Italy

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Albanian, Arbëreshë
[aae] South; Calabria, Apulia, Basilicata, Molise, Sicily regions. 100,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 260,000 (Stephens 1976). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arbëreshë Dialects: Calabrian Albanian, Campo Marino Albanian, Central Mountain Albanian, Molise Albanian, Sicilian Albanian. Speakers say 4 Italian dialects not mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 45% with Tosk Albanian [als]. A member of macrolanguage Albanian [sqi]. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk Comments: Descendants of 15th century mercenaries and refugees from the Ottoman invasion. Christian.

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Arpitan
[frp] Northwest, Aosta Valley Region; Foggia province, Apulia, Faeto and Celle S. Vito. 70,000 in Italy (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Celle San Vito, Faeto (Faetar), Valle D’aosta (Patoé Valdoten, Valdostano, Valdotain). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern

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Bavarian
[bar] South Bavarian dialect is in the Bavarian Alps, Tyrol, and Styria; Carinthia, northern Italy, and Gottschee; Central Bavarian is in Alps, Lower Austria and Salzburg; North Bavarian north of Regensburg, to Nuremburg and western Bohemia, Czech Republic. 250,000 in Italy (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bavarian Austrian, Bayerisch Dialects: Central Bavarian, North Bavarian, South Bavarian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian

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Catalan
[cat] Alghero, Sardinia northwest coast. 20,000 in Italy (1996). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Algherese Catalan Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian

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Cimbrian
[cim] Northeast, Sette and Tredici Comuni (Sieben and Dreizehn Gemeinde) south of Trent, Giazza (Glietzen, Ljetzen), Roana (Rabam), Lusern towns; some in Venezia province. 2,230. 500 in Lusernese Cimbrian in Trentino Alto Oolige 40 km southeast from Trento, plus 1,500 Sette Comuni Cimbrian (40% of Roana (Rowan), 70% of Messaselva di Roana Rotzo) in Veneto around 60 km north of Vicenza (Kloss 1978), and 230 or 65% of Giazza (Ijetzan) Veneto, 43 km northeast of Verona (1992 R. Zamponi). 22,700 were in Sieben Gemeinde and 12,400 in Dreizehn Gemeinde in 1854. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tzimbro, Zimbrisch Dialects: Lusernese Cimbrian, Sette Comuni Cimbrian, Tredici Communi Cimbrian (Tauch). Based on structural and intelligibility differences, the 3 dialects could be considered separate languages. Lusernese Cimbrian is heavily influenced by Italian [ita]. Heavily influenced by Bajuwarisch dialects. Sometimes considered a dialect of South Bavarian [bar]. Different from Bavarian [bar], Walser [wae], and Mocheno [mhn]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian

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Corsican
[cos] Maddalena island, Sardinia northeast coast. 1,000 in Italy (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Corse, Corsi, Corso, Corsu Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican

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Emilian
[egl] Emilia, 6 main towns: Parma, Bologna, Reggio Emilia, Ferrara, Piacenza, and Modena. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bolognese, Ferrarese, Modenese, Parmigiano, Piacentino, Reggiano Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian Comments: Emilian is less and less publicly used. Used in public bars among people who know each other, to tell daily events and jokes. Used also among people who do not know each other to win somebody over. Christian.

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French
[fra] Aosta Valley Region. 100,000 in Italy (Harris 1987). L2 users: 9,510,000 in Italy (ELDIA 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Valle d’Aoste (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Français Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Friulian
[fur] Friuli-Venezia Giulia Autonomous Region except Trieste province and western and eastern border regions; Veneto Region, Venezia province, Portogruaro area. 300,000 (2002). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Frioulan, Frioulian, Friulano, Furlan, Priulian Dialects: Carnico, East Central Friulian, Western Friulian. Friulian, Ladin [lld] and Romansch [roh] are separate languages (1978 R. Hal). Reportedly more similar to Italian than Romansch [roh] (1981 F. Agard). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian Comments: Some cultivate Friulian as a literary language.

