Guinea

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Badyara
[pbp] Boké region: Koundara prefecture. 6,300 in Guinea (1998 NTM). Population total all countries: 12,730. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Badara, Badian, Badjara, Badyaranke, Bigola, Gola, Pajade, Pajadinka Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Biafada [bif], the most similar language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Maintain cultural autonomy. Muslim.

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Baga Binari
[bcg] Boké region: Boké prefecture, coast east of Nunez river. 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baka, Binari, Kalum, Mborin Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Landoma [ldm] and Themne [tem]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Baga Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Baga Kaloum
[bqf] Boké region. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Baga

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Baga Koga
[bgo] Kindia region: between Pongo and Konkouré rivers, to Île de Kito. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baka, Koba, Koga Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Landoma [ldm] and Themne [tem]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Baga Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Baga Manduri
[bmd] Boké region: Nunez river delta islands, Kanfarande subprefecture, Dobale area. 4,000 (2011 NTM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baga Mandouri, Baka, Maduri, Mandari, Mandore, Mandori, Manduri Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Landoma [ldm] and Themne [tem]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Baga Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Baga Mboteni
[bgm] Boké region: south of Nunez river. Ethnic population: 4,900. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Related to Nalu [naj] and Mbulungish [mbv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Mbulungish-Nalu Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Baga Sitemu
[bsp] Boké region: Port-Kamsar subprefecture, Nunez river south bank; Boffa prefecture, Tougnifil subprefecture. 4,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baka, Rio Pongo Baga, Sitemuú, Stem Baga, Tchitem Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Landoma [ldm] and Themne [tem]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Baga Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Baga Sobané
[bsv] Boké region: Boffa prefecture, between Kapatchez and Pongo rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baga Kakissa, Baka, Sobané Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Landoma [ldm] and Themne [tem]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Baga

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Bassari
[bsc] Boké region: Gaoual prefecture; Labe region: Mali prefecture; border area northwest of Touba town, some northeast corner. 8,600 in Guinea (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayan, Basari, Biyan, Oneyan, Onian, Tenda Basari, Wo Dialects: Southern Bassari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Matrilineal. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bullom So
[buy] Kindia region: A few speakers possibly in Forecariah prefecture near Sierra Leone border, with a distinct [buy] language area in the other country. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bolom, Bulem, Bullin, Bullun, Mandenyi, Mandingi, Mani, Mmani, Northern Bullom Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Bullom-Kissi, Bullom, Northern

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Dan
[dnj] Nzérékoré region: Lola prefecture, east of Nzoo on Côte d’Ivoire border, Kogota village. 800 in Guinea (2001 G. Pruett). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Gyo, Yacouba, Yakuba Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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French
[fra] L2 users: 2,000,000 in Guinea (Francophonie 2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 1). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Guinean Sign Language
[gus] Conakry. 530 (2008 WFD). 528 deaf signers (2008 WFD). 27,000 total deaf in Guinea (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Heavily influenced by, or based on, ASL [ase], with some influence from French Sign Language [fsl].

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Jahanka
[jad] Boké region: central Gaoual prefecture, south of Nunez river, between Sangea and Boke towns, south and west of Gaoual town, upper reaches, Tamine river; more than 60 villages. 29,000 in Guinea (1999 G. Gumbs). Population total all countries: 29,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diakhanke, Diakkanke, Dyakanke, Jahanque, Jahonque, Jaxanka Dialects: Jahanka in Gambia may be same language, or a dialect of Western Maninkakan [mlq]. Jahanka in Senegal and Guinea-Bissau is a dialect of Western Maninkakan [mlq]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Mandinka [mnk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Reportedly came from Mali in 18th century and trace their origins to Soninke [snk], but now speak a separate language. Muslim.

