Ghana

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Abron
[abr] Southwest, northwest of Asante Twi [aka] language area. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 1,050,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 1,182,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: Muslim.

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Adamorobe Sign Language
[ads] Eastern Region, Adamorobe village. 35 deaf in 2001 (Nyst 2007); total population: 1,360 in Adamorobe village (2000 census); most hearing people also sign, to varying degrees of proficiency (2010 A. Bickford). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: AdaSL Classification: Deaf sign language

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Adangbe
[adq] Togo border area east of Ho. Agotime mostly in Volta Region, Kpoeta, Apegame. Also in Togo. 200 in Ghana (2006). Population total all countries: 2,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe Dialects: Similar to Igo [ahl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Different from Adangme [ada]. The Adan and Agotime are separate ethnic groups who speak Adangbe.

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Adele
[ade] East central border with Togo. Upper Adele dialect in Togo; Lower Adele in Ghana. 11,000 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bidire Dialects: Lower Adele, Upper Adele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bidire. Ethnonym: Adele, different from Adere [add] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ahanta
[aha] Southwest coast. 142,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Akan
[aka] Asante: South central Ashanti Region; Akuapem: Southeast, north of Accra; Fante: South central, between Winneba, Takoradi, and Obuasi; Bono: Brong-Ahafo Region, Bono section. Also in Canada. 8,300,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Population includes 2,800,000 Asante Twi, 1,900,000 Fante, 555,000 Akuapem Twi (2004). Population total all countries: 8,314,600. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Dialects: Abura Fanti, Agona, Ahafo, Akuapem (Akuapim, Akwapem Twi, Akwapi, Twi), Akyem (Akyem Bosome), Anomabo Fanti, Asante (Achanti, Asanti, Ashante Twi), Asen, Bono, Dankyira, Fante (Fanti, Mfantse), Gomua, Kwawu (Kwahu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: The two main subdivisions of Akan are assigned codes in the ISO 639-3 standard: Fanti (fat) and Twi (twi). Fanti dialects: Agona, Anomabo Fanti, Abura Fanti, Gomua. Twi dialects: Ahafo, Akuapem, Akyem, Asante, Asen, Dankyira, Kwawu.

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Akposo
[kpo] South. 7,500 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akposso, Ikposo, Kposo Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Traditional religion.

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Animere
[anf] Eastern Central Region, Kecheibi and Kunda villages, remote. 700 (2003). Only a few fluent speakers left in an ethnic group of several hundred (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Anyimere, Kunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere Comments: Traditional religion.

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Anufo
[cko] Northeast, Wawjayga area. Also in Benin, Togo. 66,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 137,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Kyokosi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Large migration to Togo. Ethnic autonym: Anufo; Ethnonym: Chokosi. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Anyin
[any] Between Abron north and Nzema south, Côte d’Ivoire west, Twi east. Aowin dialect in Ghana. 250,000 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Anyi Dialects: Aowin (Brissa, Brosa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Avatime
[avn] Southeast, center at Amedzofe (Amajofe). 24,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afatime, Sia, Sideme, Si-ya Dialects: Similar to Nyangbo [nyb] and Tafi [tcd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awutu
[afu] Coast, west of Accra. 180,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Awutu, Efutu, Senya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Comments: Many have school education. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bimoba
[bim] Northeast, Gambaga district, south of Kusaal [kus] and north of Konkomba [xon] language areas. 120,000 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Moar, Moor Dialects: Related to Moba [mfq] of Togo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Northwest corner. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 125,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 129,310. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo, Ghana Birifor Dialects: A separate language from Wali [wlx], Southern Dagaari [dga], and Malba-Birifor [bfo] of Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bisa
[bib] Northeast. 166,000 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bissa Dialects: Baraka (Eastern Bisa), Lebir (Western Bisa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa Comments: Not the same as Busa [bqp] of Nigeria. Ethnonym: Busansi. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Buli
[bwu] Sandema District. 150,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bulisa, Guresha, Kanjaga Dialects: Most similar to Konni [kma]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Mampruli [maw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Chakali
[cli] East of Wa; Ducie village is largest. 6,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with Tampulma [tpm], 68% with Vagla [vag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Chala
[cll] Volta Region, Nkwanta, Odomi, Ago villages; Northern Region, Jadigbe village near Seipe, south of Ekumdipe is 35% Chala. 3,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cala, Tshala Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Different from Ron [cla] of Nigeria. They are under the Gikyode [acd] paramount chief. Traditional religion.

