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Aimaq
[aiq] Mazandaran Province. 170,000 in Iran (Johnstone 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Teimuri (Teimurtash). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Barbari and Berberi are also applied to Hazara people in Mashad.

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Alviri-Vidari
[avd] Markazi Province, near Saveh; also in Qom Province. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Alvir (Alviri), Vidar (Vidari). Related to Gozarkhâni [goz] and Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Gulf Spoken
[afb] Mainly in Hormozgan Province and nearby Persian gulf islands; in east Fars, Bushehr, Kerman, and Yazd provinces; Khamseh nomads and other Arab nomadic groups in south central Iran. 200,000 in Iran (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gulf Arabic, Khaliji Dialects: Al-Hasâ, Khamseh. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Khuzestan Province, southwest side of Zagros mountains, Shatt al Arab river bank; Bushehr Province, Deylam county. 1,200,000 in Iran. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arabi, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Armenian
[hye] North, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, and Ardebil provinces; Khoi, Shahpur, Ahar, Tabriz, Tehran, Isfahan, and Shiraz areas. 171,000 in Iran (1993). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Armani, Armjanski, Erâmani, Ermenice, Haieren, Somekhuri Dialects: Agulis, Astrakhân, Eastern Armenian, Jolfâ (Dzhulfa), Karabagh Shamakhi, Khoi-Salmst (Khvoy), Urmia-Maragheh. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian Comments: Christian.

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Ashtiani
[atn] Markazi Province, Ashtiyan and Tafresh. 21,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ashtiyani, Astiani Dialects: Ashtiani, Tafresh. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]. Dialects may be separate languages. Reportedly very similar to Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] Azarbayjan-e Gharbi Province; many in Tehran; Reza’iyeh (Rizaiye, Urmia, Urmi). 15,000 in Iran (1994). Ethnic population: 80,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Iranian Koine (General Urmi). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Religious separation of Assyrian from Chaldean happened in the 16th century. Christian (Nestorian).

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Avestan
[ave] No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Avesta, Pazend Dialects: Old Avestan (Gathic), Younger Avestan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian

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Azerbaijani
[aze] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 24,226,940. Comments: Includes: North Azerbaijani [azj] (Azerbaijan), South Azerbaijani [azb].

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Widespread, especially north and central. 15,500,000 in Iran (2010). Population total all countries: 16,913,280. Ethnic population: 18,700,000. L2 users: Used as L2 in Northwestern Iran. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Torki Dialects: Afshari (Afsar, Afshar), Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Baharlu (Kamesh), Bayat, Karapapakh, Moqaddam, Nafar, Pishagchi, Qajar, Qaragozlu, Shahsavani (Shahseven), Tabriz. A member of macrolanguage Azerbaijani [aze]. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Bakhtiâri
[bqi] Southwest, east Khuzestan, west Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, east Lorestan, Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad, west Esfahan, and Markazi provinces; Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord, Dorud. 1,000,000 (2001). 350,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lori, Lori-ye Khaveri Dialects: Aligudarz, Charlang (Chaharlang), Chelgerd, Haflang (Haftlang), Haftgel, Ize, Kohrang (Kuhrang), Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord. Bakhtiâri is on a continuum of related varieties between Northern Luri [lrc] and Southern Luri [luz]. Farsi dialects in Chaharmahâl va Bakhtiâri Province are mutually intelligible with Bakhtiâri. Lexical similarity: 75% with Southern Luri (Mamasani) [lrc], 86% with Southern Luri (Boyerahmadi) [luz], 73% with Northern Luri (rural), 78% with Northern Luri (Khorramabadi), 76% with Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri Comments: Little contact with Southern Luri [luz], some contact with Northern Luri [lrc]. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Balochi, Southern
[bcc] South Sistan va Baluchestan Province; Hormozgan Province, southeast coastal areas; Kerman Province, Rudbar-e Jonubi and Qaleh Ganj counties. 405,000 in Iran. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci Dialects: Koroshi, Makrani (Lotuni). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Balochi, Western
[bgn] Mainly north Sistan va Baluchestan Province; Kerman Province, Rigan and Fahraj counties; northeast Khorasan-e Janubi Province; half in cities and villages, half nomadic. 451,000 in Iran (1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Distinct from Eastern Balochi [bgp] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. Ethnic group: Yarahmadza. Muslim (Shi’a), Muslim (Sunni).