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Kakabe
[kke] Faranah region: Dabola prefecture, west and southwest of Faboula and Koumboulou towns; Mamou region: east of Timbo, Sokotoro, Wure Kaba, and 33 other villages. 10,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Ethnic population: 50,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fulajon Kan, Fulajonkan, Jon Kule, Ourekabakan Dialects: Kankalabe Kakabe, Kuru-Maninka, Sokotoro Kakabe, Wure-Maninka. Reportedly similar to Mogofin [mfg], but 250 km apart. Lexically similarity: 50% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk], 58% with Mogofin [mfg] (2002 D. Rainwater). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Mokole Comments: Ethnically separate from Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Muslim.

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Kissi, Northern
[kqs] Faranah region: Kissidougou prefecture; Nzérékoré region: Gueckedou and western Macenta prefectures, near Zialo [zil] language area. 287,000 in Guinea (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 327,000. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Gizi, Kisi, Kisie, Kissien Dialects: Kama, Liaro, Teng, Tung. Reportedly similar to Sherbro [bun]. Southern Kissi [kss] of Liberia and Sierra Leone is different. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Bullom-Kissi, Kissi Comments: Many loanwords from Western Maninkakan [mlq]. Traditional religion.

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Kla-Dan
[lda] Nzérékoré region: near Côte d’Ivoire border, Goh, Farakouroudougou, Fakolidou, and Gbogboda villages. About 30 villages between Beyla and Sinko. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan

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Kono
[knu] Nzérékoré region: Lola prefecture, east of Morissimandougou to Cote d’Ivoire border. 90,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Guu, Klo, Lora, Mohuru Ta, Nanaa, Vee Po, Zokota. Lexical similarity: 52%–67% with Kpelle [gkp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Kpelle Comments: Different from Kono [kno] of Sierra Leone.

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Kpelle, Guinea
[gkp] Nzérékoré region: southeast at Liberia border, between Nzebola and Dondano towns. 460,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Akpese, Gbese, Gerse, Gerze, Guerze, Kpele, Kpelese, Kpelesetina, Kperese, Kpese, Kpwessi, Northern Kpele, Pessa, Pessy Dialects: Central Kpelle, Gbali, Heghe. Different enough from Kpelle [xpe] of Liberia to need separate materials. Lexical similarity: 52%–67% with Kono [knu]. A member of macrolanguage Kpelle [kpe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Kpelle Comments: ’Guerze’ is the French name. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kuranko
[knk] Faranah region: southeast Kissidougou and south Faranah prefectures; Kerouane prefectures west of Banakoro, south Kouroussa; southwest Kankan region. 55,200 in Guinea (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koranko Dialects: Faranah, Fineriya, Sankaran. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Mokole Comments: Ethnically distinct from Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Landoma
[ldm] Boké region: between Guinea Bissau border and Kogon river south of Kandiafara, and Boke-Centre subprefecture to southeast; Kindia region: Telimele and northern border Boffa prefectures; Gaoual prefecture, 1 enclave near Kambala, another near Koumbia. 14,400 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cocoli, Landouman, Landuma, Tiapi, Tyapi, Tyopi Dialects: Tiapi (Tapessi). Reportedly similar to Binari Baga [bcg] and Themne [tem]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Temne, Baga Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Lele
[llc] Faranah and Nzerekore regions: main centers are Yombiro, Tangalto, and Kassadou. 23,000 (1998 B. Willits). 12,000 in Kissidougou Prefecture and 11,000 in Guekedou. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kassadou Lele (South Lele), Kounte Lele (Central Lele), Tangalto Lele (East Lele), Yombiro Lele (North Lele). Kassadou cannot understand Tangalto. Lexical similarity: 55% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk] and Mogofin [mfg], 73% with Kuranko [knk] of Sierra Leone, 62% with Kuranko of Guinea. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Mokole Comments: Muslim.

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Limba, East
[lma] Mamou region: Mamou prefecture, Oure-Kaba subprefecture, on Sierra Leone border. 4,000 in Guinea (Johnstone 1993). 2,000 speakers of the Ke subdialect of Northern Limba (1991 J. Kaiser). Population total all countries: 4,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yimba, Yumba Dialects: Northern Limba (Ke-Woya-Yaka, Warawara). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Limba Comments: Quite different from West-Central Limba [lia] of Sierra Leone. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Mandingo
[man] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 6,496,300. Comments: Includes: Eastern Maninkakan [emk], Kita Maninkakan [mwk] (Mali), Konyanka Maninka [mku], Mandinka [mnk] (Senegal), Sankaran Maninka [msc], Western Maninkakan [mlq] (Senegal).