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Cherepon
[cpn] A pocket between Ga [gaa] and Twi language areas, north of Larteh. 111,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiripon, Chiripong, Kyerepong, Okere Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chumburung
[ncu] A triangular area with Volta lake south, Daka river northwest. Yeji is south of the lake. 69,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. 2,700 Yeji. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kyongborong, Nchimburu, Nchummuru Dialects: Northern Chumburung (Banda), Southern Chumburung (Bejamse, Borae, Chinderi, Gurubi, Lonto), Yeji (Yedji). Somewhat intelligible with Krache [kye]. Lexical similarity: 77% with the Yeji dialect, 79% with Kplang [kph], 78% with Krache, 69% with Dwang [nnu], 67% with Nawuri [naw] and Gikyode [acd], 60% with Gonja [gjn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dagaare, Southern
[dga] Northwest corner, west Upper West Region. 700,000 (2003), increasing. 1,000,000 including Northern Dagara in Burkina Faso (2003). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Dagaare, Dagara, Dagari, Dagati, Degati, Dogaari, Southern Dagari Dialects: Southern Dagaare and Southern Birifor [biv] are partially intelligible. Distinct from Northern Dagara [dgi] in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari Comments: Dagaare is more prominent politically and socially than Birifor. Different from Northern Dagara [dgi] in Burkina Faso. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dagbani
[dag] Northeast Tamale area, as far as Yendi. 800,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Dagbamba, Dagbane, Dagomba Dialects: Nanuni (Nanumba). Lexical similarity: 95% with Mampruli [maw], 90% with Farefare [gur], 89% with Kusaal [kus]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Ethnic autonym: Dagbamba or Dagomba; Ethnonym: Dagbani. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Dangme
[ada] Southeast, coast east of Accra and inland. 800,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Adangme Dialects: Ada, Gbugbla, Krobo, Ningo, Osu, Shai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme Comments: Traditional religion.

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Deg
[mzw] West central, west of Volta lake. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 26,400 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 27,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buru, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo Dialects: Boe, Longoro, Mangum. Lexical similarity: 78% with Vagla [vag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Ethnic autonym: Deg; Ethnonym: Mo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Delo
[ntr] East central border with Togo. The paramount chief is at Brewaniase, 35 km south of Nkwanta. Also in Togo. 10,900 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 16,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo Dialects: Reclassified from Kwa to Gur family. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: ‘Ntrubo’ is the name of the people. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dompo
[doy] Brong-Ahafo Region, Banda quarter called Dompofie. 65 (Blench 1999), decreasing. Ethnic population: 970 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dumpo, Ndmpo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: ‘Dompo’ is the name of people and language.

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Dwang
[nnu] South of Volta lake and the Chumburung [ncu] language area, east of Atebubu. 8,200 (2003 GILLBT). 1,600 Bekye, 3,300 Kenyen, 3,300 Wiase. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dwan, Nchumunu Dialects: Bekye, Kenyen, Wiase. Most similar to Kplang [kph]. Comprehension of Chumburung [ncu] 75%. Krache [kye] is understood well due to contact. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Ethnonym: Bassa, historically.

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English
[eng] Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Éwé
[ewe] Southeast corner. Also in Togo. 2,250,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,112,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Ebwe, Efe, Eibe, Eue, Eve, Gbe, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe Dialects: Anglo (Anlo), Awuna, Hudu, Kotafoa. Westernmost language of the Gbe language subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Farefare
[gur] Northeast, Upper East Region, Bolgatanga area, Frafra district, west to Navrongo. Also in Burkina Faso (Ninkare). 820,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Up to 656,000 in Upper East region, and at least 164,000 in various towns and cities in other regions (2003). Population total all countries: 845,100. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Upper East Region. Alternate Names: Frafra, Gurene, Gurenne, Gurune, Nankani, Ninkare Dialects: Booni, Gurune (Gudeni, Gudenne, Gurenne, Zuadeni), Nabt (Nabdam, Nabde, Nabdug, Nabit, Nabnam, Nabrug, Nabte, Namnam), Nankani (Naani, Nankanse), Talni (Talene, Talensi). 5 major dialects and many minor ones. Dialects are divided according to geography and ethnic sub-boundaries. Some named after towns or localities. Consider Southern Dagaare [dga] in particular a sister language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Ethnonym: Talensi. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] North, in small groups. 7,300 in Ghana (1991). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Maacina, Peul Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Nomadic. Considered foreigners by Ghanaians. Muslim.

