Guatemala

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Achi
[acr] Baja Verapaz Department, central Rabinal area and west; El Quiché Department, Uspantan municipality; smaller areas in southern Alta Verapaz and northwestern El Progreso departments. 85,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Cubulco Achi, Rabinal Achi. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean

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Akateko
[knj] Huehuetenango Department, San Miguel Acatán area. 48,500 in Guatemala (1998). Population total all countries: 56,840. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Acatec, Acateco, Conob, Kanjobal, Q’anjob’al, San Miguel Acatán Kanjobal, Western Kanjobal, Western Q’anjob’al Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko

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Awakateko
[agu] Western Huehuetenango Department. 18,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Aguacatec, Aguacateco Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Awakateko-Ixil

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Chicomuceltec
[cob] Petén and Huehuetenango departments. No known L1 speakers in Guatemala. Ethnic population: 100 (1982 GRN). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cakchiquel Mam Classification: Mayan, Huastecan

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Ch’orti’
[caa] Eastern border with Honduras, Chiquimula and Zacapa departments. 30,000 in Guatemala (2000 J. Lubeck). Population total all countries: 30,010. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chorti-Cholti Comments: Not the same as the extinct language called Choltí, formerly spoken in the Quiriguá and Izabal area. Nearly extinct in Honduras.

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Chuj
[cac] Central western Coatán river area, west Huehuetenango Department. 41,600 in Guatemala (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 43,370. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chuh, Chuhe, Chuj de San Mateo Ixtatán, Chuje Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Chujean

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Garifuna
[cab] Northeast coast, Izabal Department, Livingston and Puerto Barrios villages. 16,700 in Guatemala. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Carib, Caribe, Central American Carib, Garífuna Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean, Iñeri Comments: Ancestors taken from Saint Vincent Island in 1796–1797, and taken to Roatan Island. Most went to Trujillo in 1937. About 35 years later political troubles threatened their existence, and they fled further east into Honduras and Belize. Later they emigrated to other countries.

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Guatemalan Sign Language
[gsm] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lensegua Classification: Deaf sign language

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Itza’
[itz] North central Peten Department, north of Lake Petén Itzá. 12 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Icaiche Maya, Maya, Petén Itza’ Maya, Yucatec Maya Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Mopan-Itzá

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Ixil
[ixl] El Quiché Department, Chajul, Cotzal, and Nebaj municipalities. 69,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: 70%–75% intelligibility among the 3 Ixil dialects. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Awakateko-Ixil

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Jakalteko
[jac] Huehuetenango Department near Mexico border, Concepción Huista and Jakaltenango areas. 9,000 in Guatemala (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 9,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Popti’ Dialects: Eastern Jakalteko (Eastern Jacalteco), Western Jakalteko (Western Jacaltec, Western Jacalteco). The eastern and western varieties understand each other’s spoken languages, but not written text. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko

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Kaqchikel
[cak] South, Chimaltenango Department, Yepocapa municipality; San Martín Jilotepeque municipality, San Martín and Santa Ana Chimaltenango towns and rural areas; northwest of Guatemala City, San Juan Sacatepéquez; south of Antigua; west of Guatemala City on the Pan American highway; Akatenango municipality; Sololá Department, north and east shores of Lake Atitlán; also in east and northeast El Quiché and north Escuintla departments. 451,000 (1990–1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cakchiquel, Kaqchikel, Kaqchiquel Dialects: Akatenango Soutwestern Cakchiquel, Eastern Cakchiquel, Northern Cakchiquel, Santa María de Jesús Cakchiquel (Kach’ab’al), Santo Domingo Xenacoj Cakchiquel, South Central Cakchiquel, Southern Cakchiquel, Western Cakchiquel, Yepocapa Southwestern Cakchiquel. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean, Kaqchikel-Tz’utujil Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kaqchikel-K’iche’ Mixed Language
[ckz] Sacatepéquez Department, Santiago, Santa María Cauque villages. 2,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cauque Mixed Language Dialects: None known. Came from the K’iche’ area in the colonial period. Older speakers show a base of K’iche’. Classification: Mixed language, Cakchiquel-Quiché

