Iraq

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Adyghe
[ady] Baghdad, Diyala, As Sulaymaniyah, and At Ta’mim (Kirkuk) governorates. 19,000 in Iraq (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adygey, West Circassian Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Arabic, Gulf Spoken
[afb] Al Basrah. 40,000 in Iraq. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gulf Arabic, Khaliji Dialects: Zubair-Faau Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi
[yhd] Scattered. 120 in Iraq (1992 H. Mutzafi). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arabi, Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Tigris and Euphrates area. 11,500,000 in Iraq. Population total all countries: 15,100,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Arabic, Baghdadi, Furati, Iraqi Arabic, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic Dialects: Anatolian Cluster, Euphrates Cluster, Tigris Cluster. Geographical and sectarian divisions correlate with Iraqi dialects. The vernacular standard based on Baghdad speech. Also Bedouin dialects. Nearly unintelligible to speakers of certain other vernacular Arabic varieties. Anatolian Cluster in Turkey. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim (Shi’a), Christian, Jewish, Muslim (Sunni), Yezidi.

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Arabic, Najdi Spoken
[ars] Widespread; central Najdi dialect in western desert, used by Bedouin; North Najdi is south between the rivers up to the Syrian border. 900,000 in Iraq. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Central Najdi, North Najdi (Shammar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] North central concentration,Tigris and Euphrates valleys north of Baghdad, Salah ad Din, Al Anbar, Diyala, At Ta’mim, Ninawa, Arbil, and As Sulaymaniyah governorates; south enclave, northeast of An-Najaf, shared borders of An Najaf, Al Qadisiyah, and Babil governorates. 5,400,000 in Iraq (1992). Population total all countries: 6,300,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd], but has important sociolinguistic differences. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Armenian
[hye] Al Basrah, At Ta’mim, Dahuk, Ninawa, and Baghdad governorates. 60,000 in Iraq. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian Comments: Christian.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] Northern Iraq, mainly Dahuk and Ninawa governorates, 2 enclaves, one northeast of Buhayrat al Mawsil, the other, at Turkish border; scattered in Baghdad, Al Basrah, At Ta’mim (Kirkuk), and Arbil governorates. 30,000 in Iraq (1994). Population total all countries: 232,300. Ethnic population: 4,250,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Syriac. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Aisorski, Assyrian, Assyrianci, Assyriski, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Sooreth, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya Dialects: Central Assyrian (Anhar, Mar Bishu, Nochiya, Shamezdin, Tergawar), Northern Assyrian (Baz, Dez, Gavar, Jilu, Qudshanis, Salamas, Upper Barwari, Van), Sapna (Aradhin, Benatha, Daudiya, Inishke, Tina), Urmi Assyrian (Sipurghan, Solduz, Urmi), Western Assyrian (Lewin, Lower Barwari, Tal, Tkhuma). Similar linguistically to other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Inherent intelligibility is difficult to estimate due to extensive exposure throughout the Assyrian diaspora to many dialects, especially Urmi and Iraqi Koine. As a result, intelligibility between dialects is as high as 80%–90%. Urmian group subdialects: Urmi, Sipurghan, Solduz; Northern Group: Salamas, Van, Jilu, Gavar, Qudshanis, Upper Barwari, Dez, Baz; Central Group: Mar Bishu, Nochiya (Shamezdin), Tergawar, Anhar; Western Group: Tkhuma, Lower Barwari, Tal, Lewin; Sapna Group: Aradhin, Tina, Daudiya, Inishke, Benatha. Standard literary Assyrian is based on Urmi. Many left original areas and developed a common spoken and written form based on the prestigious Urmi dialect as spoken in Baghdad, the United States, and elsewhere (Iraqi Koine). Most Christians understand it. This Urmi variety is different from Lishán Didán Urmi variety. All dialects of Western, Northern, and Central Assyrian are spoken in Syria. A member of macrolanguage Syriac [syr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Religious separation of Assyrian and Chaldean happened in the 16th century. Christian (Nestorian).

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Separate enclaves, Kirkuk and Arbil cities, At Ta’mim and Arbil governorates; third one, between the 2 cities; fourth in sar Qal’ah area, border of Diyala and As Sulaymaniyah governorates; some in Mosul area. 600,000 in Iraq (1982). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Turkmen. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Dialects: Kirkuk. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani Comments: Ethnonym: Turkmen or Turks in Iraq and Syria. Little literature. Muslim.

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Bajelani
[bjm] Qasr-e Shirin, Zohâb, Bin Qudra, Quratu, north of Khanaqin; Ninawa Governorate, Mosul province; Kurdish areas. 20,000 (1976 S. Sara). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bajalani, Bajoran, Bejwan, Chichamachu, Gurani Dialects: In the Gurani and Zaza group. Closely related to other Gurani varieties, such as Shabak, Sarli (less closely to Zaza dialects). Contact with Kurdish. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Many displaced since late 1980s. Muslim.