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Maninka, Konyanka
[mku] Kankan and Nzérékoré regions: national reserve; Lola, Kankan, Kerouane, Beyle and Macenta prefectures; Gbasando dialect: Kabadian Mallerou, Ouanino, Dyibarou, Balanfe, Diatela, Boukorodou villages along the Beyla-Sinko road and to the north of Sinko; Woroduu dialect: Sokourala, Karagba dialect: Lola. 210,000 in Guinea (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 249,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konya, Konyakakan, Konyanka Dialects: Gbasando, Gbeeka, Karagba, Konya, Woroduu. Gbasando speakers are believed to be Fulbe by origin. Woroduu is different from Worodougou [jud] in Côte d’Ivoire, reportedly similar to Wojenaka [jod].. Lexical similarity: 72% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding Comments: Speakers of the eastern dialects often refer to themselves as Jula. Muslim.

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Maninka, Sankaran
[msc] Kankan region: east Kouroussa prefecture; Faranah region and prefecture; along Niger tributary, Serekoroba area. 77,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Faranah, Sankarankan Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk], 59% with Kuranko [knk]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding Comments: Muslim.

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Maninkakan, Eastern
[emk] Widespread and in all urban areas. 3,000,000 in Guinea (2012 V. Vydrin). 73,500 Wasulu. Population total all countries: 3,531,800. L2 users: L2 for a considerable part of non-Manding population of Guinea, especially in the Guinée Forestière Region. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Eastern Malinke, Kankan Maninka, Malinké, Mande, Maninka, Southern Maninka Dialects: Amana (Kourousa), Baliya, Gbereduu, Maninka-Mori (Mori), Toron, Wasulunkakan (Wasolon Maninka, Wassulu, Wassulunka, Wassulunke, Wasuu). Maninka of Liberia is the same as Maninka of Guinea (Eastern Maninkakan). Bambara [bam] of Mali and parts of Senegal is not vastly different. Eastern Maninkakan of Côte d’Ivoire is reportedly similar to Bambara; Western Maninkakan [mlq] of south central and southeast Senegal is considerably different. Lexical similarity: 92% with Wasulunkakan dialect, 79% with Sankaran Maninka [msc], 72% with Konyanka Maninka [mku]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding Comments: Muslim.

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Mano
[mev] Nzérékoré region: Yomou prefecture, Dieke subprefecture; Nzerekore prefecture, east of Kpelle [gkp] language area; Lola prefecture south of capital Lola town. 85,000 in Guinea (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maa, Mah, Manon, Mawe Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Mano Comments: Traditional religion.

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Manya
[mzj] Nzérékoré and Faranah regions: west Beyla and southeast Kissidougou prefectures; Macenta-Centre to Liberia border; Kankan region: Keroane prefecture, Diarradou south. 25,000 in Guinea (1997 G. Pruett). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mandingo, Maniya, Manya Kan Dialects: Koinyaka, Manya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Mbulungish
[mbv] Boké region: Boke prefecture, Kanfarande subprefecture, coast north of Nunez river, 22 villages. 5,000 (1998 B. Willits). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baga Foré, Baga Monson, Black Baga, Bulunits, Longich, Monchon, Monshon Dialects: None known. Related to Nalu [naj] and Baga Mboteni [bgm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Mbulungish-Nalu Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mogofin
[mfg] Maritime Guinea, Sanguea town south, Boké region: Boke and Boffa prefectures. 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mikifore, Mixifore Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible of Kakabe [kke], but 250 km apart. Apparently similar to the Vai-Kono-Kuranko subgroup (1995 V. Vydrin). Lexical similarity: 51% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk], 55% with Lele [llc], 54%–58% with varieties of Kuranko [knk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Mokole Comments: Ethnic autonym: Mixifore (Susu: black person). Muslim.

