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Adyghe
[ady] Kafr Kama and Rehaniya, small border villages. 3,000 in Israel (1987). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adygey, West Circassian Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Came about 100 years ago from the Caucasus (now the Russian Federation). Very slight dialect differences between the 2 villages. Understand radio programs in Adyghe from Jordan. Muslim (Sunni).

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Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language
[syy] Negev District, Al-Sayyid village. 140 (Sandler et al. 2005). L2 users: Also used by many of the 3,500 hearing people in the village; Members of the community generally recognize ABSL as L2 of the village. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ABSL Dialects: None known. Those who have any familiarity with Israeli Sign Language (ISL) [isr], including those who have attended schools for the deaf outside the village, recognize that the two sign languages are distinct. ISL signers outside the village do not understand ABSL. ABSL signers do not understand Jordanian Sign Language [jos] used on Jordanian television programs received in the area. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Amharic
[amh] 40,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: “Falasha” (pej.) Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba Comments: Spoken by Jews of Ethiopian origin. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi
[yhd] 100,000 in Israel (1994). Population total all countries: 151,820. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Arabi, Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic Dialects: None known. Reportedly not intelligible with Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [ajt], or Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju]. Reportedly similar to Baghdadi Arabic and North Mesopotamian Arabic [acm]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: The term Yahudic is used by a few scholars to denote all Judeo-Arabic languages. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan
[aju] 250,000 in Israel (1992 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 258,930. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Many dialects. Much intelligibility with Tunisian Judeo-Arabic [aeb], some with Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], none with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]. May be inherently intelligible with Moroccan Arabic [ary]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Many borrowings from Spanish [spa], Ladino [lad] and French [fra]. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Tripolitanian
[yud] 30,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 35,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jewish Tripolitanian-Libyan Arabic, Tripolita’it, Tripolitanian Judeo-Arabic, Yudi Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]; medium intelligibility with Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [aeb] and Judeo-Morocco Arabic [aju]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian
[ajt] 45,000 in Israel (1995 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 45,500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Medium intelligibility with Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju] and Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], but none with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]. A lexicon of 5,000 words in 1950 had 79% words of Arabic origin, 15% Romance loanwords, 5% Hebrew loanwords, 2% others (Cohen 1985). A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni
[jye] 50,000 in Israel (1995 Y. Kara). Population total all countries: 51,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Judeo-Yemeni, Yemenite Judeo-Arabic Dialects: ’Aden, Be:da, Habban, San’a. Jewish varieties markedly different from their coterritorial Muslim counterparts. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, South Levantine Spoken
[ajp] 910,000 in Israel. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Levantine, Palestanian-Jordanian Arabic Dialects: Fellahi, Madani. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: A few hundred are of Gypsy origin. Muslim, Christian, Druze, Jewish.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1922, Palestine Order in Council, Article 82, 10 October). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Armenian
[hye] Jerusalem. 3,000 in Israel (1971). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian Comments: The Eastern Armenian dialect of Armenian [hye] is spoken in Armenia, Turkey, and Iran; Western Armenian in other countries, including Israel. Christian.

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Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic
[bjf] 20 (2004 H. Mutzafi). In 1951, it was spoken among the 8 Jewish families of Bijil, a village in Iraqi Kurdistan. (1998 H. Mutzafi). Speaker who died in 1998 was over 80. Last Bijil dialect speaker died in 1998. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bijil Neo-Aramaic, Lishan Didan, Lishan Dideni Dialects: Barzan, Bijil, Shahe. Sandu is a Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialect closely related to Barzani, but several isoglosses link it with Lishana Deni [lsd]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Originally spoken in 3 villages near Aqra, Iraq. Also in Nerim village perhaps as a separate dialect.

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Bukharic
[bhh] 50,000 in Israel (1995 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 110,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bokharan, Bokharic, Bukharan, Bukharian, Judeo-Tajik Dialects: None known. May be easily intelligible of Tajiki or Farsi [pes]. Similar to Dzhidi [jpr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Many recent immigrants (1995). Jewish.

