Guinea-Bissau

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Badyara
[pbp] Northeast corner. 4,580 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Badian, Badjara, Badyaranké, Bigola, Gola, Kanjad, Pajade, Pajadinca, Pajadinka Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Muslim.

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Bainouk-Gunyuño
[bab] South of Casamance river, São Domingos area. 8,860 (2006 World Factbook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagnoun, Bainuk, Banhum, Banyuk, Banyum, Banyun, Banyung, Elomay, Elunay, Guñuun Dialects: None known. Distinct from Bainouk-Gunyamoolo [bcz] of Senegal and Gambia. Related to Kobiana [kcj] and Kasanga [ccj] of Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. Reportedly more similar to the Ménik [tnr] varieties of eastern Senegal than to Balanta-Kentohe [ble]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Balanta-Kentohe
[ble] Oio Region, and central coast, Mansoa to Bambadinka, south Tombali and Kinara areas. 397,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 423,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balanta, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Frase Dialects: Kantohe (Kentohe, Queuthoe), Mane, Naga, Nhacra (Fora). Naga, Mane, and Kantohe dialects may be separate languages. Distinct from Balanta-Ganja [bjt] in Senegal. Not intelligible with Mansoanka [msw]. Naga and Mane are related on one end, and Nhacra and Kentohe are very closely related on the other end of the dialect chain, with Kentohe and Mane being furthest apart. Mane speakers say they are the same as Balanta Ganja [bjt] of Senegal. (2009 B. Paris). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Balant-Ganja Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bassari
[bsc] Northeast. 510 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ayan, Basari, Biyan, Onëyan, Onian, Oniyan, Wo Dialects: Southern Bassari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bayot
[bda] Northwest, along Senegal border, São Domingos area, Arrame village. 2,190 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baiot, Bayote, Bayotte, Jola Bayote Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Bayot Comments: Bayot in Guinea-Bissau is different (about 70% the same) from the variety in Senegal. One dialect in Kasu and Arrame villages; the other in Elia, Kulaje, Ijobel, and Nambalan villages. Traditional religion.

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Biafada
[bif] Central south, north of the Nalu [naj] language area. 44,900 (2006 World Factbook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beafada, Bedfola, Biafar, Bidyola, Dfola, Fada Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Badyara [pbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Comments: Heavily influenced by Mandinka [mnk]. Muslim.

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Bidyogo
[bjg] Roxa and Bijago islands. Anhaki dialect on Canhabaque (Roxa) island, Kagbaaga dialect on Bubaque island, Kamona on Caravela and Caraxe islands, Kajoko on Orango and Uno islands. 29,900 (2006 World Factbook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bijago, Bijogo, Bijougot, Bijuga, Budjago, Bugago Dialects: Anhaqui (Anhaki), Formosa, Kagbaaga, Kajoko (Uno), Kamona (Caravela), Karanguna (Orango), Kasuga, Kavrama. Some intelligibility problems reported between dialects, but only Kamona said to be unintelligible to others. Important grammatical differences between Kagbaaga and Anhaqui, Kagbaaga and Kajoko. No information about dialects on Galinhas and Formosa islands. Lexical similarity: Galinhas dialect is 69% similar to Uno dialect; Formosa has highest (75%) with Galinhas, and lowest (55%) with Caravela dialect; Bubaque has 66% with Uno; Canhabaque and Caravela have 62% with Uno; Formosa and Uracane have 81% with Uno. (2009 F. Sabio). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Bijago Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Crioulo, Upper Guinea
[pov] Widespread. 206,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook), increasing. Population total all countries: 483,400. L2 users: 600,000 in Guinea-Bissau. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Guinea-Bissau Creole, Kiryol, Kriulo, Portuguese Creole Dialects: Bafatá Creole, Bissau-Bolama Creole, Cacheu-Ziguinchor Creole. Lexical similarity: with Kabuverdianu [kea]. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based

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Jahanka
[jad] Touba area and Toubadinque near Gaoual, Mali border area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Muslim.

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Jola-Felupe
[eja] Northwest corner, São Domingos district. 6,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 8,230. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ediamat, Ejamat, Feloup, Felup, Felupe, Floup, Flup, Fulup Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Jola-Fonyi [dyo] or Jola-Kasa [csk]; 50% with Gusilay [gsl] or Bandial [bqj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jola-Fonyi
[dyo] 500 in Guinea-Bissau (2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diola-Fogny, Jola, Jola-Fogny, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak Kati Fooñi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi

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Kasanga
[ccj] Northwest near Felupe, border area, sparsely populated. May be a few elderly speakers left (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cassanga, Haal, I-Hadja, Kassanga Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bainouk-Gunyuno [bab]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kobiana
[kcj] Northwest, near Banyun and Cacheu. 690 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 1,090. Ethnic population: 690. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buy, Cobiana, Uboi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bainouk-Gunyuno [bab] and Kasanga [ccj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mandinka
[mnk] North central, central, and northeast. 167,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manding, Mandinga, Mandingo, Mandingue, Mandinque Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Muslim.

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Mandjak
[mfv] West and northwest of Bissau. 184,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 310,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanyop, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjaku, Manjiak, Mendyako, Ndyak Dialects: Bok (Babok, Sarar, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam), Cur (Churo), Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Lund, Yu (Pecixe, Pulhilh, Siis). Some dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mankanya
[knf] Northwest of Bissau, Bula, and Có. 44,200 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 75,050. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bola, Mancagne, Mancang, Mancanha, Mankaañ, Mankanha Dialects: Uhula, Uwoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mansoanka
[msw] North central, Mansoa, Mantefa. 15,500 in Guinea-Bissau (2006). Population total all countries: 17,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kunant, Kunante, Mansoanca, Maswanka, Sua Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Balanta-Kentohe [ble] or Mandinka [mnk], although called, Mandinkanized Balanta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Sua Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nalu
[naj] Southwest near the coast. 8,830 in Guinea-Bissau (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nalou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Mbulungish-Nalu Comments: Intermarriage in border area with another group. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Papel
[pbo] Bissau, Cacheu Region. 136,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Population total all countries: 140,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Moium, Oium, Papei, Pepel Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mankanya [knf] and Mandjak [mfv]. 3 dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Portuguese
[por] Bissau. 167,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician

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Pulaar
[fuc] North central and northeast. 265,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2006 World Factbook). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulfulde-Pulaar, Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde Dialects: Fula de Gabu, Fulacunda (Fula Forro, Fula Preto, Fulakunda, Fulkunda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western Comments: Fula Forro are free Fulas; Fulacunda are slave Fulas. Muslim.

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Soninke
[snk] Northeast, north of Gaoual; Bissau. 5,000 in Guinea-Bissau (LeClerc 2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maraka, Marka, Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Serahule Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke Comments: Trace their origins to Gambia and Mali. Ethnic groups: Aser, Aswanik, Gadyaga, Marka, Markanka, Nono, Saracole, Sarawule, Serahuli, Tonbakai, Wakove. Muslim.

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