Sri Lanka

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English
[eng] 10,000 in Sri Lanka (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 1,900,000 in Sri Lanka (Crystal 2003a). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, used in government. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Indo-Portuguese
[idb] Tincomalee, Batticaloa, Kandy, Galle, and Colombo districts. 2,220 in Sri Lanka (2011 J. Leclerc). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,410. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Creole, Portuguese based. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sinhala
[sin] Widespread except some districts north, east, and center. 14,000,000 in Sri Lanka (2012). L2 users: 2,000,000 in Sri Lanka (1997). Total users in all countries: 16,184,860 (as L1: 14,184,860; as L2: 2,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution (amended), Article 18). Alternate Names: Cingalese, Singhala, Singhalese, Sinhalese. Dialects: Rodiya. Great differences exist between literary and colloquial language. Rodiya dialect is spoken by low caste Rodiya people. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Sinhalese-Maldivian. Comments: Buddhist.

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Sri Lankan Creole Malay
[sci] Colombo, Gampaha, Kalutara, Kandy, Matale, Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Moneragala, Galle, Hambantota, and Matara districts, especially Colombo, Kandy, Badulla, Hambantota, and Kirinda urban areas. 46,000 (Ansaldo and Lim 2006), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Java Jati, Melayu Bahasa, Sri Lankan Malay. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of Standard Malay [zsm] due to phonological and syntactic differences, and strong influence from Tamil [tam]. May be similar to Malaccan Creole Malay [ccm] (Lim 1981). Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Malay vocabulary with grammatical structure based on Sri Lankan Moor Tamil. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sri Lankan Sign Language
[sqs] Scattered. 12,800 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language.

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Tamil
[tam] Jaffna, Mannar, Mullaitivu, Vavuniya, Polonnaruwa, north and southwestern Anurdhapura, Tincomalee, Batticaloa, Matale, western Kandy, Nuwara Eliya, southern Baddulla, northwest Moneragala, Ratnapura, and Galle districts. 4,960,000 in Sri Lanka (2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution (amended), Articles 22(1), 24(1)), concentrated in North and East provinces; also in local administration and courts elsewhere. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Veddah
[ved] Eastern mountains, Kandy, Matale, Nuwara Eliya, Baddulla, and Polonnaruwa districts; second area, Moneragala district. Ethnic population: 2,500 (2002). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Beda, Bedda, Vaedda, Veda, Veddha, Weda, Weddo. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Sinhalese-Maldivian. Comments: They live in small rural settlements and are more of a caste than a separate ethnic group. Generally accepted as equal in rank to the Sinhalese Goyigama caste.

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