Mali

Print
American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, LSAF Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Since LSAF is not officially recognized as a distinct language, it would be considered a dialect of ASL, with influence from spoken and written French [fra] and local signs. The relationship of ASL and LSAF in Mali to standard ASL in the United States and to LSAF in other francophone African countries has not been systematically assessed.

More Information

Arabic, Hasanya
[mey] Widespread. 106,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December). Alternate Names: Hassani, Hassaniya, Hassaniyya, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sahrawi, Sulaka, Suraka, Suraxxé Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Ethnonym: Maures, Moors; glossonym: Suraka by the Bambara, Suraxxé by the Soninke. Muslim.

More Information

Bamako Sign Language
[bog] Bamako capital district. Estimated 40,000–70,000 people with moderate to severe hearing loss in Mali (Nyst, Sylla and Magassouba 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langue des signes bambara, Langue des signes malienne, LaSiMa, Malian Sign Language Dialects: Lexical variation within Bamako and between Bamako and other parts of Mali, currently being assessed (Nyst, Sylla and Magassouba 2012). Classification: Deaf sign language

More Information

Bamanankan
[bam] Widespread. Koulikoro, Ségou, northern Sikasso, Watershed, middle Niger river; Kayes region. 4,000,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrin), increasing. 75,000 Ganadugu (Vanderaa 1991), 164,000 Wasulu (2009 census). Population total all countries: 4,072,040. L2 users: 10,000,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrine). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bamanakan, Bambara Dialects: Beledugu, Ganadugu, San, Segou, Sikasso, Somono, Standard Bambara, Wasulunkakan (Maninkakan, Eastern, Wassulu, Wassulunka, Wassulunke, Wasulu, Wasuu). Many local dialects. The main division is standard Bambara, influenced heavily by Eastern Maninkakan [emk], and rural dialects. Bamanankan dialects are spoken in varying degrees by 80% of the Mali population. In Mali, Wasulunkakan is shared by both Bamanankan and Eastern Maninkakan, but in Guinea it is only a dialect of Eastern Maninkakan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Wasulu are former Fulbe. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Bangime
[dba] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle. 7 villages. 2,000 (Blench 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangeri Me, Bangeri Me Dogon, Bangerime, Bangi Me, Dyeni, Elebo, Noumandan, Numadaw Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bangana (sing.), Bangande (pl.). Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Bankagooma
[bxw] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, 2 enclaves northeast of Sikasso town; Danderesso, 7 other townships. 6,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banka, Bankagoma, Bankagoroma, Bankaje Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo

More Information

Bolon
[bof] Ségou region: Tominian circle (7 villages) and San circle (2 villages). 5,920 in Mali (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo, Boka, Boon, Boron Dialects: Bon, Samalen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Bomu
[bmq] Ségou region: San circle, Bani river south bank, San area; Sikasso region: enclave south on Burkina Faso border; Mopti region: Djenne circle. 102,000 in Mali (1976 census). Population total all countries: 158,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bobo, Bobo Wule, Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Oule, Western Bwamu, Western Red Dialects: Dahanmu, Dwemu, Mao. Dwemu subdialects are Terekongo (Terekoungo), Wahu (between Téné and the Bani river), Togo. Dahanmu subvarieties are Koniko, Mandiakuy, Bomborokuy, and Mao (Mahou). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Bozo, Jenaama
[bze] Mopti region: Djenné circle, upstream on Niger river, Mopti circle, downstream on Niger river, into Youwarou circle, Tenenkou and Youwarou circles; Ségou region: Niger river, upstream from Mopti. 197,000 in Mali (2003 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boso, Corogaama, Djenaama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorko, Sorogaama Dialects: Débo, Korondougou, Kotya (Kotyaxo), Pondori. Lexical similarity: 53%–76% with Tieyaxo Bozo [boz] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama Comments: Ethnic autonym: Sorogo (sg.), Sorogoye (pl.); glossonym: Sorogama, language of the Bozo. The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Nononkes are often also called Marka or dry Marka, referring to the fact that they were originally Soninke or Malinke but no longer speak their language. Somono ethnic autonym: Komuo (sg.), Kombye (pl.). Muslim.