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Domari
[rmt] Mainly Jerusalem (old city), Bir Zeit near Ramallah, and Gaza. 2,000 in Israel (1997 Y. Matras). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nawari, Near-Eastern Gypsy Dialects: Nawari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Many loanwords from Arabic [arb], Kurdish, and other Iranian languages. Muslim.

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Dzhidi
[jpr] 60,000 in Israel (1995). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Judeo-Persian Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bukharic [bhh] and Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Jewish.

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English
[eng] 100,000 in Israel (1993). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Anglit Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Hebrew
[heb] 4,850,000 in Israel (1998). Spoken by all Israelis as L1 or L2. Some who use it as L1 now in Israel learned it as L2 originally. Population total all countries: 5,302,770. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1922, Palestine Order in Council, Article 82, 10 October). Alternate Names: Israeli, Ivrit Dialects: Oriental Hebrew (Arabized Hebrew, Yemenite Hebrew), Standard Hebrew (Europeanized Hebrew, General Israeli). An amalgamation of different Hebrew strata plus intrinsic linguistic evolution; not a direct offspring from Biblical or other varieties of Ancient Hebrew. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite Comments: Jewish.

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Hebrew, Ancient
[hbo] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Old Hebrew Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite Comments: Jewish.

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Hulaulá
[huy] 10,000 in Israel (1999 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 10,350. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: ’Aramit, Galiglu, Hula Hula, Jabali, Judeo-Aramaic, Kurdit, Lishana Axni, Lishana Noshan Dialects: Kerend, Sanandaj, Saqiz, Suleimaniya. Very different and not intelligible with Senaya [syn] or Lishana Deni [lsd]. 60%–70% intelligibility of Lishanan and Lishanid Noshan [aij]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Originally from Iranian Kurdistan and adjoining areas of Iraq. Jewish.

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Hungarian
[hun] 70,000 in Israel (1998 H. Mutzafi). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Uralic Comments: Jewish.

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Israeli Sign Language
[isr] L2 users: 5,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Including some hearing persons. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ISL Dialects: Not derived from and relatively little influenced by other sign languages. No special signs introduced from outside by educators. Minor dialect variation. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: The first deaf school was established in Jerusalem in 1934. Jewish.

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Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
[tmr] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Extinct around 11th or 12th century. Language of Babylonian Talmud and other sacred Jewish works. Familiar to students of Judaism in religious and scholarly realms; studied diligently by most Orthodox Jewish young men.

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Judeo-Arabic
[jrb] Population total all languages: 542,250. Comments: Includes: Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd], Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju], Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [ajt], Judeo-Yemeni Arabic [jye].

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Judeo-Berber
[jbe] Formerly High Atlas range, Tifnut, other communities. 2,000 (1992 B. Podolsky). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas Comments: Migrated to Israel from 1950 to 1960. Jewish.

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Judeo-Georgian
[jge] 59,800 in Israel (2000). Population total all countries: 79,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Oriental and Ashkenazic Jews in Georgia live separately; Judeo-Georgian speakers live separately from non-Jewish Georgian [kat] speakers. May not be a separate language from Georgian, but a dialect using various Hebrew loanwords. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian Comments: Some migrated to the Russian Federation and other countries. Jewish.

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Judeo-Tat
[jdt] Sderot, Haderah, and Or Akiva. 70,000 in Israel (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bik, Dzhuhuric, Jewish Tat, Judeo-Tatic, Juhuri, “Tati” (pej.) Dialects: Derbend. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat Comments: 2,000 speakers a year, called Bik, emigrate from the Caucasus Mountains to Israel. Jewish.

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Ladino
[lad] 100,000 in Israel (1985). Population total all countries: 112,130. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dzhudezmo, Haquetiya, Judeo Spanish, Judezmo, Sefardi, Spanyol Dialects: Haquetiya (Haketia, Haketiya, Hakitia), Judezmo (Jidyo, Judyo), Ladino. The Balkan dialect is more influenced by Turkish [tur] and Greek [ell]. The North African dialect is more influenced by Arabic [arb]and French [fra]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: The name Dzhudezmo is used by Jewish linguists and Turkish Jews, Judeo-Spanish by Romance philologists, Ladino by laymen (especially in Israel), Hakitia by Moroccan Jews, Spanyol by some others. Different from Ladin [lld] in the Rhaeto-Romansch group. Jewish.