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K’iche’
[quc] Central highlands, El Quiché Department, Joyabaj, Chichicastenango, Chiché, and San Andrés Sajcabajá municipalities; most of Totonicapán Department; southern El Quiché, eastern Sololá, eastern Quetzaltenango, and northern Retalhuleu departments; Suchitepéquez Department, southwest of Lake Atitlán; to the north, some communities in Huehuetenango and Baja Verapaz departments. 2,330,000. 300,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, National Languages Act, Decree No. 19). Alternate Names: Central K’iche’, Central Quiché, Chiquel, Qach’abel, Quiché Dialects: Cunén Kiché, Eastern Kiché, Joyabaj Kiché, San Andrés Kiché, West Central Kiché. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mam
[mam] Western Huehuetenango Department, San Sebastián and other towns; San Marcos Department, 17 towns; Quetzaltenango Department, 9 towns; Retalhuleu Department, 1 town; Western Ostuncalco area, San Juan Ostuncalco, San Martín Sacatepéquez, and other towns; San Marcos Department, Tajumulco and Ixchiguán; western San Marcos Department, rural areas west of Tacaná, western Guatemala border, and in Sibinal and Tectitán. Dialects in San Miguel Ixtahuacán (18,000) and Concepción Tutapa (30,000). 530,000 in Guatemala (1991–2000). Population total all countries: 537,980. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, National Languages Act, Decree No. 19). Alternate Names: Huehuetenango Mam Dialects: Central Mam (Comitancillo Mam, Mam Marquense, Mam Occidental, San Marcos Comitancillas Mam, Western Mam), Southern Mam (Mam Quetzalteco, Ostuncalco Mam, Quetzaltenango Mam, San Juan Ostuncalco Mam), Tacanec (Mamé, Tacaná Mam, Tiló, Western Mam), Tajumulco Mam, Todos Santos Cuchumatán Mam (Todos Santos Mam). Tacanec is the most distinctive of all the Mam varieties. Lexical similarity: 77% between Tajumulco and Comitancillo dialects. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam

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Maya, Mopán
[mop] Far southeastern Petén Department; 2 enclaves along road to Lake Peten Itza, west of Belize border, one between Dolores and Poptun and the other near San Luis. 5,000 in Guatemala (Adelaar 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maya Mopán, Mopane Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Mopan-Itzá

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Poqomam
[poc] East, Jalapa Department, San Luis Jilotepeque, into northwest Chiquimula Department; 2 enclaves in Guatemala Department, first, northeast of Guatemala City, Chinautla; second, 20 km southwest of Guatemala City, mostly extending into Escuintla Department. 49,000 in Guatemala (1990–1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pocomán, Pokomam Dialects: Central Poqomam, Eastern Poqomam, Southern Poqomam (Palín Pocomam). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Poqom, Poqomam

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Poqomchi’
[poh] Southwestern Alta Verapaz Department, San Cristobal Verapaz area; southern El Quiché Department, eastward from Uspantan; Baja Verapaz Department, notheast of Salama. 92,200 (1998–2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pocomchí, Poconchí, Pokomchí, Pokonchí, Tactic Pokomchí Dialects: Eastern Poqomchi, Santa Cruz Verapaz Poqomchi, Western Poqomchi. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Poqom, Poqomchi’

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Q’anjob’al
[kjb] Huehuetenango Department, Santa Eulalia; east into El Quiché Department, western border near Soloma. 77,700 in Guatemala (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Conob, Eastern Kanjobal, Eastern Qanjobal, Kanhobal, Kanjobal, Qanjobal, Santa Eulalia Kanjobal Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko

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Q’eqchi’
[kek] Petén Department south of Flores; almost all of Alta Verapaz Department; Izabal Department northwards from lake; east and northeast El Quiché and western Baja Verapaz departments. 800,000 in Guatemala (2009 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 823,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, National Languages Act, Decree No. 19). Alternate Names: Cacche’, Kekchi’, Kekchí, Ketchi’, Quecchi’ Dialects: Alta Verapaz Cobán. Only slight dialect differences. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sakapulteko
[quv] El Quiché Department, Sacapulas municipality; some in Guatemala City. 15,000 (2006 M. Schwartz). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sacapulas K’iche’, Sacapulteco Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean

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Sipakapense
[qum] San Marcos Department. 8,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 12,000 (2000 E. Kindberg). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sipacapa Quiché, Sipacapeño, Sipacapense Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 7,270,000 in Guatemala (2014). L2 users: 2,440,000 in Guatemala (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1985, Constitution, Article 143). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tektiteko
[ttc] Huehuetenango Department, Tectitán area, Cuilco. 4,900 in Guatemala (2002). Population total all countries: 4,970. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maya-Tekiteko, Teco, Tectitán Mam, Tectitec, Tectiteco, “Teko” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mam [mam]. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Tz’utujil
[tzj] Sololá Department, Lake Atitlán, south and southwest shore; Suchitepéquez Department, Chicacao area north. 83,800 (1990–1998 SIL), increasing. 17,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Eastern Tzutujil, Santiago Atitlán Tzutujil, Tzutuhil, Tzutujil Oriental Dialects: Western Tzutujil. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean, Kaqchikel-Tz’utujil

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Uspanteko
[usp] El Quiché Department, San Miguel Uspantán area; center is Las Pacayas village. 2,000 (2013 Language Museum). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Uspanteco Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean

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Xinca
[xin] Southeastern; Santa Rosa and Jutiapa departments. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Szinca Dialects: None known. Language may be related to Lenca [len]. Classification: Language isolate

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