Myanmar

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Achang
[acn] Kachin State, Waimaw and Japhwi townships, west of Ayeyarwaddy river near Bhamo (locally known as Manmaw), scattered among the Lashi [lsi] language area; China border. 35,000 in Myanmar (2007). L2 users: Also used by Tai Sa blacksmiths among northern Shan. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acang, Anchan, Atsang, Chung, Manmaw, Mönghsa, Ngac’ang, Ngachang, Ngochang, Tai Sa’ Dialects: Maingtha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: Burmese glossonym: Maingtha, Chinese glossonym: Achang. Christian.

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Akeu
[aeu] Shan State, Kengtung and Mongla townships. 1,000 in Myanmar (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akheu, Aki, Akui Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Akha
[ahk] Shan State, east Kengtung district. 200,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 563,960. L2 users: Other minority people who live among them use Ahka as L2. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani Dialects: Much dialectal variation; some do not understand each other. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Anal
[anm] Sagaing Region, Tamu town, 10 households. Possibly in Bangladesh. 50 in Myanmar (2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Namfau Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Anong
[nun] Northern Kachin State, mainly Kawnglangphu township. 400 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley), decreasing. Population total all countries: 450. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Anoong, Anu, Anung, Fuchve, Fuch’ye, Khingpang, Kwingsang, Kwinp’ang, Naw, Nawpha, Nu Dialects: Slightly different dialects of Anong spoken in China and Myanmar, although no reported difficulty communicating with each other. Low inherent intelligibility with the Matwang variety of Rawang [raw]. Lexical similarity: 87%–89% with Anong in Myanmar and Anong in China, 73%–76% with T’rung [duu], 77%–83% with Matwang variety of Rawang [raw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish Comments: Different from Nung (Tai family) of Viet Nam, Laos, and China, and from Chinese Nung (Cantonese) of Viet Nam. Anong is one of the five principal divisions of Rawang clans, along with Matwang [raw], Daru-Jerwang, Longmi, and Tangsar (Morse 1989:240). Christian.

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Blang
[blr] East Shan State, Mong Yang and Kengtung townships. 12,000 in Myanmar (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulang, K’ala, Kawa, Kontoi, Plang, Pula, Pulang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang Comments: Some urbanized in Myanmar, Thailand, and China. An official nationality in China. Buddhist, Christian.

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Burmese
[mya] Widespread in central Myanmar. 32,000,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley), increasing. 250,000 Beik, 20,000 Yaw (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 32,035,300. L2 users: 10,000,000 in Myanmar. Minority peoples throughout the country. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1974, Constitution, Articles 102, 152(b), 198). Alternate Names: Bama, Bamachaka, Myanmar, Myen Dialects: Beik (Merguese, Mergui), Mandalay Burmese, Yangon Burmese, Yaw. Diglossic high and low varieties. Bangladesh speakers use a non-standard variety called Bomang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: The official language name is Myanmar. Educated speech has many Pali borrowings. Buddhist.

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Chak
[ckh] Northwest Rakhine State, 17 villages. 1,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 4,000. Ethnic population: 1,600 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ashah, Sak, Thet Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Luish Comments: Distinct from Chakma [ccp]. Buddhist.

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Chakma
[ccp] North Rakhine State, Buthidaung, Maungdaw, Punnakyun, and Kyauktaw (main concentration) townships; south Chin State, Paletwa township, a few villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daingnet, Sangma Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Dialect variation by township. A variety of Bangla, not to be confused with Chak [ckh]. Buddhist.