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Lishán Didán
[trg] Jerusalem, Tel-Aviv area. 4,230 in Israel (2001). Population total all countries: 4,450. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Galihalu, Lakhlokhi, Lishanán, Lishanid Nash Didán, Persian Azerbaijan Jewish Aramaic Dialects: Northern Cluster Lishán Didán (Anatolia, Salmas, Urmi), Southern Cluster Lishán Didán (Mahabad, Naghada, Ushno). 60%-70% intelligibility of Hulaulá [huy] and Lishanid Noshan [aij], but not of other Aramaic languages. The Urmi variety of Lishán Didán is different from the Urmi variety of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Many loanwords from Kurdish, Turkish [tur], Arabic, Eastern Farsi [prs] or Western Farsi [pes], Hebrew [heb], and several European languages. Glossonym: Judeo-Kurdish or Azerbaijani Kurdish, both erroneous. Originally from Iranian Azerbaijan and southeast Turkey. Jewish.

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Lishana Deni
[lsd] Jerusalem and vicinity, including Maoz Tsiyon. 7,500 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Ethnic population: 9,060. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Judeo-Aramaic, Kurdit, Lishan Hozaye, Lishan Hudaye Dialects: Amadiya, Atrush, Barashe, Bétanure, Dohuk, Nerwa, Shukho, Zakho. Resembles Chaldean Neo-Aramaic [cld], but with differences in morphology and other features. Inherent intelligibility is high between them. Low intelligibility with Ashirat dialects of Assyrian New-Aramaic [aii]; not intelligible with other Neo-Aramaic varieties. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Jewish.

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Lishanid Noshan
[aij] 2,200 (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Galigalu, Hulani, Hula’ula, Jbeli, Kurdit, Lishana Didán Dialects: Arbel (Arbil), Dobe, Koy Sanjaq, Qaladze, Ranye, Rustaqa, Rwanduz, Shaqlawa. 60%–70% inherent intelligibility with Lishanan [lsd] and Hulaulá [huy]. Very different and not inherently intelligible with Christian Aramaic languages and Lishana Deni. Western cluster subdialects are Arbil, Dobe. Eastern cluster subdialects are Southeastern varieties: Koy Sanjaq, Qaladze. Northeastern varieties: Rwanduz, Rustaqa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Jewish.

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Polish
[pol] 100,000 in Israel (1992 H. Mutzafi). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Polski Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic Comments: Jewish.

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Romanian
[ron] 250,000 in Israel (1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Jewish.

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Russian
[rus] 750,000 in Israel (1999 H. Mutzafi). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Russit, Russki Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East Comments: Jewish.

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Tigrigna
[tir] 10,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Falashas” (pej.), Tigrinya Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Comments: The liturgy is written in Geez [gez]. Jewish.

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Yevanic
[yej] 35 in Israel. Population total all countries: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-Greek, Yevanitika Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic Comments: Possibly also a handful of older adults in Turkey. Jewish.

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Yiddish
[yid] Population total all languages: 1,510,430. Comments: Includes: Eastern Yiddish [ydd], Western Yiddish [yih] (Germany).

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Yiddish Sign Language
[yds] Status: Unattested. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Apparently spurious. No reliable attestation, and several knowledgeable linguists have never heard of it except in past editions of Ethnologue (2013 B. Spolsky). Jewish.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Southeastern dialect in Ukraine and Romania, Mideastern dialect in Poland and Hungary, Northeastern dialect in Lithuania and Belarus. 215,000 in Israel (1986). Population total all countries: 1,505,030. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Judeo-German, Yiddish Dialects: Mideastern Yiddish, Northeastern Yiddish, Southeastern Yiddish. Many loans from Hebrew [heb] and local languages. Eastern and Western [yih] Yiddish have difficult inherent intelligibility due to differing histories and influences from other languages. Some Western Yiddish [yih] in Israel (1977 M. Herzog). A member of macrolanguage Yiddish [yid]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish Comments: Jewish.

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