French Guiana

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Arawak
[arw] Northeast and Cayenne area, Balaté, Saint-Sabat, Larivot, and Sainte-Rose de Lima communities. 150 in French Guiana. Ethnic population: 350 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lokono Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean

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Carib
[car] Northwest coast, along Maroni and lower Mana rivers east of Maroni river mouth, Iracoubo and Organabo areas between Kourou and Mana. 1,200 in French Guiana. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibi, Kalihna, Kalin’a, Kalinya Dialects: Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib). Classification: Cariban

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] 5,000 in French Guiana. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Eastern Maroon Creole
[djk] Along Suriname border, St. Laurent and Mana. Kourou, Cayenne islands, Iracoubo, Macuria, Sinnemarie. 18,000 in French Guiana (2011 SIL), increasing. 6,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Businenge Tongo, Businengee Tongo, Nenge, Nenge Tongo, Nengee, Nengee Tongo, “Taki-Taki” (pej.) Dialects: Aluku, Ndyuka, Pamaka. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka Comments: Christian.

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Emerillon
[eme] Maroni river area, on Suriname border; Brazil border area, at the confluence of Camopi and Oiapock rivers. 400 (2001), increasing. Ethnic population: 400 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emereñon, Emerilon, Melejo, Mereo, Mereyo, Teco, Teko Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible with Wayampi [oym]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Wayampí Comments: Some borrowing from Wayana [way] or Carib [car]. Intermarriage with Wayana or Wayampi [oym].

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French
[fra] L2 users: All speak French [fra] as L1 or L2. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, French Constitution, Article 2). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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French Sign Language
[fsl] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language

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Guianese Creole French
[gcr] 50,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: French Guianese Creole French, Guyanais, Guyane, Guyane Creole, Patois, Patwa Dialects: None known. All French creoles of the Caribbean are somewhat mutually inherently intelligible (Goodman 1964). Intelligibility of Saint Lucia Creole [acf] is 78%, of Karipuna Creole [kmv] (Brazil) is 77%. Classification: Creole, French based

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Javanese, Caribbean
[jvn] Coastal area. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Comments: Muslim.

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Palikúr
[plu] Central coast and on lower Oyapock river. 250 in French Guiana (Queixalos 2000). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Palicur, Palikour Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Eastern, Palikur

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Saramaccan
[srm] 3,000 in French Guiana (1994), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Creole, English based

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Wayampi
[oym] Along upper Oyapock river, 2 settlements, one near Camopi, the other south along Oyapock headwaters. 650 in French Guiana (2000 SIL), increasing. 120 Camopí and Masikilí on middle Oyapock River, and 180 in 3 villages on upper Oyapock around Trois-Sauts (Grenand 1980). Ethnic population: 1,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oiampí, Oiumpian, Oyampí, Oyapí, Wajapi, Wayapi, Wayãpi Dialects: Oiyapoque, Wajapuku. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Wayampí Comments: 2 schools since 1956 and 1971.

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Wayana
[way] Southwestern border area, along upper Maroni river. 200 in French Guiana, decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alukuyana, Guayana, Oayana, Uaiana, Upurui Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana

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