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Chin, Anu-Hkongso
[anl] Chin State, Paletwa township, between Kaladan and Michaung rivers. 4,000 (2008), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaungso, Kaungtso, Khaungtso, Khawngso, Khong, Khongso, No Dialects: Anu, Hkongso. Lexical similarity: 96%–98% and high intelligibility between Anu and Hkongso dialects, 72%–76% with Mru [mro] but intelligibility is low, 23%–37% lexical similarity with all neighboring Chin languages, but bilingualism is high. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru Comments: Although the Anu and Hkongso varieties are not part of the Kuki-Chin-Naga branch, these groups consider themselves to be Chin. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Asho
[csh] Ayeyarwaddy river lowlands; Rakhine State mountain areas. 30,000 in Myanmar (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 34,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asho, Ashu, Khamaw, Khamoe, Khyang, Kyang, Qin, Saingbaung, Sho, Shoa Dialects: Also related to Shendu [shl] and Chinbon [cnb]. Khyang dialect in Bangladesh is likely a separate language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Bawm
[bgr] Chin State, Paletwa township, south Chin hills, Pi Taung, Ton Balay, and Bahun Taung villages. 1,500 in Myanmar (2010), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Boam, Bom, Laisaw, Langkay Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Bualkhaw
[cbl] Chin State, Falam township, north of Falam town. 2,500 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bualkhaw-Chin Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Falam Chin [cfm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Chinbon
[cnb] Chin State, Kanpetlet and Paletwa townships; Magway region, Saw and Sidoktaya townships; Rakhine State, Minbya township. 19,600 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chindwin Chin, Chinpon, Oo-pu, Sho, Tuishiip, Tuiship, Uppu, Ütbü Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Asho Chin [csh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Daai
[dao] Chin State, Matupi, Paletwa, Kanpetlet, and Mindat townships, 142 villages. 37,000 (2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dai, Khyo, Kkhyou Dialects: Kanpetlet Daai (Nghngilo/Yang, Yindu), Matupi Daai (Ma-Tu, Shiip), Mindat Daai (Duk-Msang, Kheng, Mkui), Paletwa Daai (Ngxang, Vet, Yet). Intelligibility among Nghngilo (Yang), Yindu, and Mkui subgroups is high, but is lower among other subgroups. Lexical similarity: more than 90% with Yindu, Yang, Mkui, Duk, and Msang Daai, 81%–88% with Ngxang Daai (Paletwa Township) and Kheng Daai, 80% with Shiip Daai (Matupi Township), 91%–94% with Ng-Gha (part of Müün [mwq]), and 81%–87% with Müün. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Khyo. The name Nghmoye is used by both Yang and Yindu to refer to each other. Matupi Daai may be a separate language. Christian.

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Chin, Eastern Khumi
[cek] Chin State, eastern Paletwa township, Sami subtownship, 85 villages. 12,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ta-aw, Ta-oo Dialects: Asang (Kasang, Sangtha), Khenlak, Khongtu, Lemi (Akelong, Aki Along, Kaja, Kajauk), Likhy (Likhaeng), Nideun (Amlai, Ghu, Laungtha, Maru, Paru, Tahaensae, Taheunso, Uiphaw), Nisay (Nise, Palyng, Tao Cha), Rengsa (Namboi, Nangbwe). High degree of intelligibility among the dialect groups, although strong attitudes against sharing the same literature. Lexical similarity: Nisay, Nideun, and Khongtu dialects share 92%–97%; Khenlak and Asang dialects also share 92%–97%; all dialects share at least 74% with each other; 75%–87% with Khumi Chin [cnk]; Likhy variety shares 86%–90% with Mro-Khimi Chin [cmr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: These dialect groups do not have a unified identity or overarching name for themselves. However, because their speech varieties are highly intelligible with each other and because they are referred to as Nisay - eastern groups - by the Khumi, the term Eastern Khumi is used here as a cover term to refer to these groups. The Likhy people live among the other Eastern Khumi peoples, but their language is very similar to the Aroeng variety of Mro-Khimi [cmr]. Christian.