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German, Standard
[deu] North, Trentino-Alto Adige, South Tyrol, Bolzano province. 225,000 in Italy (Vincent 1987). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Trentino-Alto Adige region (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Tedesco Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Greek
[ell] South, east of Reggio; Salento (Colimera, Sternatía, Zollino) and Aspromonte (Bova, Condofuri, Palizzi, Roccoforte, Roghudi). 20,000 in Italy (Vincent 1987). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Greco, Griko Dialects: Aspromonte, Salento. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic

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International Sign
[ils] Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gestuno, International Sign Language Dialects: Not a full language, but rather a limited pidgin used for cross-linguistic communication, especially at international meetings such as those of the World Federation of the Deaf and the Deaflympics. Distinct lexically from all specific sign languages, as it incorporates elements from a variety of different (mostly European) sign languages, and shows considerable variation depending on the location where it is being used and the L1 of the interlocutors. (The listing of it under Italy is semi-arbitrary, since Ethnologue is organized by country.). Classification: Deaf sign language

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Italian
[ita] 57,700,000 in Italy (ELDIA 2012). Population total all countries: 63,655,047. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Law No. 482, Article 1.1). Alternate Names: Italiano Dialects: Abruzzese, Central Marchigiano, Cicolano-Reatino-Aquilano, Laziale, Molisano, Pugliese, Tuscan, Umbrian. Regional varieties coexist with the standard language; some are inherently unintelligible. Aquilano, Molisano, and Pugliese are very different from other Italian varieties. Piemontese [pms] and Sicilian [scn] are distinct enough to be separate languages (1982 F. Agard). Venetian [vec] and Lombard [lmo] are also very different (1981 P. Cousson). The Napoletano dialect of Napoletano-Calabrese [nap] is reportedly unintelligible to standard Italian. Northern varieties are more similar to French and Occitan [oci] than to standard or southern varieties (1982 F. Agard; Vincent 1987). Lexical similarity: 89% with French [fra], 87% with Catalan [cat], 85% with Sardinian [srd], 82% with Spanish [spa], 78% with Ladin [lld], 77% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Italian Sign Language
[ise] Widespread, including Sardinia and Sicily. 40,000 deaf sign language users. (2013 European Union of the Deaf) 70,000 profoundly deaf people, including 9,000 school age. (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lingua Italiana Dei Segni, LIS Dialects: Some variation between northern, central, and southern regions -needs more assessment. Deaf Italians report that communication between signers from different regions requires negotiation. Opinions differ as to whether the variation is desirable or should be standardized (2013 D. Eberle and S. Eberle). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Recognized language in Sicily.

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Judeo-Italian
[itk] Mainly in urban areas in the central and north, Rome. 200 in Italy. Very few speakers are fluent (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 250. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Italkian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian Comments: Jewish.

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Ladin
[lld] The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol, 2 valleys. 31,000 in Italy (2013). Ethnic population: 38,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dolomite, Rhaeto-Romance Dialects: Ampezzano, Atesino, Badiotto (Gadertalisch), Cadorino, Fassano, Gardenese (Grödnerisch, Grüdno), Livinallese, Marebbano (Ennebergisch), Nones (Nones Blot, Nonese, Nonesh, Parlata Trentina). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian Comments: Written since 1800 in Italy. Dialects of Gardenese, Badiotto, and Fassano taught in school. Distinct from Ladino [lad], Judeo-Spanish.

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Ligurian
[lij] North, Liguria Region, east and west of Genoa along the Riviera and mountain hinterland; Saint Pietro and Saint Antioch islands off Sardinia southwest coast; Sardinia, Carloforte and Calasetta cities. 500,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 505,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ligure, Zenéize Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Ligurian is reportedly more similar to Piemontese [pms], Lombard [lmo], and French [fra] than to standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian Comments: Ligurian has had a literature since the 1200s and the Genoese variant was widely used alongside the Mediterranean because of the commercial and nautical importance of the Republic of Genoa. That is why Zenéize (meaning Genoese) is one of its alternate names.