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Ga
[gaa] Southeast, Accra coast area. 600,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Accra, Acra, Amina, Gain Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme Comments: Ethnonym: Gamei (literally, Ga people), Ganyo (sg.) or Ganyobi (child of a Ga person). Ga refers to the language, ethnic group, and central part of Accra. Traditional religion.

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Ghanaian Pidgin English
[gpe] Accra and southern towns. 5,000,000 (2011 V. Velupillai). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kroo Brofo, Kru English, Pidgin, Pidgin English Dialects: Similar to Nigerian Pidgin [pcm], Cameroon Pidgin [wes], and Krio [kri]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio Comments: Spoken across ethnic groups.

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Ghanaian Sign Language
[gse] Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Related to American [ase] and Nigerian [nsi] sign languages. Brought in 1957 by missionary Andrew Foster. Differs from American Sign Language in lexicon. New and local signs, and some modified from ASL. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Manual alphabet for signing.

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Gikyode
[acd] East central, on Togo border. 9 remote villages. 10,400 (2003), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chode, Gichode, Kyode Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Ginyanga [ayg] of Togo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Ethnonym: Akyode (Achode). Glossonym: Gikyode (correct spelling), Gichode is the correct English pronunciation. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gonja
[gjn] Northern Region, south; west central, upper branches of Volta lake area; Black Volta river to White Volta area, both sides. 230,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Dialects: Choruba (Choroba), Gonja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Gua
[gwx] A pocket in Éwé [ewe] language area. 60,200 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anum-Boso, Guan, Gwa Dialects: Anu (Anum), Boso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hanga
[hag] North central, southeast of Mole Game Reserve, Damongo district. Murugu is biggest village. 6,800 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. 4,100 in the traditional area, 2,700 elsewhere. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anga Dialects: Northern Hanga, Southern Hanga. Kamara [jmr] is a separate language. Subdialects of Southern Hanga are Langantere, Murugu, Damongo; subdialects of Northern Hanga are Yazori and Bowena. Lexical similarity: 84% with Southern Dagaare [dga] and Farefare [gur]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Politically a subgroup of the Gonja.

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Hausa
[hau] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Comments: Muslim.

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Jwira-Pepesa
[jwi] Southwest corner; Jwira north of Axim from Bamiankaw to Humjibere along Ankobra river (18 villages); Pepesa on Wasa land between Agona Junction and Tarkwa. Dompim is main town. A mountain range separates the 2 groups. 18,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pepesa-Jwira Dialects: Jwira, Pepesa. 60% intelligibility with Nzema [nzi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] North. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabire, Kabure, Kabye Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kamara
[jmr] Middle Northern Region, edge of Hanga [hag] language area, on road west of Damongo, Larabanga village. Safaliba [saf] language group sources report another small village 30 km south of Bole. 3,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Significantly different linguistically and culturally from Hanga [hag]. More similar to Dagbani [dag] than to Hanga (1997 G. Hunt). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Population of 3,000 in Bouna, Côte d’Ivoire reported (Becuwe 1981). Muslim.

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Kantosi
[xkt] North central, Sandema district, among Bulsa (Buli) [bwu] language area; Navrongo, Bolgatonga, Nalerigu, and Kpaliwogo, near Wa. 2,300 (2003 GILLBT). 280–400 in Sandema District, probably about 280 in Kpaliwongo. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dagaare-Dioula, Kantonsi, Yare, Yarsi Dialects: Similar to Kamara [jmr], Farefare [gur], and Dagbani [dag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: A source says they are from Niger or Mali. Glossonym: Yare or Yarsi by the Bulsa. Distinct from Dagari-Dioula [dgd] in Burkina Faso. Muslim.