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Bashkardi
[bsg] East Hormozgan, South Kerman, possibly southwest Sistan va Baluchestan provinces. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bashaka Dialects: Northern Bashaka, Southern Bashaka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Muslim.

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Brahui
[brh] Central Sistan va Baluchestan Province, including Zahedan. 20,000 in Iran (2007), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barahui, Birahui, Brahudi, Kur Galli Dialects: Jharawan (Jhalawan), Kalat, Sarawan. Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: Muslim.

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Dari, Zoroastrian
[gbz] Yazd and Kerman areas. 8,000 (1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Gabar” (pej.), “Gabri” (pej.), “Yazdi” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Related to Parsi-Dari [prd] and Nâyini [nyq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Different from Dari dialect of Eastern Farsi [prs] of Afghanistan, though both names refer to Darius, the ancient Persian Emperor (‘dar’ is Classical Persian for court). Many Zoroastrians speak Parsi-Dari and do not know Zoroastrian Dari [gbz]. Zoroastrian.

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Dezfuli
[def] Dezful and Shushtar, north Khuzestan Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dizfuli Dialects: Dezfuli, Shushtari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Unclassified Comments: Muslim.

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Domari
[rmt] Fars and Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad provinces, Mehtar and Ghorbat; Kurbat and Luti in west. 1,340,000 in Iran (2000). Population total all countries: 3,952,810. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gypsy, Luti, Mehtar, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene Dialects: Karachi, Koli, Kurbati (Ghorbati), Luli, Maznoug, Nawar, Qinati, Yürük. Dialects in Iran may be highly divergent from one another. Not intelligible to Romani speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Influenced by Arabic, as well as languages of host ethnic groups with which any Domari group is associated. Muslim.

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Dzhidi
[jpr] Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djudi, Judeo-Persian, Judi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Jewish.

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Eshtehardi
[esh] Markazi Province, Karaj District, Eshtehard area. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Takestani [tks]. May be the same language as some dialects spoken southwest of Qazvin. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Fars, Northwestern
[faz] Fars Province, scattered pockets. 7,500 (2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sivandi [siy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Distinct from Farsi [prs] or [pes]. Muslim.

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Fars, Southwestern
[fay] Central Fars Province: Somghun, Papun, Masarm, Buringun, Kondazi, Davani, and others. 100,000 (2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Tajik” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Related to Iranian Persian [prs] or [pes] and Lari [lrl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars Comments: Distinct from Iranian Persian [prs] or [pes]. Muslim.

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Gazi
[gzi] Esfahan Province, small area east of Kashan. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Georgian
[kat] Esfahan Province, Isfahan, Najaf Abad, Shahin Shahr, Yazdanshahr. 60,000 in Iran. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gruzin, Kartuli Dialects: Fereydan (Ferejdan). Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian Comments: Muslim.

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Gilaki
[glk] Gilan region, coastal plain, south of Talish. Galeshi is a mountain dialect. 3,270,000 (1993), decreasing. 2,000 Galeshi. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gelaki, Gilani, Guilaki, Guilani Dialects: Bandar Anzali, Fumani, Galeshi, Lahijani, Langerudi, Rashti, Rudbari, Rudsari, Some’e Sarai. Reportedly similar to Mâzanderâni [mzn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian Comments: Heavy influence from Farsi. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Gozarkhani
[goz] Gozarkhan, northwest Qazvin Province; Tajrish, north of Tehran; Alamut area. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maraghei [vmh] and Semnani [smy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Gurani
[hac] West Kordestan Province, near Iraq border, Hewraman, east of Sanandaj, north of Kermanshah; Kermanshah Province. 1,000,000 in Iran (2014 Hawrami Cultural Centre). Population total all countries: 1,200,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Avromani, Awroman, Awromani, Gorani, Hawramani, Hawrami, Hewrami, Hourami, Howrami, Ourami Dialects: Bewyani, Gawrajuyi, Gurani (Gorani), Hawraman i Luhon, Hawraman i Taxt, Kandula, Zardayana. Zaza-Gurani group includes Southern Zazaki [diq] (Zaza) (Turkey), and Gurani [hac], Bajelani [bjm] (Bajalani), Shabak [sdb], and Sarli [sdf] (Iraq); Hawrami [hac] (Iran). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

