Greece

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Albanian, Arvanitika
[aat] Attica (Attiki), Boeotia (Viotia), south Euboea (Evia), and Salamis (Salamina) islands; Thrace; Peloponiso Peninsula, Arkadia; Athens; Peloponnese, mostly northwest ; Andros north. Mainly rural. 300 villages. 50,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 150,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Arberichte, Arvanitic, Arvanitika Dialects: Northwestern Arvanitika, South Central Arvanitika, Thracean Arvanitika. Partially intelligible with Albanian Tosk [als]. Dialects perceived as mutually unintelligible. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk Comments: The language is heavily influenced by Greek [ell]. Christian.

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Albanian, Tosk
[als] Epyrus region, village of Lehovo. 10,000 in Greece (2002). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Arvanitika, Camerija, Shqip Dialects: Tosk, Cham. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk Comments: In Greece, Tosk is called Arvanitika, the Greek term for Albanian. Distinct from Arvanitika Albanian [aat] proper.

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Aromanian
[rup] North, Northwest Salonika, Pindus mountains, Trikala area. Also in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia. 50,000 in Greece (Salminen 1993). Population total all countries: 123,300. Ethnic population: 700,000 in Greece (Association of French Aromanians). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armina, Arumanian, Macedo Romanian, Macedo-Rumanian, Vlach Dialects: Structurally a distinct language from Megleno Romanian [ruq] (Agard 1984). It split from the other 3 Romanian languages between 500 and 1000 A.D. Many dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Ethnonym: Armini. Christian.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Western Thrace, 3 departments, including Xanthi. 30,000 in Greece (1998 Greek Helsinki Monitor). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Pomak (Pomakci, Pomakika). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Ethnic autonyms: Macedonian and Vlach. Vlach refers variously to varieties of Bulgarian, Romani, and Romanian in Romania, Greece, Albania, and Serbia. Many Greek [ell] loanwords from ancient Thracean and Illyrian. Viewed as Turks in Greece. Muslim.

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Cappadocian Greek
[cpg] Northern and central Greece. No known L1 speakers. Several hundred native speakers and several hundred semi-speakers of the Mistiot dialect. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Mistiot (Misti), Pharasa, Sille, Western Cappadocian. Similar to Pontic [pnt]. Even more distinct from standard Greek [ell] than Pontic. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic Comments: Different from the ancient Anatolian language spoken in Cappadocia. Christian.

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Greek
[ell] Widespread. Also in Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Libya, Macedonia, Malawi, Mozambique, Paraguay, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. 10,700,000 in Greece (2002 census). Population total all countries: 13,068,650. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Ellinika, Graecae, Grec, Greco, Neo-Hellenic, Romaic Dialects: Dimotiki, Katharevousa, Saracatsan. Katharevousa is an archaic literary dialect, Dimotiki is the spoken literary and now official dialect. The Saracatsan are nomadic shepherds of northern Greece. The Greek of Italy and that of Corsica are probably distinct languages (1992 R. Zamponi). In Cyprus, the dialect is reportedly more similar to Classical Greek [grc] in some vocabulary and grammar than that spoken in Greece, and to have Latin [lat] and Turkish [tur] loanwords. Lexical similarity: 84%–93% with Greek [ell] in Cyprus. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic Comments: Greeks in the Russian Federation and Ukraine speak either Greek or Turkish, Ethnonym: Urums. The Karamanli were Orthodox Christian Turks who came from central Turkey.

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Greek Sign Language
[gss] 42,600 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Roots in American and French sign languages and various indigenous sign languages, which came together in the 1950s.

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Greek, Ancient
[grc] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Classical Greek, Koine Greek. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic

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Judeo-Italian
[itk] Corfu. 50 in Greece (Salminen 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Italkian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Pontic
[pnt] Throughout Macedonia, especially Salonica, a borough of Kalamaria. Also in Azerbaijan, Canada, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Turkey, United States. 400,000 in Greece (2009 Z. Diakonikolaou). Population total all countries: 1,178,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pontic Greek Dialects: Standard Greek [ell] speakers cannot understand Pontic, and Pontic speakers reportedly do not understand or speak standard Greek [ell]. Pontic clubs and centers exist in the Athens-Peiraeus suburbs. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic Comments: Brought to Greece in the 1920s and 1930s by immigrants from the Black Sea coast, which had been inhabited by Greeks since antiquity.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Athens, Agia Varvara suburb, about 500 families. 40,000 in Greece (1996 B. Igla). 10,000 Arlija, 30,000 Greek Romani. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Arlija (Erli), Greek Romani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 1,000 in Greece. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Romanés, Tsingani Dialects: Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Nonsettled Gypsies are called Yifti. Distinct from Rumanovlach, a variety of Romanian. Christian.

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Romanian, Megleno
[ruq] Kilkis prefecture, Meglen region, north of Salonika. Also in Macedonia. 3,000 in Greece (2002). Population total all countries: 5,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Meglenite, Meglenitic Dialects: Structurally a distinct language from Romanian [rom], Aromanian [rup], and Istro Romanian [ruo] (Agard 1984). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: The 4 Romanian languages split between 500 and 1000 A.D.

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Romano-Greek
[rge] 30 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hellenoromani Dialects: Structured on Greek [ell] with heavy Romani lexicon. Classification: Mixed language, Greek-Romani Comments: Related variants are Dortika, a secret language spoken by wandering builders from Eurytania Prefecture, and Kaliarda, spoken in Athens. Both may no longer be anyone’s L1.

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Slavic
[mkd] Macedonia region, Florina, north Kastoria and Thessalonica prefectures. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Macedonian, Macedonian Slavic Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Called Slavic in Greece, where Macedonian refers only to people living in Macedonia, a region in Greece.

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Tsakonian
[tsd] Kastanitsa, Sitena, Prastos, Leonidi, Pramatefti, Sapounakeika, Tyros, and Melana towns, possibly Korakovunio; Peloponnesos east coast. Isolated in summer in east Peloponnesus in mountains west of Leonidi; in winter Leonidi town area. 200 (Salminen 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Tsakonia Dialects: Northern Tsakonian (Kastanista-Sitena), Propontis Tsakonian (Vatka-Havoutsi), Southern Tsakonian (Leonidio-Prastos). Derived from the Doric dialect spoken in Lakonia by ancient Spartans. Northern and Southern are reportedly mutually intelligible, but Propontis was more distinct, and more similar to standard Greek [ell]. Not inherently intelligible with modern Greek (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Lexical similarity: 70% or less with standard Greek [ell]. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Doric Comments: Christian.

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Turkish
[tur] Thrace and Aegean regions. 128,000 in Greece (1976 World Almanac). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Xanthi, 2 other eastern provinces (1923, Treaty of Lausanne). Alternate Names: Osmanli Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Turkish population in Greece remains fairly constant, due to steady emigration to Turkey. Muslim, Christian.

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