United Kingdom

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Angloromani
[rme] Scattered. 90,000 in United Kingdom (Hancock 1990b). Total users in all countries: 99,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anglo-Romani, English Romani, Gypsy Jib, Pogadi Chib, Posh ’N’ Posh, Romanes, Romani, Romani English, Romanichal, Romano Lavo, Romany, Rummaness. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Welsh Romani [rmw], Traveller Swedish [rmu], Traveller Norwegian [rmg], or Traveller Danish [rmd]. Grammar is English with heavy Romani lexical borrowing. Many dialects. Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani. Comments: Christian.

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British Sign Language
[bfi] Scattered. 77,000 (2014 EUD). L2 users: 250,000 (2013 K. Crombie Smith). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: BSL. Dialects: Scottish Sign Language, Welsh Sign Language. Deaf community is cohesive so communication good despite regional variation. Signing varies along a continuum from something usually called Signed English (which draws on BSL vocabulary but uses grammatical structure like spoken English) to natural BSL. Different styles of signing used in different situations, and signers vary in terms of how much of the range of signing styles they control. Many structural and lexical similarities between British Sign Language (BSL), Australian Sign Language (Auslan) [asf], and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) [nzs] and a high degree of mutual intelligibility. Linguists sometimes use the name BANZSL to refer to them as a group, while still recognizing them as having separate sociolinguistic identities (2003 T. Johnston). Not inherently intelligible to users of American Sign Language [ase]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: In 2003, British Government recognized BSL as a language (2014 J. Lapiak). 780 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Many thousands of people sign BSL as an L2. Numerous helps available to learn language: instruction for parents of deaf children and other hearing people. Christian.

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Cornish
[cor] Cornwall County, scattered. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 532,000 (2011 census). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Curnoack, Kernewek, Kernowek. Dialects: None known. Related to Breton [bre], Welsh [cym], Gaulish (extinct), Irish [gle], Manx Gaelic [glv], and Scottish Gaelic [gla]. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic. Comments: Christian.

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English
[eng] 56,600,000 in United Kingdom (2011 census). England and Wales 49,800,000, Scotland 5,118,000, Northern Ireland 1,681,000. L2 users: 1,500,000 in United Kingdom (Crystal 2003a). Total users in all countries: 942,533,930 (as L1: 339,370,920; as L2: 603,163,010). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Cockney, Scouse, Geordie, West Country, East Anglia, Birmingham (Brummie, Brummy), South Wales, Edinburgh, Belfast, Cornwall, Cumberland, Central Cumberland, Devonshire, East Devonshire, Dorset, Durham, Bolton Lancashire, North Lancashire, Radcliffe Lancashire, Northumberland, Norfolk, Newcastle Northumberland, Tyneside Northumberland, Lowland Scottish, Somerset, Sussex, Westmorland, North Wiltshire, Craven Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, Sheffield Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Glaswegian. Many local English varieties around the world. Lexical similarity: 60% with German, 27% with French, 24% with Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Christian.

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Irish
[gle] Northern Ireland, Fermanagh and Armagh counties; Belfast. 5,730 in United Kingdom (2011 census). England and Wales 1,560, Northern Ireland 4,170. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widely used as L2 in all parts of Northern Ireland. Alternate Names: Erse, Gaeilge, Gaelic Irish, Irish Gaelic. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Polari
[pld] No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Palari, Palarie, Parlare, Parlary, Parlyaree. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: An in-group language among theatrical and circus people. Used among homosexual men in Britain. Some observers trace its roots to sailors and seafarers, alleging that it derived from a maritime lingua franca.

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Romani, Welsh
[rmw] England and Wales, scattered. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Voshanange Kalá, Walsenenge Kale. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Angloromani [rme]. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Scots
[sco] Northern Ireland: Ulster dialect; Scotland from Shetland and Orkney islands to the counties of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, south and central Scotland dialect: Lallans; northeast Scotland dialect: Doric. 89,200 in United Kingdom (2011 census). 55,800 in Scotland, 33,400 in Northern Ireland. L2 users: 1,500,000 in United Kingdom. Total users in all countries: 1,599,200 (as L1: 99,200; as L2: 1,500,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Doric, Lallans, Ulster. Difficult intelligibility among dialects. Northern Scots on the Scottish Islands is considered by some a different language (Shetlandic or Orcadian). Lallans is main literary dialect. Scots is reportedly most similar to English [eng] and Frisian [fry]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Christian.

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Scottish Gaelic
[gla] Scotland, northwest Highland County; Isle of Skye and the islands of the Inner and Outer Hebrides; Glasgow. 25,100 in United Kingdom (2011 census). England and Wales 58, Scotland 25,000. Total users in all countries: 28,870. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Scotland (2005, Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act). Alternate Names: Albannach Gàidhlig, Gaelic, Gàidhlig, Gàidhlig na h-Alba, Scots Gaelic. Dialects: Biblical Gaelic is based on the 1801 Perthshire dialect, somewhat distant from today’s spoken dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic. Comments: Status rising since the establishment of Scots Parliament in 1990s.

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Traveller Scottish
[trl] 460 in United Kingdom (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Scottish Cant, Scottish Traveller Cant. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Blend of High Romani and Elizabethan Cant. Earliest texts go back to 16th century. Not Gypsies. Nomadic in Scotland.

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Welsh
[cym] Widespread in the Country of Wales. 562,000 in United Kingdom (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals (1971 census). Total users in all countries: 590,890. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Wales. Alternate Names: Cymraeg. Dialects: Northern Welsh, Southern Welsh, Patagonian Welsh. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic.

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