More Information

Bozo, Kelengaxo
[bzx] Ségou region: Macina and Ségou circles, Ke-Maacina area upstream to Tamani on both sides of Niger river. 30,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boso, Hain, Hainyaxo Bozo, Hanyaxo, Kelenga, Kélinga, Kéllingua, Xan, Xanyaxo Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48%–66% with Tieyaxo Boso [boz] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern Comments: The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Muslim.

More Information

Bozo, Tiemacèwè
[boo] Mopti region: Youwarou circle, where Niger river leaves Lake Debo. 6 villages. 2,500 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boso, Tié, Tiema Ciewe, Tièma Cièwè, Tiemacewe, Tièmacèwè Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60%–79% with Tieyaxo Bozo [boz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern Comments: The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Muslim.

More Information

Bozo, Tieyaxo
[boz] Mopti region: Tenenkou circle, northwest of Kouakourou town on Niger river; confluence of Diaka and Niger rivers; upriver into Ségou region: Machina circle. 118,000 (1987 census). Population may include Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo] and Kelengaxo Bozo [bzx]. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Boso, Tégué, Tie, Tiemaxo, Tiéyakho, Tigemaxo, Tiguémakho, Tyeyaxo Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53%–76% with Jenaama Bozo [bze] (most similar), 30% with Soninke [snk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Boso, house of bamboo in Bambara. Muslim.

More Information

Dogon, Ampari
[aqd] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, Pignari commune. 16 villages. 5,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambeenge, Ampari, Pignari Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–53% with Mombo Dogon [dmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Ana Tinga
[dti] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township, Ana village. 500 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Yanda Dom Dogon [dym]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Dogon, Bankan Tey
[dbw] Mopti region: Douentza circle, north Douentza town area, between Debere and Gono; Walo village, other hamlets. 1,320 (1998 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oualo, Walo Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nanga Dama [nzz] with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns. The influence of Songhay on Bankan Tey and Jamsay [djm] on Ben Tey [dbt] have resulted in fairly substantial lexical differentiation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Ben Tey
[dbt] Mopti region: Douentza circle, south of Douentza town west of road to Bamba. 3 villages. 3,000 (2005 J. Heath). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. The people of Beni and Gamni have contact with Jamsay [djm] speakers, and to a lesser extent with speakers of Nanga [nzz] and Fulfulde. The influence of Songhay on Bankan Tey [dbw], and that of Jamsay on Ben Tey, have resulted in fairly substantial lexical differentiation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Bondum Dom
[dbu] Mopti region: Douentza circle, south of Lake Korarou, along Douentza–Tassembe–Sangali road, Borko village. 24,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bondum-Dom, Dogon, Najamba-Kindige Dialects: Kindjim, Nadjamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Bunoge
[dgb] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, Goundaka township northeast of Mopti city, Boudou, Sangou, and Dakouma villages. 1,000 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Budu-Tagu, Korandabo Dialects: None known. Nominal plural suffix aligns it with Ampari Dogon [aqd] and Mombo Dogon [dmb], but lexically quite different (Blench 2005). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Dogon, Dogul Dom
[dbg] Mopti region: northeast of Bandiagara, Nandoli is center, 14 villages. 15,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dogul-Dom Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Donno So
[dds] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, area upstream on Yame river, both sides of headwaters. 45,300 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamba So Dialects: Donno So, Kamma So. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Jamsay
[djm] Mopti region: Koro circle; east of Dogon cliffs, near Burkina Faso border; southwest Koro circle, Kiri town, northwest to Douentza circle. 130,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dyamsay Tegu, Gamsaj, Jamsay Dialects: Bama, Domno, Gono, Guru, Pomuru. Degree of comprehension between dialects uncertain. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Mombo
[dmb] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, from Mopti to Bandiagara. 27 villages. 19,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolum-so, Kolu-so, Pignari Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–53% with Ampari Dogon [aqd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Nanga Dama
[nzz] Mopti region: Douentza circle, northeast of Bamba town, southwest of Debere town. 9 villages. 3,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nanga Dogon Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bankan Tey [dbw] and Ben Tey [dbt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Tebul Ure
[dtu] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township. 3,000 (2005 FEL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oru yille Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Tene Kan
[dtk] Mopti region: northeast Bankass circle, near Koro circle border; into Bandiagara circle. 127,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tene Kan, Tene Tingi, Tengu Kan, Togo Kan Dialects: Giwnri Kan, Tene Kan, Tengu Kan, Togo Kan, Woru Kan (Wolu Kan). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Dogon, Tiranige Diga
[tde] Mopti region: northeast edge of Dogon plateau, Lowol Gueou, Pignari Bana, and Kendie townships. 4,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duleri, Duleri Dom Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: about 50% with Mombo [dmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Tommo So
[dto] Mopti region: east, Tédié, Diamnati, Kendé, Kendié, Segué Iré, Wadouba, Ondougou, Metoumou, and Kassa townships. 60,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tombo-So Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Donno So [dds] and Toro So [dts]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Tomo Kan
[dtm] Mopti region: far southwest, Bankass circle; Ségou region, Tominian circle. 133,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomo-Kan Dialects: Aa, Aa Bara, Basara, Bongu, Nienne, Tanwan Bara, Tie Bara, Tienwan Ganda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Toro So
[dts] Mopti region: Koro and Bandiagara circles, Bereli and Madougou town areas. 50,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bomu Tegu, Dogoso Dialects: Ibi, Ireli, Sangha, Yorno, Youga. Different from Dogoso [dgs], Dogosé [dos] in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon Comments: Cliff dwellers. Glossonym: Bomu Tegu by neighbors in the plains. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Dogon, Toro Tegu
[dtt] Mopti region: Douentza circle, Ouro Nguerou town area. 15 villages. 2,900 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tandam Dialects: None known. Toro Tegu is very different from Jamsay [djm], the other Dogon language widely known by Toro Tegu speakers (2011 J. Heath). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Dogon, Yanda Dom
[dym] Mopti region: Koro and Bandiagara circles, southwest of Bamba town. 2,000 (Blench 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reporedly similar to Nanga Dama [nzz] with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More Information