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Kasem
[xsm] North central, Navrongo district. 130,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Kasena, Kassena, Kassene Dialects: Fere, Kasem, Lela, Nunuma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Ethnonym: Kasena. Glossonym: Kasem. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Konkomba
[xon] Northeast border area, Guerin, Yendi district; north central, many scattered groups. Also in Togo. 500,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 550,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kpankpamba Dialects: Lichabool, Ligbeln, Likoonli (Likonl, Liquan), Limonkpel, Linafiel, Nalong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bikpakpam. Patrilineal, patrilocal. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Konni
[kma] Southeast of Sisaala [sil] and west of Mampruli [maw] language areas. Remote, isolated, no roads. 5 villages, Yikpabongo largest, also Nangruma. 3,800 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koma, Komung, Koni Dialects: Related to Mampruli [maw], Hanga [hag], and Buli [bwu]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Buli [bwu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma Comments: Politically under the Mampruli chief. Ethnonym: Koma. A high percentage of blindness from onchocerciasis. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kplang
[kph] South of Volta lake, south of Yeji (Chumburung) [ncu] language area. 1,600 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Prang Dialects: 73% intelligibility with Chumburung [ncu]. 96% comprehension of the Yeji dialect of Chumburung due to proximity. Lexical similarity: 92% with the Yeji, 79% with Chumburung [ncu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Krache
[kye] Central, near Nchimburu, Kete Krachi area. 58,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaakyi, Krachi, Krakye Dialects: Considerable mutual intelligibility of Chumburung [ncu] and Dwang [nnu] (Guan languages); less with Guan languages of Gonja [gjn] or Gikyode [acd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] West central, west of Wenchi. 27,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bonduku, Kolango, Koulango, Kulange, Kulango, Nkuraeng, Nkurange Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] West central border area. 15,500 in Ghana (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bouna Koulango, Buna Kulango, Nkuraeng Dialects: Nabanj, Sekwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kusaal
[kus] Northeast corner, Bawku district. Also in Burkina Faso. 420,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL), increasing. 350,000 Agole, 70,000 Toende. Population total all countries: 437,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kusaasi, Kusale, Kusasi Dialects: Agole (Angole, Eastern Kusaal), Toende (Western Kusaal). Further investigation of the Toende dialect in Burkina Faso is needed. Possible marginal intelligibility with Eastern (Angole) Kusaal. Many claim to be able to understand the related languages: Mòoré [mos], Dagbani [dag], Mampruli [maw], and Farefare [gur]. Kusaal is a member of the Mòoré-Dagbani subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Lama
[las] 100 km south of Bassar, to Yendi, as far as Tamale, and southeast of Tamale. Several hundred or perhaps thousands in Ghana (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso Dialects: Kadjala (Kadjalla). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

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Larteh
[lar] A pocket in Ga [gaa] language area, Twi area, south of Cherepon. 74,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gua, Late, Lete Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lelemi
[lef] Southeast, Jasikan town. 48,900 (2003), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buem, Lafana, Lefana Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ligbi
[lig] Numasa, northwest Brong-Ahafo Region; east of Sampa and northwest of Wenchi. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 15,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Population total all countries: 19,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda, Dzowo, Jogo, Ligwi, Namasa, Nigbi, Nigwi, Tsie, Tuba, Weela, Weila, Wiila Dialects: Atumfuor (Atumfuor-Kasa), Bungase, Dwera (Manji-Kasa), Gyogo, Hwela (Vwela, Weela, Weila, Wiila), Ntoleh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo Comments: Ethnonym: Banda, also refers to Nafaanra language speakers. Numu is a caste of blacksmiths who speak the same dialect. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Logba
[lgq] Southeast. 7,500 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikpana Dialects: A population sample averaged 87% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Logba Comments: Different from Lokpa [dop] of Benin and Togo.

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Mampruli
[maw] Northeast Northern Region, east and west of Gambaga. Also in Togo. 220,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in northeast North Region. Alternate Names: Mamprule, Manpelle, Ngmamperli Dialects: Eastern Mampruli, Western Mampruli. 50% intelligibility with Dagbani [dag]. Lexical similarity: 95% with Dagbani [dag], 90% with Farefare [gur]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nafaanra
[nfr] West border, east of Bondoukou. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 61,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banda, Dzama, Gambo, Nafaara, Nafana, Pantera-Fantera Dialects: Fantera, Pantera. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Nafaanra Comments: Ethnonym: Banda, Banafo, or Nafana. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Nawdm
[nmz] Volta Region, Ho and Kpando districts; Accra. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm

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Nawuri
[naw] East central, Lake Volta, mostly Oti river west bank branch. 14,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Most inherent intelligibility of Gikyode [acd]. Lexical similarity: 72% with the Buipe dialect of Gonja [gjn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nchumbulu
[nlu] West of Lake Volta near Kplang. 3 villages. 1,800 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Similar to Chumburung [ncu] and Dwang [nnu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Whistle speech reported.