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Harzani
[hrz] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, between Marand and Jolfa, northwest of Tabriz; related varieties in Galin Qaya, Babra, and Dizmar. 28,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karingani [kgn] and Talysh [tly]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Hazaragi
[haz] Khorasan-e Razavi Province, widespread, especially urban centers. 283,000 in Iran (1993). Population increased significantly due to influx of Hazaragi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hazara, Hezareh, Hezare’i Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Ethnic group names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad. Muslim (Imami Shi’a), Muslim (Ismaili), Muslim (Sunni).

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Jadgali
[jdg] 10,000 in Iran (2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jat, Jatgali, Jatki Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Different from Jakati [jat] of Afghanistan and Ukraine, and Russian Central Asia. Muslim.

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Kabatei
[xkp] Gilan Province, Rudbar district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Kabate, Kalas. Reportedly similar to Upper Taromi [tov]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Kajali
[xkj] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Kaqazkonan district, Kajal. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shahrudi [shm] and Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Karingani
[kgn] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Dizmar district, Keringan village; Hasanu district, northeast of Tabriz. 17,600 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Keringani Dialects: Various dialects. Reportedly very similar to Harzani [hrz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Kashkay
[qxq] Southwest, mainly Fars Province; Bushehr, Esfahan, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, and Hormozgan provinces; some possible in Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad Province; Shiraz, Gachsaran, and Firuzabad are centers. 1,500,000 (1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kashkai, Qashqa’i, Qashqay Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Azerbaijani [azb]. Classification: Turkic, Southern Comments: Nomadic. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Kazakh
[kaz] Northwest Golestan Province, Gorgan city. 3,000 in Iran (1982). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gazaqi, Kazak, Kazakhi Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: Muslim.

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Khalaj
[kjf] 42,100 in Iran (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern Comments: Pronounced with 2 short or front a’s. Different from Turkic Khalaj [klj] in Iran.

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Khalaj, Turkic
[klj] Qom Province, northeast of Arak. 42,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaladsch, Khalaj Dialects: Not a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb], as previously supposed. Distinct from other extant Turkish languages (Doerfer et al 1971). Different from Indo-Iranian Khalaj [kjf]. Classification: Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Kho’ini
[xkc] Zanjan Province, Kho’in district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Kabatei [xkp] and Takestani [tks]. Closely related varieties spoken in nearby villages of Balbavin, Sefidkamar, Halab, and Sa’dabad. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Khorasani Turkish
[kmz] Northeast, Khorasan-e Shemali Province, northwest of Mashhad; west dialect in Bojnurd area, north in Quchan area (probably largest), south in Soltanabad area near Sabzevar. 400,000 (1977 G. Doerfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Quchani Dialects: North Quchani (Northeast Quchani), South Quchani, West Quchani (Northwest Quchani). Midway linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen [tuk], but not a dialect of either. The Oghuz-Uzbek dialect of Uzbek, Northern [uzn] in Uzbekistan is reportedly a dialect. Different from Khorasani, a local Persian dialect in Khorasan. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Muslim.

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Khunsari
[kfm] Esfahan Province, Kashan and Isfahan areas. 21,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: May be one of a large complex of dialects in Esfahan Province. Other Northwestern closely related dialects include Vonishun, Qohrud, Keshe, Zefre, Sedeh, Gaz, Kafran, Mahallat, So, Mejme, and Djaushaqan. Distinct from Kumzari [zum] of Oman. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Koresh-e Rostam
[okh] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Koresh-e Rostam district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Koroshi
[ktl] Fars Province. 160. 40–50 families. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Appears to be Baluchi with some features of Farsi. They work for the Qashqa’i people.