Duungooma
[dux] Sikasso region: Kadiolo and Sikasso circles; Bafini river, north basin, east of Bananso town. 70,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Du, Duungo, Mali Duun, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro, Western Duun Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo Comments: Ethnonym: Samogho is a cover term to include Duungooma [dux], Bankagooma [bxw], and Jowulu [jow]. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

French
[fra] 9,000 in Mali (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 1,110,000 in Mali (Francophonie 2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 25). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Official language for instruction in schools.

More Information

Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] Widespread. 1,000,000 in Mali (2007 S. Crickmore). Population total all countries: 1,008,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Macina, Peul Dialects: Eastern Macina, Western Macina. Some dialect differences, but all dialects in Mali perceived inherently intelligible. Substantial Bamanankan [bam] influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Maasina in Mali is a major Fula geopolitical state. Ethnonym: Fulbe in Fulfulde [ffm]; Fulani in English. Glossonym: Peul or Toucouleur in French. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Jahanka
[jad] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle, 20 km southeast of Kéniebé town, Kofoulabé, a few other villages. 500 in Mali (2001), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diakhanke, Diakkanke, Dyakanke, Jahanque, Jahonque Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Reportedly originated in Mali. Origins traced to Soninke [snk], but now speak a separate language. Ethnic autonym: Jakanka (sing.), Jakankalou (pl.). Muslim.

More Information

Jalunga
[yal] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle, 3 enclaves. 9,000 in Mali (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dialonke, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonke, Yalunka, Yalunke Dialects: Bafing, Jalunga, Yalunka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka Comments: Ethnic autonym: Jalungana (sg.) or Jalunganéé (pl.). Fontofa dialect is spoken in Mali. Muslim.

