Guinea-Bissau

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Badyara
[pbp] Gabu region. Northeast corner. 5,110 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Badian, Badjara, Badyaranké, Bigola, Gola, Kanjad, Pajade, Pajadinca, Pajadinka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Muslim.

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Bainouk-Gunyuño
[bab] Cacheu region: São Domingos sector. 8,520 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagnoun, Bainuk, Banhum, Banyuk, Banyum, Banyun, Banyung, Elomay, Elunay, Guñuun. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Bainouk-Gunyamoolo [bcz] of Senegal and Gambia. Related to Kobiana [kcj] and Kasanga [ccj] of Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. Reportedly more similar to the Ménik [tnr] varieties of eastern Senegal than to Balanta-Kentohe [ble]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Balanta-Kentohe
[ble] Widespread. Central western area, between north and south country borders. 343,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 369,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balanta, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Frase. Dialects: Nhacra (Fora), Kantohe (Kentohe, Queuthoe), Naga, Mane. Naga, Mane, and Kantohe dialects may be separate languages. Distinct from Balanta-Ganja [bjt] in Senegal. Not intelligible with Mansoanka [msw]. Naga and Mane are related on one end, and Nhacra and Kentohe are very closely related on the other end of the dialect chain, with Kentohe and Mane being furthest apart. Mane speakers say they are the same as Balanta Ganja [bjt] of Senegal. (2009 B. Paris). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Balant-Ganja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bassari
[bsc] Gabu region: Piche sector. Northeast. 500 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ayan, Basari, Biyan, Onëyan, Onian, Oniyan, Wo. Dialects: Southern Bassari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bayot
[bda] Cacheu region: São Domingos area, Arrame village. Northwest, along Senegal border. 5,110 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baiot, Bayote, Bayotte, Jola Bayote. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Bayot. Comments: Bayot in Guinea-Bissau is different (about 70% the same) from the variety in Senegal. One dialect in Kasu and Arrame villages; the other in Elia, Kulaje, Ijobel, and Nambalan villages. Traditional religion.

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Biafada
[bif] Quinara region: inland surrounding mouth of Rio Grande de Buba; Tombali region: north Catio and Bedanda sectors, into west Quebo sector. 49,400 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beafada, Bedfola, Biafar, Bidyola, Dfola, Fada. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Badyara [pbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Heavily influenced by Mandinka [mnk]. Muslim.

