Madagascar

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Comorian, Maore
[swb] 3,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Comores Swahili, Comoro, Komoro, Maore Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.44) Comments: Muslim.

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Comorian, Mwali
[wlc] 1,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Comores Swahili, Comoro, Komoro Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.44C) Comments: Muslim.

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Comorian, Ndzwani
[wni] 8,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Comores Swahili, Comoro, Komoro Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.44B) Comments: Muslim.

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Comorian, Ngazidja
[zdj] 8,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Comores Swahili, Comoro, Komoro Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.44) Comments: Muslim.

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English
[eng] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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French
[fra] 18,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone 1993). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 6). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Madagascar Sign Language
[mzc] 180,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Similar to Norwegian Sign Language [nsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Deaf people learn to sign at school, not L1.

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Malagasy
[mlg] Population total all countries: 16,444,440. Comments: Member languages are: Antankarana Malagasy [xmv], Bara Malagasy [bhr], Masikoro Malagasy [msh], Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy [bmm], Plateau Malagasy [plt], Sakalava Malagasy [skg], Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy [bzc], Tandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy [tdx], Tanosy Malagasy [txy], Tesaka Malagasy [tkg], Tsimihety Malagasy [xmw]

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Malagasy, Antankarana
[xmv] North tip, Antsiranana Province. 330,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antakarana, Antakarana Malagasy, Antekarana, Antekarana Malagasy, Tankarana, Tankarana Malagasy Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Bara
[bhr] South central, Ibara, south of Betsileo, Anosy area and north, Mahafaly. West of Tesaka [tkg] language area. 600,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Masikoro
[msh] Southwest, Toliara Province, Toliara and Morombe districts. 550,000 (2006). Ethnic population: A quarter are Masikoro; the rest are Masikoro speakers from other ethnic groups. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka
[bmm] East coast, Toamasina Province, Mananara Avaratra, Soanierana-Ivongo, Fenoarivo Antsinana, Vavatenina, and Toamasina districts. 1,000,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Plateau
[plt] Central. Also in Comoros (Malagasy), Mayotte (Malagasy), Réunion (Malagasy), United States. 7,520,000 in Madagascar (2006). Population total all countries: 7,529,640. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Provisional Constitution, Article 6), use limited in higher education. Alternate Names: Malagasy, Malgache, Official Malagasy, Standard Malagasy Dialects: Betsileo, Bezanozano, Merina, Sihanaka, Tanala, Vakinankaritra. The most similar language outside Madagascar is Ma’anyan [mhy] in south Borneo (Kalimantan, Indonesia). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Comments: The standard is most similar to the Merina dialect, with loans incorporated from Bantu languages, Swahili [swh], Arabic, English, French. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Malagasy, Sakalava
[skg] Northwest, Mahajanga Province, Maintirano, Morafenobe, Besalampy, Soalala, Mitsinjo, Ambato Boina, Marovoay, Mahajanga, and Analalava districts; Antsiranana Province, Ambanja district. 350,000 (2001 SIL). Ethnic population: Estimated 1,210 total Sakalava. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Northern Boina Sakalava, Southern Boina Sakalava, Vezo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka
[bzc] East coast, Toamasina Province, Mahanoro district; Fianarantsoa Province, Nosy Varika, Mananjary, and Manakara Atsimo districts. 1,830,000 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: Tandroy 864,600; Mahafaly 330,000; Karimbola 103,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Betsimisaraka Antatsimo Malagasy Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Comments: Traditional religion.

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Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly
[tdx] South, Toliara Province, Beloha, Tsihombe, Ambovombe, and Bekily districts. 1,000,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tandroy Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Tanosy
[txy] Southeast coast; south of Onilahy river, south of Ibara and north of Androy, Mahafaly area and northeast. 510,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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Malagasy, Tesaka
[tkg] Mainly southeast Coast; migrating to many other areas of Madagascar, particularly the western deltas. 1,130,000 (2010 T. Bergman). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antaisaka, Antesaka, Atesaka Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Comments: Traditional religion.

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Malagasy, Tsimihety
[xmw] North central. 1,614,800 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tsimihety Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy

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