More Information

Jowulu
[jow] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle, Loulouni commune, south of Sikasso town, on Burkina Faso border, 12 villages. 10,000 in Mali (2002 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 11,000. Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jo, Samogho Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo Comments: Ethnonym: Samogho, a cover term including the Dzuungoo [dnn], Duungooma [dux], Bankagooma [bxw], Matya Samo [stj], Jowulu [jow], and possibly other languages. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Jula
[dyu] Widespread in southeast. 50,000 in Mali (1991). L2 users: 278,000 in Mali (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used for travel, market, and business communication. Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: The Malian government recognizes Jula in Mali as Bambara [bam]. Muslim.

More Information

Kagoro
[xkg] Kayes region: Diema, south Nioro, northeast Kita circles; Koulikoro region: Nara and Kolokani circles; Ségou region: Kadiolo circle. 88 villages. 15,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Ethnic population: 30,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kakolo Dialects: Diéma, Guissimbiné, Jumara, Kamiko, Mogola, Sébékoro, Séféto. Similar to Xaasongaxango [kao]. Bambara [bam] have poor comprehension of Kagoro. Western dialects (Séféto, Guissimbiné) are reportedly similar to Maninka-Bagè, a dialect of Kita Maninkakan [mwk]. Lexical similarity: 86% with Kita Maninkakan [mwk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Some lexical influence from Soninke [snk]. Recent heavy Bamanankan [bam] influence. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Konabéré
[bbo] Sikasso region: east Yorosso circle, on Burkina Faso border; some in Ségou region. 25,000 in Mali (2007 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Da, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fing Dialects: San, Tankire, Yaba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo Comments: Ethnic autonym: Konakuma. ‘Kuma’, people and ‘béré’, speech. The term Bobo has also been applied to the Bwa people or their languages, Buamu and Boomu. Bambara names Bobo Fing (Black Bobo), Bobo Oule (Red Bobo), Buamu and Boomu create confusion. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Koromfé
[kfz] Mopti region: Koro circle, southeast of Dinangourou town, on Burkina Faso border. 11 villages. 6,000 in Mali (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foula, Foulse, Kurum-Korey, Tellem Dialects: Eastern Koromfe, Western Koromfe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe

More Information

Maninkakan, Eastern
[emk] Koulikoro region: Kati circle, south of Bamako capital district, west of Niger river, into Kangaba circle, 5 communes; Sikasso region: Yanfolila circle. 390,000 in Mali (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding

More Information

Maninkakan, Kita
[mwk] Kayes region: Kita circle except far east; Koulikoro region: west of Bamako; Ségou region: Baroueli circle, and Bamako capital district. 434,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 28 December). Alternate Names: Central Malinke, Kita Maninka, Malinke Dialects: Bagè, Biriko (Birgo), Kita, Sagabari. Kita have 64% intelligibility of Bamanankan [bam]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Maninkakan, Western
[mlq] Kayes region: north Kéniéba circle, west of Bafing river and Lake Manantali; Bafoulabé circle and Baking-Baloy drainage area; Kayes circle north to Kayes. 433,000 in Mali (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malinka, Malinké, Northwestern Maninka, Western Malinke Dialects: Djébé, Konkodougou, Kouroudougou, Niagala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Marka
[rkm] Mopti region: Bankass circle, south of Dialassagou town; Ségou region: northeast Tominian circle, along Burkina Faso border. 25,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dafing, Marka-Dafin, Meka Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin Comments: Used for followers of the traditional religion, Dafing for Muslim speakers. Different from the Marka name for Soninke [snk], and Marka-Jalan who speak the San dialect of Bamanankan [bam]. Muslim.