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Kumzari
[zum] Hormozgan Province, Larak island. 600 in Iran (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri

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Kurdish, Central
[ckb] Northwest, primarily Kordestan and Azarbayjan-e Gharbi provinces; Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Zanjan provinces; Mukri dialect: Mahabad area; Sineyi (Sine’i) dialect: Sanandaj (Sine) area. 3,250,000 in Iran. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto provincial working language in northwest. Alternate Names: Kordi, Korkora, Kurdi, Kurdy, Mokri, Mukri, Sine’i, Sorani, Wawa Dialects: Mukri (Kordi, Mokri), Pijdari, Sanandaji (Sina’i, Sine’i, Sineyi), Southern Jafi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: 90% in cities or villages, 10% nomadic. Kordi may also refer to Northern Kurdish varieties (such as in Khorasan Province), and Southern Kurdish [sdh] varieties, such as Kermanshahi [sdh]. Muslim (Sunni).

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Azarbayjan-e Gharbi Province, north and west of Lake Urmia; enclaves in Mazandaran (Kalardast region), and Qazvin provinces; northeast, in Khorasan-e Shemali Province, Quchan and Bojnurd towns, also in Khorasan-e Razavi and Golestan provinces; Kurdish variety of Khorasani Kurmanji is east of the Caspian Sea. 350,000 in Iran (Stanzer 1988). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Kurmanji, Kordi, Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji Dialects: Khorassani Kurmanji, Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Shi’a), Muslim (Sunni).

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Kurdish, Southern
[sdh] West, mainly Kermanshah and Ilam provinces; to east, Hamadan, Lorestan, Kordestan, and Khuzestan provinces; southeast, small area in Sistan va Baluchestan Province. 3,000,000 in Iran (Fattah 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bayray, Feyli, Garrusi (Bijari), Kalhori, Kermanshahi (Kermanshani), Kolyai, Kordali, Luri, Malekshahi (Maleksh ay), Sanjabi. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Laki
[lki] Western Lorestan, Ilam, and Hamadan provinces; Aleshtar, Kuhdasht, Nurabad-e Dolfan, and Khorramabad. 1,000,000 (Fattah 2000). 150,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alaki, Leki Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Iranian Persian [pes], 78% with Luristani (Khorramabadi), 69% with Northern Luri [lrc] (central rural dialects). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Shi’a), Ahl-e Haqq.

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Lari
[lrl] South Fars Province, Lar district; Shiraz; some in United Arab Emirates. 80,000, increasing. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Larestani Dialects: Lari. Verbal system distinct from Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Lasgerdi
[lsa] Semnan Province, southwest of Semnan, Lasjerd. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Läsgerdi, Lasjerdi, Läsjerdi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani Comments: Muslim.

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Luri, Northern
[lrc] West: central and south Lorestan, north Khuzestan, and south Hamadan provinces, southern edge of Markazi Province, some regions of Ilam Province; Khorramabad, Borujerd, and Andimeshk; possibly eastern Iraq. 1,500,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 1,700,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lori, Luri, Luristani Dialects: Andimeshki, Bala-Gariva’i, Borujerdi, Cagani, Feyli, Khorramabadi, Mahali (Rural Mahali), Nahavandi. Major Northern Luri dialects (Khorramabadi, Borujerdi) are found in Lorestan and Khuzestan. Some areas in Ilam Province (Posht-e Kuh) reportedly speak Northern Luri dialects. A few villages in Iraq, using a dialect of Northern Luri (Fattah 2000). Reportedly similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: Mahali dialect: 80% with Iranian Persian [pes], 69% with Laki [lki], and 73% with Bakhtiâri [bqi] (Haflang); Khorramabadi dialect: 85% with Iranian Persian [pes], 78% with Laki, and 75% with Bakhtiâri (Haflang). Similarity to Iranian Persian [pes] is due to lexical borrowing and language shift. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri Comments: Ethnic groups: Pish-e Kuh, some parts of Posht-e Kuh. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Luri, Southern
[luz] Mainly Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad Province; northwest Fars and east Khuzestan provinces; some in Bushehr Province. 875,000 (1999), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lor, Lori, Lori-ye Jonubi, Lur Dialects: Boyerahmadi, Kohgiluyeh, Mamasani, Shuli, Yasuji (Yasichi). Southern Luri is on a continuum between Bakhtiari [bqi] and Iranian Persian [pes] dialects such as Bushehri and Southwestern Fars [fay]. A non-Lur tribe in Fars Province called Kurdshuli reportedly speaks a Southern Luri dialect. Their winter quarters are at Qasr-e Dasht near Sivand, 70 km from Sharaz on Shiraz-Esfahan road. Reportedly similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Iranian Persian [pes], 80% with Bushehri dialect of Iranian Persian; Mamasani dialect 75% with Bakhtiâri [bqi], Boyerahmadi dialect 86% with Bakhtiâri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri Comments: Boyerahmadi dialect: Yasuji; Kohgiluyeh dialect: Dehdasht; Mamasani dialect: Nurabad; Shuli dialect: Shul, Shiraz. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Mandaic
[mid] Khuzestan Province; Hoveiseh, other towns. 500 in Iran (2001). Ethnic population: 23,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabean, Sabe’in, Subbi Dialects: Ahwaz (Ahvaz), Iraqi Neo-Mandaic, Shushtar (Shustar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic Comments: Ethnic Mandaeans in Iraq now speak Arabic (1994 H. Mutzafi). Assyrians in the United States report Mandaic speakers there, whom they call Yokhananaye. Mandaean.