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Nalu
[naj] Boké region and prefecture, area of Nunez river mouth and estuary. 13,000 in Guinea (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 21,830. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nalou Dialects: None known. Related to Mbulungish [mbv] and Baga Mboteni [bgm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Mbulungish-Nalu Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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N’ko
[nqo] Widespread Mande language mixture. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Mixed language Comments: A mixture of Mande languages: Bamanankan [bam], Eastern Maninkakan [emk], Jula [dyu], and Mandinka [mnk].

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Pulaar
[fuc] Boké region: Koundara prefecture, north of Tamine river. Extreme northwest corner. 24,000 in Guinea (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulfulde Pulaar, Haalpulaar, Peul, Peulh Dialects: Fulacunda (Fula Preto, Fulakunda, Fulkunda), Toucouleur (Futa Toro, Pulaar, Tukolor, Tukulor). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western Comments: Many Arabic loans. The official orthography is different from that used elsewhere. Muslim.

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Pular
[fuf] Widespread. 2,550,000 in Guinea (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 2,929,200. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Foula Fouta, Fouta Dyalon, Fulbe, Fulfulde Jalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon, Jalon Dialects: Fula Peta, Kebu Fula. Different enough from Pulaar [fuc] in Senegal to need separate literature. In Sierra Leone, recent immigrants from Guinea speak the original Futa Jallon dialect or the Kebu dialect (Dalby 1962). A slightly modified form of Futa Jallon is known as Krio Fula with many loans from Sierra Leone languages. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Heavy borrowing from Arabic. Formerly, extensive literature in Pular, but little still exists. Muslim.

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Susu
[sus] Widespread in southwest. 906,000 in Guinea (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 1,060,280. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Sose, Soso, Soussou, Susoo Dialects: None known. Distinct from Yalunka [yal]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Toma
[tod] Faranah and Nzérékoré regions: Macenta, Kissidougou, and Gueckedou prefectures, between Macenta and Kissidougou towns. 220,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Toa, Toale, Toali, Tooma Dialects: Gizima, Koima, Konokoro, Lulama, Manyaka, Vekema, Weima, Yala. Distinct enough from Loma [lom] of Liberia to need separate literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Mende-Loma, Loma Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wamey
[cou] Boké region: Koundara prefecture, Youkounkoun-Koundara area, to Senegal border; small border area in Gaoual prefecture, south bank, Tamine river. 5,270 in Guinea (2001 G. Pruett). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cogniagui, Conhague, Coniagui, Koniagi, Konyagi, Tenda, Wamay, Wamei, Wey Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wamey. Peul word ‘Konyagi’, bees. Nomadic. Over 3,000 migrate from Guinea to Senegal annually; many stay longer. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Yalunka
[yal] Faranah region: south toward Sierra Leone border, and Dinguiraye prefecture, Bafing river, Boukaria area; Labé region: northwest Mali prefecture; north Koubia and north Tougue subprefecture, Senegal-Mali border; Dinguiraye prefecture, Bafing river, Boukaria area; Boké region: Gaouala prefecture, enclave between Guinea-Bissau border and Koumbia. 55,500 in Guinea (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 104,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dialonke, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonke, Jalunga, Yalunke Dialects: Firia, Sulima. Reportedly similar to Susu [sus], but only marginally intelligible. Lexical similarity: 83%–92% among dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka Comments: Muslim.

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Zialo
[zil] Nzérékoré region: Macenta prefecture, Zembezou and Panziazou subprefectures. 45 villages. About third of Zialo speakers live in the cities of Guinea. 25,000 (2010 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shialu, Ziolo, Ziyolo Dialects: Bayawa, Kelighigo, Lawolozu, Wolo-Ziolo, Woyjawa. Reportedly similar to Bandi [bza] and Toma [tod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Mende-Loma Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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