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Lombard
[lmo] North, Milan, Lombardy, 3 valleys of Graubünden (Val Mesolcina, Val Bregaglia, Val Poschiavo). Western Lombard varieties also in Sicily. 3,600,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 3,903,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lombardo Dialects: Alpine Lombard, Bergamasco, Eastern Lombard, Latin Anaunico, Latin Fiamazzo, Milanese, Novarese Lombard, Ticinese (Ticino), Trentino Western, Western Lombard (Nicosia, Novara, Piazza Armerina, San Fratello). A group of varieties, some of which may be separate languages. Western Lombard dialects (of Ticino and Graubünden) inherently intelligible. Speakers in more conservative valleys may have to use some kind of standard dialect to communicate with those of other dialects of Lombard. Very different from standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Mócheno
[mhn] Trentino Region, Valle del Fersina. 1,900 (1992 R. Zamponi). 400 Fierozzo, 1,000 Palú, 460 Gereut. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Fierozzo (Florutz), Frassilongo (Gereut), Palú (Palai). Can partially understand Bavarian [bar], Cimbrian [cim], or Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian

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Napoletano-Calabrese
[nap] South, Campania and Calabria regions. 5,700,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Neapolitan-Calabrese Dialects: Napoletano (Neapolitan, Tirrenic), Northern Calabrese-Lucano (Basilicatan, Lucanian). Limited inherent intelligibility of standard Italian [ita]. Neapolitan and Calabrese dialects are reportedly very different from each other. Southern Calabrian is reportedly a dialect of Sicilian [scn]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Occitan
[oci] Italian Piedmont upper valleys (Val Mairo, Val Varacho, Val d’Esturo, Entraigas, Limoun, Vinai, Pignerol, Sestriero); Calabria, Guardia Piemontese. 100,000 in Italy (1990 P. Blanchet). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Provençal, Provenzale Dialects: Provençal. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

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Piemontese
[pms] Northwest, Piedmont, except Provençal- and Arpitan-speaking Alpine valleys. 1,600,000 in Italy (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Piedmontese, Piemontèis Dialects: High Piemontese (Alto Piemontese), Low Piemontese (Basso Piemontese). Distinct enough from standard Italian [ita] to be considered a separate language. Considerable French [fra] influence. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Romagnol
[rgn] Romagna, 6 main towns: Ravenna, Rimini, Forlì, Cesena, Imola and Faenza. No known L1 speakers in Italy. Ethnic population: 1,100,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian Comments: Romagnol less and less publicly used. Used in public bars among people who know each other, to tell daily events and jokes. Used also among people who do not know each other to win somebody over. Christian.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] 5,000 in Italy (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Arlija (Erli). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Muslim.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] North. 14,000 in Italy (1980). 10,000 Manouche, 4,000 Slovenian-Croatian. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Manouche, Piedmont Sintí, Slovenian-Croatian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 4,000 in Italy. 1,000–3,000 Kalderash, 1,000 Lovari. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kalderash, Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Sardinian
[srd] Population total all languages: 1,200,000. Comments: Includes: Campidanese Sardinian [sro], Gallurese Sardinian [sdn], Logudorese Sardinian [src], Sassarese Sardinian [sdc].

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Sardinian, Campidanese
[sro] South Sardinia. 500,000 (Salminen 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in south Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Campidanese, Campidese, Sardu, South Sardinian Dialects: Arborense, Cagliare (Cagliari, Cagliaritan), Central Campidanese, Meridionale, Ogliastrino, Sarrabense, Sub-Barbaricino, Sulcitano, Western Campidenese. Cagliaritan is Cagliari dialect. Campidanese is distinct from other Sardinian languages. Lexical similarity: 62% between the Cagliare dialect and standard Italian [ita], 73% with Logudorese [src], 66% with Gallurese [sdn]. A member of macrolanguage Sardinian [srd]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian

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Sardinian, Gallurese
[sdn] Northeast Sardinia, Gallurese. 100,000 (Salminen 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in northeast Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Gallurese, Northeastern Sardinian Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with standard Italian [ita], 81% with Sassarese [sdc], 70% with Logudorese [src], 66% with Cagliare dialect of Campidanese Sardinian [sro]. A member of macrolanguage Sardinian [srd]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian Comments: Influenced by Corsican [cos] and Tuscan varieties of Italian [ita]. Campidanese [sro] and Logudorese [src] glossonym: Sard, ethnonym: Sards, but do not include themselves or their language in those terms.