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Mandaic, Classical
[myz] Scattered. No known L1 speakers in Iran. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Classical Mandaean Dialects: None known. Appears to be the direct ancestor of Modern Mandaic [mid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic

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Maraghei
[vmh] Gilan Province, upper Rudbar area (Rudbar-e Alamut). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Dikini. Various other dialects. Reportedly similar to Gozarkhani [goz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Mazanderani
[mzn] North near Caspian Sea, Mazandaran Province; also in Semnan and Golestan provinces. 3,270,000 (1993), decreasing. Some monolinguals in rural areas. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gilaki, Mazandarani, Sari, Tabri Dialects: Gorgani, Mazanderani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Natanzi
[ntz] Esfahan Province, Natanz, on Isfahan-Kashan road. 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Farizandi, Natanzi, Yarani (Yarandi). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Nayini
[nyq] Esfahan Province, Nayin and Anarak, east of Isfahan; Khuri dialect in Khur (Khvor) and Mehrjan, northeast of Isfahan. 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biyabanak Dialects: Anarak, Khuri, Nayini. Dialects listed may be separate languages. Khuri distinct from other dialects. Related to Zoroastrian Dari [gbz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Parsi-Dari
[prd] 350,000 (1999). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Parsee, Parsee-Dari, Parsi Dialects: None known. Reportedly not inherently intelligible with Parsi [prp] of India, Pakistan, and other countries, but linguistically and ethnically related. They diverged 600 to 700 years ago or more. Related to Dari [gbz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: ‘Parsee’ is ethnic group name. Zoroastrian.

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Khorasan-e Janubi and Khorasan-e Razavi provinces, on Afghanistan border east of Qa’en. 113,000 in Iran (1993). Population does not include refugees. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: “Afghani” (pej.), Paktu, Pashtu Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto Comments: Different from Northern Pashto [pbu] of Pakistan and India. Muslim (Sunni).

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Persian
[fas] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 57,008,100. Comments: Includes: Dari [prs] (Afghanistan), Iranian Persian [pes].

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Persian Sign Language
[psc] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language

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Persian, Iranian
[pes] Widespread. Most concentrated in central, south central, and northeast. 45,000,000 in Iran (2011), increasing. 800,000 Eastern Farsi in Khorasan speak dialects which are transitional with Iranian Persian. Population total all countries: 47,408,100. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1979, Constitution, Article 15). Alternate Names: New Persian, Parsi, Persian, West Persian Dialects: Abadani, Araki, Bandari, Basseri, Esfahani, Kashani, Kermani, Ketabi, Mahalhamadani, Mashadi (Meshed), Old Shirazi, Qazvini, Sedehi, Shahrudi Kazeruni, Shirazi, Shirazjahromi, Tehrani, Yazdi. Literary language virtually identical in Iran and Afghanistan, with very minor lexical differences. Dialect shading into Dari [prs] in Afghanistan and Tajiki [tgk] in Tajikistan. Many dialects may be separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Persian [fas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Muslim (Shi’a), Baha’i, Christian.