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Bidyogo
[bjg] Bolama region: Bijago archipelago, Bolama sector nearest mainland, Bubaque sector south, Bubaque, Orango, and Roxa islands, Caravela sector to northwest, Carache, Uno, Caravela islands; other associated islands. Dialects: Anhaki on Roxa, Kagbaaga on Bubaque, Kamona on Caravela and Carache islands, Kajoko on Orango and Uno islands. 32,400 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bijago, Bijogo, Bijougot, Bijuga, Budjago, Bugago. Dialects: Anhaqui (Anhaki), Kagbaaga, Kamona (Caravela), Kajoko (Uno), Karanguna (Orango), Kavrama, Formosa, Kasuga. Some intelligibility problems reported between dialects, but only Kamona said to be unintelligible to others. Important grammatical differences between Kagbaaga and Anhaqui, Kagbaaga and Kajoko. No information about dialects on Galinhas and Formosa islands. Lexical similarity: Galinhas dialect is 69% similar to Uno dialect; Formosa has highest (75%) with Galinhas, and lowest (55%) with Caravela dialect; Bubaque has 66% with Uno; Canhabaque and Caravela have 62% with Uno; Formosa and Uracane have 81% with Uno. (2009 F. Sabio). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Bijago. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Crioulo, Upper Guinea
[pov] Widespread. 232,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc), increasing. L2 users: 600,000 in Guinea-Bissau. Total users in all countries: 1,031,100 (as L1: 411,100; as L2: 620,000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Guinea-Bissau Creole, Guinea-Bissau Kriyol, Kriulo, Kriyol, Portuguese Creole. Dialects: Bissau-Bolama Creole, Bafatá Creole, Cacheu-Ziguinchor Creole. Lexical similarity: with Kabuverdianu [kea]. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Jahanka
[jad] Gabu and Tombali regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Jola-Felupe
[eja] Cacheu region: São Domingos sector, east of Cape Roxo. Northwest corner. 6,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2012 SIL). Total users in all countries: 8,230. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ediamat, Ejamat, Feloup, Felup, Felupe, Floup, Flup, Fulup. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Jola-Fonyi [dyo] or Jola-Kasa [csk]; 50% with Gusilay [gsl] or Bandial [bqj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jola-Fonyi
[dyo] Cacheu region: Sao Domingos sector. 500 in Guinea-Bissau (2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diola-Fogny, Jola, Jola-Fogny, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak Kati Fooñi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kasanga
[ccj] Cacheu region: near Felupe, border area, sparsely populated. Northwest. May be a few elderly speakers left (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cassanga, Guhaaca, Haal, I-Hadja, Kassanga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bainouk-Gunyuno [bab]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kobiana
[kcj] Northwest, near Banyun and Cacheu. 700 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 690. Total users in all countries: 1,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buy, Cobiana, Guboy, Uboi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bainouk-Gunyuno [bab] and Kasanga [ccj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mandinka
[mnk] Cacheu region: Sao Domingos, Cacheu, and Bigene sectors; Oio region: Farim and northern Mansaba sectors; Bafata region: Contuboel, northern Gamamundo, Sonaca sectors; Gabu region: Sonaco and Pirada sectors. 169,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manding, Mandinga, Mandingo, Mandingue, Mandinque. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim.

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Mandjak
[mfv] Cacheu region; Oio region north; Bafata region: Gamamundo sector. 208,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 349,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanyop, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjaku, Manjanku, Manjiak, Mendyako, Ndyak. Dialects: Bok (Babok, Sarar, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam), Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Cur (Churo), Lund, Yu (Pecixe, Pulhilh, Siis). Some dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mankanya
[knf] Cacheu region: northwest of Bissau; Quinara region: mouth of Rio Grande de Buba; Bolama region: Bolama island; Tombali region: Cacine sector. 49,400 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 84,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bola, Mancagne, Mancang, Mancanha, Mankaañ, Mankanha. Dialects: Uhula, Uwoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mansoanka
[msw] Oio region: Mansoa sector, Mantefa area. Central. 17,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 18,310. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kunant, Kunante, Mansoanca, Maswanka, Sua. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Balanta-Kentohe [ble] or Mandinka [mnk], although called, Mandinkanized Balanta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Sua. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nalu
[naj] Tombali Region, Cacine river estuary. Southwest near Atlantic coast. 8,520 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nalou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Mbulungish-Nalu. Comments: Intermarriage in border area with another group. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Papel
[pbo] Biombo region: west of Bissau, Quinhamel area. 153,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 159,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Moium, Oium, Papei, Pepel. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mankanya [knf] and Mandjak [mfv]. 3 dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Portuguese
[por] Bissau region. 5,110 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Gabu region: central and northern portions; Bafata region: especially south of Geba river; Tombali region: between Aldeia Formosa and Carubel river. Northeast. 300,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulfulde-Pulaar, Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde. Dialects: Fulacunda (Fula Forro, Fula Preto, Fulakunda, Fulkunda), Fula de Gabu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western. Comments: Fula Forro are free Fulas; Fulacunda are slave Fulas. Muslim.

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Soninke
[snk] Gabu region: Pirada sector, isolated enclave. Northeast. 5,110 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maraka, Marka, Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Serahule, Soninkanxanne. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke. Comments: Non-indigenous. Trace their origins to Gambia and Mali. Ethnic groups: Aser, Aswanik, Gadyaga, Marka, Markanka, Nono, Saracole, Sarawule, Serahuli, Tonbakai, Wakove. Muslim.

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