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Nkami
[nkq] Eastern Region, Afram Plains district, Amankwakrom. 7000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Similar to Nkonya [nko]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: The Nkamis are under Akan (Kwahu) chiefs.

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Nkonya
[nko] Southeast, northwest of Éwé [ewe], some among Gua [gwx] language areas. 28,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ntcham
[bud] Tantale and Kpandai areas. 57,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Ncham, Tobote Dialects: Bitaapul. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nyangbo
[nyb] Southeast. 6,400 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tutrugbu Dialects: A population sample averaged 72% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. People who have had no contact with Tafi [tcd] had 67% intelligibility of it on tests; people 30 to 50 years old had nearly perfect comprehension. Reportedly only phonological differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nzema
[nzi] Southwest corner. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 262,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Population total all countries: 328,700. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima Dialects: Evalue. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Paasaal
[sig] Upper West Region, south of Tumu, 105 km east of Wa. About 18 villages. 36,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Funsile, Pasaale, Pasaale Sisaala, Southern Sisaala Dialects: Gilbagala, Pasaali. The Gilbagala more similar to Paasaal than to Tumulung Sisaala [sil]. The dialect in Funsi Kundogo is predominant among the Paasaal villages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Safaliba
[saf] West Northern region, Mandari, Tanyire, Manfuli, and Gbenfu villages; Bote, Sawla, Kalba town areas. 4,000 (2003), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Safalaba, Safalba, Safali Dialects: Lexical similarity: 79% with Southern Dagaari [dga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Speakers also reported in Vonkoro and Bouna, Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Sehwi
[sfw] Southwest. 250,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asahyue, Sefwi Dialects: Similar to Anyin [any] of Côte d’Ivoire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sekpele
[lip] Southeast, north of Hohoe. 23,400 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bosele, Likpe, Mu Dialects: Sekpele, Sekwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi Comments: Traditional religion.

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Selee
[snw] Southeast, Benua, Bume, and Gbodome villages. 11,300 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Santrokofi, Sele, Sentrokofi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sisaala, Tumulung
[sil] North central, Tumu district. 105,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hissala, Isaalung, Issala, Sisai, Sisala Tumu Dialects: Gil Bagale (Galebagla), Isala, Nsihaa, Potule. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Sisaala, Western
[ssl] North central, Lambusie area. 30,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Busillu Sisala, Hissala, Issala, Sisai Dialects: Similar to Sissala [sld] of Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Siwu
[akp] Southeast, north of Hohoé. 27,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akpafu-Lolobi, Lolobi-Akpafu, Siwusi Dialects: Akpafu, Lolobi. Lolobi and Akpafu dialects are inherently intelligible, but have been politically separate since the 1800s. A population sample averaged 66% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu Comments: Ethnonym: Lolobi and Akpafu, also town names. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tafi
[tcd] East central, near Togo border. 4,400 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tegbo Dialects: A population sample averaged 73% comprehension of Éwé mixed discourse types. 83% understand Nyangbo [nyb] narrative well. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tampulma
[tpm] North central, south of Sisaala, Damongo district. 25 villages. 16,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tampele, Tamplima, Tampole, Tampolem, Tampolense, Tamprusi Dialects: 2 inherently intelligible dialects. Lexical similarity: 62% with Chakali [cli]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: ‘Tamprusi’ is the name of the people. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tem
[kdh] Accra mostly. 53,000 in Ghana. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Muslim.

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Tuwuli
[bov] Volta Region, Volta lake east to Amanfro on Hohoe-Jasikan road. 11,400 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bawuli, Bowili, Bowiri, Liwuli, Siwuri, Tuwili Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Traditional religion.

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Vagla
[vag] West central, Northern Region, Damongo district, near Sawla. 13,500 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Konosarola, Paxala, Vagala Dialects: Bole, Buge. Lexical similarity: 68% with Chakali [cli]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wali
[wlx] Northwest corner. 138,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ala, Ouala, Waali, Wala Dialects: ’Bulengee, Cherii, ’Dolimi, Fufula, Yeri Waali. Distinct from Southern Birifor [biv] and Southern Dagaari [dga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: The ’ before dialect names indicates a change in vowel quality. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Wasa
[wss] Southwest. 309,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wasaw, Wassa Dialects: Amenfi, Fianse. Some intelligibility with Abron [abr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: Traditional religion.

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