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Razajerdi
[rat] Qazvin and Kuhpayeh area, Razajerd. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Takestani [tks]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Muslim.

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Rudbari
[rdb] Zanjan Province, Sefid Rud valley. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional to Caspian languages. Related to Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Salchuq
[slq] No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Probably a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb]. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani

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Sangisari
[sgr] Semnan Province. Shahmirzadi dialect: Shamirzad north of Mehdi. 36,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahdi Shahri, Mehdishahri, Sangesari, Sängesäri, Sangsari, Sängsari, Sängsäri, Sengiseri, Sengsari Dialects: Shahmirzadi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani Comments: Muslim, Baha’i.

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Semnani
[smy] Semnan Province. 60,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Simnani Dialects: Biyabunaki might be a dialect of Semnani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani Comments: Muslim.

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Senaya
[syn] Tehran and Qazvin. Originally in Kurdestan Province, Sanandaj. 60 in Iran (1997 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 460. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Christian Neo-Aramaic, Lshan Sray, Senaaya, Shan Gyanan, Shan Sray, Soray, Sray Dialects: None known. Qazvin variety slightly different from that spoken by Sanandaj-born people. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Christian (Chaldean).

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Shahmirzadi
[srz] Semnan Province, Shahmirzad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mazanderani [mzn] and Gilaki [glk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian

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Shahrudi
[shm] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Khalkhal district, Shahrud district, Shal, Kolur, Lerd. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Koluri Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kajali [kjf] and Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Different from Sharudi, an Iranian Persian [pes] dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Sivandi
[siy] Fars Province, Sivand, northwest of Shiraz on Shiraz-Isfahan Road. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Soi
[soj] 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Sorkhei
[sqo] Semnan Province, Sorkheh, southwest of Semnan. 10,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Aftari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani Comments: Muslim.

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Takestani
[tks] Zanjan, Qazvin, and Markazi provinces, from Khalkhal to Saveh, Takestan, south and southeast. 220,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takistani Dialects: Khalkhal, Kharaqan, Ramand (Takestan), Tarom, Zanjan. Khalkhal dialect is reportedly similar to Talysh [tly]. Transitional between Talysh and Semnani [smy] languages. Similar to Eshtehardi [esh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Different from Tat [ttt] of the Russian Federation, Azerbaijan, and Iran. Muslim.

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Talysh
[tly] Northwest Gilan Province, Caspian coastal plain and mountain areas from Masuleh, Masal, and Kapur-Chal (Kepri-Chal) to Azerbaijan border; Ardebil Province, Ardabil and Namin counties; Northern Talyshi dialect: Azerbaijan, Astara and the Caspian littoral areas. Central Talyshi dialect: Gilan Province, Asalem-Hashtpar area along Caspian littoral. Southern Talyshi dialect: Gilan Province, Shandermen, Masal, Masuleh, and surrounding mountainous areas. 112,000 in Iran (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Talesh, Taleshi, Talish, Talishi, Talyshi Dialects: Central Talyshi, Northern Talyshi, Southern Talyshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Taromi, Upper
[tov] Zanjan Province, upper Tarom, Hazarrud, Siavarud. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Reportedly similar to Kabatei [xkp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Tat, Muslim
[ttt] Gilan and Qazvin provinces. 8,000 in Iran. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat Comments: Different from Takestani [tks] of Iran. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Turkmen
[tuk] Northeast, Turkmenistan border area, Golestan, Khorasan-e Razavi, and Khorasan-e Shemali provinces; possibly in Mazandaran Province: Gonbad-e Kavus and Pahlavi Dezh. 2,000,000 in Iran (1997). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Torkomani Dialects: Anauli, Chavdur, Esari (Esary), Goklen (Goklan), Khasarli, Nerezim, Nokhurli (Nohur), Salyr, Saryq, Teke (Tekke), Trukmen, Yomud (Yomut). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian Comments: Not a literary language in Iran. Many are seminomadic. Ethnic groups: Yomut, Goklan. Muslim (Hanafi Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Vafsi
[vaf] Markazi Province, Arak district, Vafs, near Tafresh. 18,000 (2003). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]; reportedly very similar to Ashtiani [atn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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