More Information

Pana
[pnq] Mopti region: Bankass circle, Baye township, on Mali-Burkina Faso border east of Sourou river. 2,800 in Mali (1982 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sama Dialects: Pana North, Pana South. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Pulaar
[fuc] Kayes region: northwest Kayes, Yelimané, Nioro, and Diema circles; Koulikoro region: Nara, northern Kolokani, and Banamba circles. 175,000 in Mali (1995). 40,000 Fulbe Jeeri. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Peuhl, Peul, Pulaar Fulfulde Dialects: Toucouleur (Fulbe Jeeri, Haalpulaar, Halpulaar, Pulaar, Tukolor, Tukulor). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Pular
[fuf] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle. 50,000 in Mali (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foula Fouta, Fouta Dyalon, Fulfulde Jalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Samo, Matya
[stj] Mopti region: Bankass circle, southeast Baye township, Dissa village and 12 other villages. 1,000 in Mali (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sã, Samogho, San Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo

More Information

Sàmòmá
[knz] Mopti region: Koro circle, Dougoutene and Koro townships, about 12 villages, including Sougou, Zon, Ponghon, Gako, and Soyema. 2,500 in Mali (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalamsé, Kalemsé, Kalenga Dialects: Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Distinct from other languages called Samo. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Sénoufo, Mamara
[myk] Sikasso region: Koutiala and Yorosso circles; northeast Ségou region: Bla circle, scattered. 738,000 (2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Mamara, Mianka, Minianka, Miniyanka, Minya, Minyanka, Tupiire Dialects: Bàjii, Kle Noehmõ, Koloo, Kujaa, Mìjuu, Nafãã, Nejuu, Sõghoo, Suõõ. Reportedly similar to Supyire Senoufo [spp], but intercomprehension difficult. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bamaraga. Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle, Bagoe river west bank to Cote d’Ivoire border, and Bafini river south bank. 14,800 in Mali (2009 T. Requadt). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbajere Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: The language is called Gbajere by Syenara [shz] speakers.

More Information

Sénoufo, Sìcìté
[sep] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, east of Sikasso town, on Burkina Faso border. 4 villages. 3,000 in Mali (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sucite, Tagba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Little intermarriage with others in the southern area. Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Sénoufo, Supyire
[spp] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, north from Sikasso city. 350,000 (2007 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sup’ide, Suppire, Supyire Dialects: Fanywohoshin, Kadi, Kampwo, Nyana nyuni. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Sénoufo, Syenara
[shz] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle. 155,000 (2010 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Senare, Senari, Shenara, Syenara Dialects: Kuleele, Loakloho, Pomporo, Sangaar, Tagbaar, Tuvunro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Songhay, Humburi Senni
[hmb] Mopti region: Douentza circle, between Gao and Mopti cities; Tombouctou region: Gourma-Rharous circle. 15,000 in Mali (1999 J. Heath). Population total all countries: 25,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Songai, Hombori Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai Dialects: Hombori, Maransé. Maransé dialect is 77% intelligible of Songhay of Falangountou. Lexical similarity: Maransé is 65% with Songhay of Falangoutou, 35% with Songhay of Gao. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Songhay, Koyra Chiini
[khq] Tombouctou region: Niger river, both banks; Mopti region: Youvarou and Douentza circles; northeast Ségou region: Niono circle, northeast to Niger river. 200,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Songai, Songay, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai, Timbuktu Songhoy, West Songhoy Dialects: Djenné Chiini, Koyra Chiini. Main dialect division between Timbuktu and the upriver towns from Diré to Niafunké. Very distinct in Djenné City. Lexical similarity: 77% with Gao and Timbuktu dialects, 50% lexical similarity with Tadaksahak [dsq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Songhay, Koyraboro Senni
[ses] Gao region, along Niger river, Gao town area; Tombouctou region, from Gourma Rharous to Niger border. 430,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 850,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: East Songhay, Gao Songhay, Koroboro Senni, Koyra Senni, Koyra Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai Dialects: Fulan Kirya, Gao. Intelligibility good among all dialects on Niger River. Fulan Kirya dialect has more limited intelligibility through heavy lexical borrowing from Fulfulde [ffm] and Humburi Senni Songhay [hmb]. The Gao dialect is dominant in all respects. Lexical similarity: 77% with Gao and Timbuktu dialects; 50% with Tadaksahak [dsq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Soninke
[snk] Kayes region: Kayes, Yélimané, and Nioro circles; Koulikoro region: Nara, Kolokani, Banamba, and Koulikoro circles; Ségou region: Ségou and Baraouéli circles. 6 principal towns, 163 villages. 1,280,000 in Mali (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,114,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Aswanek, Aswanik, Azer, Ceddo, Cheddo, Gangara, Genger, Kwara, Maraka, Marka, Markaajo, Markakan, Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Sarangkole, Sarangkolle, Saraxuli, Sebbe, Serahule, Serecole, Soninkanxanne, Sooninke, Wakkore, Wankara Dialects: Geriga (Giriga), Kinbakka, Kinxenna. Giriga dialect heavily influenced by Hassaniya Arabic [mey]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke Comments: Ethnic autonym: Sooninkanxanne. The Bambara refer to the Soninke as Marka and their language as Markakan; this name is different from the Marka [rkm] language. Muslim.