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Sardinian, Logudorese
[src] Central Sardinia. 500,000 (Salminen 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in central Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Central Sardinian, Logudorese, Sard, Sardarese Dialects: Barbaricino, Northern Logudorese, Nuorese, Southwestern Logudorese. No one form of Sardinian is selected as standard for literary purposes. Logudorese is different from other Sardinian varieties. Lexical similarity: 68% with standard Italian [ita], 73% with Sassarese [sdc] and Cagliare dialect of Sardinian, Campidanese [sro], 70% with Gallurese [sdn]. Sardinian has 85% lexical similarity with Italian, 80% with French [fra], 78% with Portuguese [por], 76% with Spanish [spa], 74% with Romanian [ron] and Ladin [lld]. A member of macrolanguage Sardinian [srd]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian Comments: Christian.

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Sardinian, Sassarese
[sdc] Northwest Sardinia. 100,000 (Salminen 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in northwest Sardinia (1999, Linguistic Minority Defense Act No. 482, Article 2). Alternate Names: Northwestern Sardinian, Sassarese Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Gallurese [sdn], 76% with standard Italian [ita]. A member of macrolanguage Sardinian [srd]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian Comments: Influenced by Ligurian [lij] and Pisan (Pisa, northwest coast of Italy). They call Campidanese [sro] and Logudorese [src] Sard, and the people Sards, but do not include themselves or their language in those terms.

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Sicilian
[scn] Sicily. 4,700,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Calabro-Sicilian, Sicilianu, Siculu Dialects: Central Metafonetica, Eastern Nonmetafonetica, Isole Eolie, Messinese, Pantesco, Southeast Metafonetica, Southern Calabro, Western Sicilian (Central-Western Agrigentino, Palermo, Trapani). Distinct enough from standard Italian [ita] to be considered a separate language. The Pugliese dialect of Italian and Southern Calabrese are reportedly dialects of Sicilian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian Comments: Christian.

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Slavomolisano
[svm] Southern Molise Region, Campobasso province, Montemitro, San Felice del Molise, and Acquaviva-Collecroce villages. 1,000 (2012 W. Breu). 1,000 speakers among 2,300 inhabitants of the 3 villages, plus a number in expatriate communities (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 ( W. Breu). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Croato molisano, Molise Croatian, Molise Slavic, Naš jezik, Slavic of Molise Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Descendants of 15th and 16th century Croatian refugees. Christian.

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Slovene
[slv] Northeast, Trieste and Gorizia provinces near Slovenia border. 100,000 in Italy (Vincent 1987). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Trieste and Gorizia provinces (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Slovenian Dialects: Cividale, Primorski, Resia. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western

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Venetian
[vec] North, Venice, Tre Venezie area; Venezia Eugànea west to Verona, south to the Po, east to the border of the Fruili; Trentino-Alto Adige (Suedtirol); Venezia Giulia, east of the Friuli including Trieste. Bisiacco is in Gorizia province. 3,800,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 3,852,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Talian, Venet Dialects: Bisiacco, Istrian, Triestino, Venetian Proper. Distinct from standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Walser
[wae] Valle d’Aosta, Val Lesa (Val del Lys) (Gressoney, Issime, Gaby); Piemonte, Valsesia (Alagna, Rima S. Giuseppe, Rimella); Novara, Valle Anzasca (Macugnaga); Val Formazza (Formazza, Pomatt). 10 communities. 3,400 in Italy (Fazzini Giovannucci 1978). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walscher Dialects: Titsch, Töitschu. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic Comments: In Valle d’Aosta influenced by Arpitan [frp] and Piemontese [pms]; elsewhere in Italy by Italian [ita].

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