 225,000 (1989 ICDBL), decreasing. 1,200,000 know Breton but do not regularly use it. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Brezhoneg Dialects: Gwenedeg (Vannetais), Kerneveg (Cornouaillais), Leoneg (Leonais), Tregerieg (Tregorrois). Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic Comments: In 1914 reportedly 90% (about 1 million) of the population of the western half of Brittany spoke Breton. In 1945 it was about 75%, and today, in all of Brittany the most optimistic estimate would be that 20% of Bretons can speak Breton. Brittany has a population of roughly 4 million, including the department of Loire-Atlantique separated from official Brittany in 1941.
[cos] Corsica, Paris, Marseilles. Also in Canada, Cuba, Italy, Puerto Rico, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela. 30,000 in France (2009), decreasing. On Corsica, 125,000 people have some command of Corsican. Population total all countries: 31,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory provincial working language in Island of Corsica (2005, Autonomy Law No. 97, Article 7), mainly used in education. Alternate Names: Corse, Corsi, Corso, Corsu Dialects: Northern Corsican (Bastia, Cape Cors), Sartenais, Venaco, Vico-Ajaccio. Lexical similarity: 79%–89% with Bastia, Venaco, Vico, and Sartene dialects. Bonifacio on the southern tip of the island has 78% lexical similarity (highest) with Bastia at extreme north. Ajaccio dialect is central and prestigious. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican
[fra] Also in Algeria, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Guadeloupe, Guinea, Haiti, India, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Niger, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Rwanda, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, U.S. Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna. 53,500,000 in France (2006 census). Population total all countries: 68,458,600. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, Consitution, Article 2.1). Alternate Names: Français Dialects: Angevin, Berrichon, Bourbonnais, Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Lorraine, Norman (Normand), Poitevin, Saintongeais, Standard French. Lexical similarity: 89% with Italian [ita], 80% with Logudorese Sardinian [src], 78% with Romansch [roh], 75% with Portuguese [por], Romanian [ron], and Spanish[spa], 29% with German [deu], 27% with English [eng]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Christian.
French Sign Language
[fsl] Southern FSL is used in Marseille, Toulon, La Ciotat, and Salon de Provence. Also in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique. 50,000–100,000 users in France (Van Cleve 1986). 1,000 users of Marseille Sign Language (1975 Sallagooty). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: FSL, Langue des Signes Française, LSF Dialects: Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language). Many sign languages influenced by this, but not necessarily intelligible with it. Partially intelligible with sign languages from Austria, Czech Republic, and Italy, at least. Lexical similarity: 43% with American Sign Language [ase] in an 872-word list. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: First sign language in the western world to gain recognition as a language (1830). Originated in 1752 as what is now known as Old French Sign Language. Sign languages were known in France in the 16th century, and probably earlier. Different from Signed French.
[lij] Corsica, Bonifacio town, and between Italy and Monaco borders. 300 to 400 in Corsica (Salminen 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ligure Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian
Lyons Sign Language
[oci] Auvergne, Gascogne, Languedoc, Limousin, and Provence provinces. Also in Italy, Monaco, Spain (Aranese Gascon). 1,940,000 in France. Population total all countries: 2,048,310. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Occitani Dialects: Auvergnat (Auverne, Auvernhas), Gascon, Languedocien (Langadoc, Languedoc, Lengadoucian), Limousin (Lemosin), Provençal (Alpine Provençal, Mistralien, Prouvençau, Provençal). Highly fragmented dialect situation, with limited intelligibility between some varieties. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc
[pcd] Region de Picardie, Amiens, Abbeville, Beauvais, Saint Quentin; region Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lille, Douai, Cambrai, Arras, Valenciennes, Boulogne sur Mer, Calais (except Dunkerque district); east zone, Haute Normandie region near Dieppe, Picardie border. Also in Belgium. Population total all countries: 200,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chtimi, Rouchi Dialects: Amienois (Amies), Artois, Boulonnais, Calaisis, Cambresis, Hainaut, Lillois, Ponthieu, Santerre, Vermandois, Vimeu. All dialects, including those in Belgium, are mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Christian.
[vls] Westhoek (French Flanders). 10,000 in France (1993 M. Evenhuis). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Frans Vlaams, Vlaemsch Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Ethnonym in France: Vlamingen. Glossonym: Vlaemsch. Dutch [nld] sometimes referred to as Vlaams. Different orthographies used in the 3 countries. Christian.