Madagascar

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English
[eng] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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French
[fra] 18,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 847,000 in Madagascar (Francophonie 2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 6). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Madagascar Sign Language
[mzc] Scattered. 110,000 (2014 IMB). Estimated 170,000, based on 1% of general population (2014 Rajaonary Theodoric, World Association of Sign Language Interpreters). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malagasy Sign Language Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Norwegian Sign Language [nsl], but this needs verification. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: 5 working sign language interpreters (2014 Rajaonary Theodoric, World Association of Sign Language Interpreters).

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Malagasy
[mlg] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 17,604,640. Comments: Includes: Antankarana Malagasy [xmv], Bara Malagasy [bhr], Masikoro Malagasy [msh], Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy [bmm], Plateau Malagasy [plt], Sakalava Malagasy [skg], Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy [bzc], Tandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy [tdx], Tanosy Malagasy [txy], Tesaka Malagasy [tkg], Tsimihety Malagasy [xmw].

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Malagasy, Antankarana
[xmv] Diana and Sava regions; a small area in Sofia region. 330,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antakarana, Antakarana Malagasy, Antekarana, Antekarana Malagasy, Tankarana, Tankarana Malagasy Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Bara
[bhr] Atsimo-Andrefana, Ihorombe, Anosy and into Atsimo-Atsinanana regions: west of Tesaka [tkg] language area; Amoron’i Mania, Menabe, and Vakinankaratra regions; some in Androy and western Haute Matsiatra regions. 600,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Masikoro
[msh] Atsimo-Andrefana region: Moromba south to Tollara; coastal Menabe region: near Mangoky river; inland near Mozambique Channel. 550,000 (2006). Ethnic population: A quarter are Masikoro; the rest are Masikoro speakers from other ethnic groups. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka
[bmm] Analanjirofo, Atsinanana, and Alaotra-Mangoro regions; Sava region: south of Bemariva river; Sofia region: east and southeast; areas in Analamanga and Vakinankaratra regions. East coast, Indian Ocean, from Mahanoro north. 1,000,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Plateau
[plt] Central area. 7,520,000 in Madagascar (2006). Population total all countries: 7,529,640. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Provisional Constitution, Article 6), use limited in higher education. Alternate Names: Malagasy, Malgache, Official Malagasy, Standard Malagasy Dialects: Betsileo, Bezanozano, Merina, Sihanaka, Tanala, Vakinankaritra, Zafimaniry. Reportedly the most similar language outside Madagascar is Ma’anyan [mhy] in south Borneo (Kalimantan, Indonesia). A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Comments: The standard is most similar to the Merina dialect, with loans incorporated from Bantu languages, Swahili [swh], Arabic, English, French. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Malagasy, Sakalava
[skg] Diana, Sofia, Boeny, Betsiboka, Melaky, Menabe and (coastline only) Atsimo-Andrefana regions; western Bongolava, Vakinankaratra, and Amoron’i Mania regions. 1,210,000 (2014 SIL). Based on extrapolations of latest census figures to report on Malagasy people groups (2014 L. Bouwer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Menabe, Northern Sakalava Boeny, Southern Sakalava Boeny, Vezo. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka
[bzc] Atsinanana, Atsimo-Atsinanana, Amoron’i Mania, and Vakinankaratra, and Vatovavy-Fitovinany regions; Alaotra-Mangoro region: south border; Mahanoro, Nosy Varika, Mananjary, and Manakara Atsimo districts. 1,830,000 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Betsimisaraka Antatsimo Malagasy Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Comments: Traditional religion.

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Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly
[tdx] Androy, Atsimo-Andrefana, and Anosy regions: Beloha, Tsihombe, Ambovombe, and Bekily districts. 1,300,000 (2006). Tandroy 865,000; Mahafaly 330,000; Karimbola 103,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tandroy Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Tanosy
[txy] Atsimo-Andrefana, Anosy, and Androy regions; southeast coast, south of Onilahy river; Atsimo-Atsinanana region: south of Ibara, Mahafaly area and northeast. 510,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Tesaka
[tkg] Atsimo-Atsinanana, Ihorombe, and Anosy regions; migrating to other areas of Madagascar, particularly western deltas. 1,130,000 (2010 T. Bergman). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antaisaka, Antesaka, Atesaka Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Comments: Traditional religion.

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Malagasy, Tsimihety
[xmw] Sofia and Sava regions; east into Analanjirofo region; smaller areas in Diana and Alaotra-Mangoro regions. 1,615,000 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tsimihety Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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