More Information

Tadaksahak
[dsq] Gao region: Menaka circle; west into Ansongo circle. Menaka is principal town. 100,000 in Mali (2007 M. Almaki), increasing. Population total all countries: 101,800. 70,000 youth are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daosahaq, Daoussahaq, Daoussak, Dausahaq, Dawsahaq Dialects: No major dialects. Closely related to Tagdal [tda] (Niger), Tasawaq [twq] (Niger), and Korandje [kcy] (Algeria). Northern Songhay Languages share features from Songhay languages and Tamasheq [taq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern Comments: Shares culture with Tamasheq [taq].

More Information

Tamajaq
[ttq] Gao region: Menaka circle. 190,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tahoua, Tajag, Tamajeq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, “Tourage” (pej.), “Tuareg” (pej.) Dialects: Tawallammat Tan Ataram, Tawallammet Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tamashek
[tmh] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,248,200. Comments: Includes: Tahaggart Tamahaq [thv] (Algeria), Tamasheq [taq], Tawallammat Tamajaq [ttq] (Niger), Tayart Tamajeq [thz] (Niger).

More Information

Tamasheq
[taq] Widespread northeast: Tombouctou, Kidal, and Gao regions; some in Mopti region: Youvarou circle. 250,000 in Mali (1991). Population total all countries: 281,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Kidal, Kidal Tamasheq, Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, “Tuareg” (pej.) Dialects: Tadhaq (Kidal), Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou). May be 2 separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Comments: The Bellah were formerly under the Tamasheq economically. Muslim.

More Information

Tebul Sign Language
[tsy] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township, Uluban village area. 500 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: There are also several communities in neighboring Douentza circle with a relatively high incidence of deafness and use of sign language (Nyst, Sylla and Magassouba 2012); relationship of the signing in Douentza to that in Tebul has not been determined.

More Information

Tondi Songway Kiini
[tst] Mopti region: Douentza circle, northeast of Douentza town, Kikara village northeast. 3,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: TSK Dialects: None known. Clearly distinct from other Songhay languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Xaasongaxango
[kao] Kayes region: Bafoulabé, Kayes, and Kéniéba circles. 700,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 710,610. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December). Alternate Names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Khassonka, Khassonké, Malinke, Maninka, Xaasonga, Xasonga, Xasonke Dialects: Kéniéba Maninka, Xaasonga. High intelligibility of Western Maninkakan [mlq], less of Bamanankan [bam], but for sociolinguistic reasons they are considered separate languages. 90% inherent intelligibility of Loma [loi]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mandinka [mnk] of Gambia and Senegal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: French spelling is Khassonké. Muslim.

More Information

Zarmaci
[dje] Gao region: Ansongo circle, south of Menaka at Niger border. 2 villages. 1,700 in Mali (2012 G. Davis). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information