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Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
[cld] Contiguous with Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [aii] enclaves in Dahuk and Ninawa governorates. 100,000 in Iraq (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 206,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Syriac. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Chaldean, Fallani, Fellihi, Kaldaya, Kildani, Lishana Kaldaya, Modern Chaldean, Neo-Chaldean, Soorath, Soorith, Suras, Sureth Dialects: Alqosh, Bartille, Dihok, Mangesh, Shirnak-Chizre (Bohtan), Tel Kepe, Tisqopa. High intelligibility of Lishana Deni [lsd] and Ashirat [aii] (western dialect group of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic); little or no intelligibility with other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. A member of macrolanguage Syriac [syr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Ethnic group distinct religiously from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties; separated from the Assyrian in 16th century. The names Chaldean and Assyrian sometimes used in a popular sense to include both groups. Originally located in central western and northern Iraqi Kurdistan and some in bordering Turkey. Christian.

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Domari
[rmt] Scattered. 22,900 in Iraq (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Middle Eastern Romani Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Muslim.

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Koy Sanjaq Surat
[kqd] North, Arbil Governorate, Koi-Sanjaq, Armota. 800 (1995 H. Mutzafi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koi Sanjaq Soorit, Koi-Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Soorit Dialects: None known. Related in certain morphological and lexical respects to Senaya [syn]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Christian.

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Kurdish
[kur] Population total all languages: 29,972,890. Comments: Includes: Central Kurdish [ckb], Northern Kurdish [kmr] (Turkey), Southern Kurdish [sdh] (Iran).

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Kurdish, Central
[ckb] Northeast, south of Great Zab river, As Sulaymaniyah, Arbil, At Ta’mim (Kirkuk), and Diyala governorates; smaller area, east of Tuz Khurmatu, Salah ad Din Governorate; diaspora communities elsewhere. 3,500,000 in Iraq (2009). Population total all countries: 6,750,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kurdistan Region (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Kurdi, Sorani Dialects: Bingird, Garmiyani, Hewleri (Arbili), Kerkuki, Mukri, Pizhdar, Rewandiz, Suleimani (Silemani), Warmawa, Xoshnaw. In Sulaimaniya, Hewleri and Kerkuki dialects seen as mutually intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Christian, Muslim (Shi’a), Yezidi.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] North of Great Zab river, Dahuk, Ninawa, and Arbil governorates; Surchi dialect near Great Zab river. 2,800,000 in Iraq (2004). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kurdistan Region (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Badinani, Bahdini, Behdini, Kirmanciya Jori, Kurmanji Dialects: Akre, Amadiye, Barwari Jor, Gulli, Sheikhan, Surchi, Zakho. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Surchi dialect shares elements of both Northern and Central Kurdish. Many displaced since late 1980s. Muslim (Sunni), Yezidi.

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Kurdish, Southern
[sdh] Large area on Iran border east of Baghdad, Diyala, Wasit, and Maysan governorates. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bayray, Kalhori, Kordali, Maleksh ahi (Maleksh ay), Sanjabi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Macho
[hac] As Sulaymaniyah Governorate; near Halabja, east of Silemani, Topzawa near Tawuq, pockets from Mosul to Khanaqin. 200,000 in Iraq (2014 Hawrami Cultural Centre). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gorani, Gurani, Hawramani, Hawrami, Hewrami, Macho-Zwani Dialects: Kakai (Kakkai, Macho), Zengana. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Very old literary tradition since A.D. 1300’s. Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

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Mandaic
[mid] Baghdad, Al Basrah. 5,000 in Iraq (2006). Population total all countries: 5,500. Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabean, Sabe’in, Subbi Dialects: Iraqi Neo-Mandaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic Comments: Mandaean.

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Mandaic, Classical
[myz] Al Basrah. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic

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Persian, Iranian
[pes] Near Iran border, Al Basrah, Diyala, Maysan, and Wasit governorates. 227,000 in Iraq (1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Persian Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Muslim.

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Sarli
[sdf] Kirkuk Governorate, At Ta’mim province, north of Mosul; many displaced. Fewer than 20,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sarliya Dialects: None known. In the Gurani [hac] (Gorani) and Zaza group. Reportedly most similar to Bajelani [bjm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Muslim.

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Shabak
[sdb] Ninawa Governorate, north of Mosul, Ali Rach, Yangija, Khazna, Talara villages; many displaced since 1980s. 10,000 (Blau 1989). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. In the Gurani [hac] (Gorani) and Zaza group. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Muslim.

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Syriac
[syr] Population total all languages: 438,300. Comments: Includes: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [aii], Chaldean Neo-Aramaic [cld].

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