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Chin, Falam
[cfm] Chin State, Falam township. 69,000 in Myanmar (1983). 9,000 Tashon, 16,000 Zanniat, 7,000 Khualshim, 4,000 Lente, 14,400 Zahao, 18,600 in Laizao (1983). Population total all countries: 107,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Falam, Fallam, Halam, Hallam Chin Dialects: Hualngo, Khualshim (Kwelshin), Laizo (Laiso, Laizao, Laizo-Shimhrin), Lente (Gunte, Lyente), Ngawn, Sim, Taisun (Shunkla, Sunkhla, Taishon, Tashom, Tashon), Tapong, Zahao (Lyen-Lyem, Yahow, Zahau, Zahau-Shimhrin, Za-How), Zanniat (Zahnyiet, Zanniet). The Chorei dialect (in India) and Zanniat may be separate languages. Collectively called Baro Halam. Rupini and Koloi reportedly quite different from the others; Tapong reportedly has difficult intelligibility for other dialect speakers. 75% lexical similarity with Zanniat dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Haka
[cnh] Chin State, Hakha township. 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 125,000. L2 users: 40,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as an LWC in church, market, business, and some media in parts of Chin State: Hakha Township, Thantlang Township, and parts of Matupi Township. Alternate Names: Baungshe, Hakha, Lai Dialects: Klangklang (Thlantlang), Zokhua. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Kaang
[ckn] Chin State, Mindat township, 3 villages. 1,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kang, Makaang, Mgan, M’kaang, Mkan Dialects: Some dialectal variation among Kaang villages. Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with Rawngtu Chin [weu], 77%–79% with Müün Chin [mwq], 67%–80% with Daai [dao] varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Khumi
[cnk] Chin State, Paletwa township, Kaladan river area; Rakhine State, Kyauktaw township, a few villages. 60,000 in Myanmar (2006). Population total all countries: 62,090. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Common Khumi, Kaladan Khumi, Khami, Khimi, Khumi, Khweymi, Yangpan Dialects: Eastern Kaladan, Kaladan, Pi Chaung, Southern Paletwa. Little dialect variation within Khumi. Lexical similarity: 76%–87% with Eastern Khumi varieties, 78%–81% with Mro-Khimi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Laitu
[clj] Rakhine State, Sittwe district, Minpya, Mrauk-U, and Myepung townships. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daitu, Hio Bei, Hle-tu, Laikhy, Laitu Kheu, Ledu, Leitu Dialects: Dalet Stream (Doitu, Ekai, Khulai), Kanni Stream, Panmyaunggyi River (Kongtu), Phuntha Stream (Daaitu), Yaw Stream. Dialects tend to differ by stream. High intelligibility within the main dialect area along the Kanni Stream (Nyuan Net Khuasung, Ahongdong, Pharphyaw, Pheithapyin villages). Lower intelligibility with more distant dialect areas, such as Dalet Stream and Yaw Stream. Intelligibility to some extent with Sumtu Chin [csv]. Reportedly somewhat similar to Chinbon Chin [cnb]. Low intelligibility with Songlai [csj]. Lexical similarity: 91%–96% with Sumtu Chin [csv] and Songlai Chin [csj], 85%–89% with Chinbon Chin [cnb], 82%–84% with Asho [csh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Buddhist.

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Chin, Lautu
[clt] Chin State, Matupi and Thantlang townships, 17 villages. 15,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lawhtu Dialects: None known. High intelligibility within Lautu. Some differences between the northern Surngen variety and the southern varieties. Lexical similarity: 90%–97% within Lautu Chin, 87%–94% with Mara Chin [mrh], 82%–85% with Zophe Chin [zyp], 80%–86% with Senthang Chin [sez]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Mara
[mrh] Chin State, Paletwa, Matupi, and Thantlang townships, border area with Mizoram in India, 70 villages. 20,000 in Myanmar (1994). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lakher, Mara, Maram, Mira, Miram, Zao Dialects: Hlawthai, Sabeu, Tlongsai. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Matu
[hlt] Chin State, Matupi township. 30,000 in Myanmar (2012). Population total all countries: 40,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nga La Dialects: Ciing (Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng, Siing, Vuitu), Doem (Ngatu, Valang), Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngala (Batu), Ngaleng, Phaneng, Thlangpang (Changpyang). Not intelligible with Haka Chin [cnh]. Mizoram Matu reportedly not intelligible with Myanmar varieties. There are many Matu varieties in Myanmar, all intelligible to some extent with each other. Lexical similarity: 78%–89% within Matu varieties in Myanmar, 65%–76% with Rawngtu Chin [weu], 66%–71% with Thaiphum Chin [cth]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: The Chin in Mindat Township refer to all the Matu as Batu, but the Matu use this name only for the area around Matupi Town. Christian.

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Chin, Mizo
[lus] Chin State, northwest Falam, western Tedim and Tonzang townships, near India border. 12,500 in Myanmar (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haulngo, Hualngo, Ka-Lin-Kaw, Le, Lusai, Lushai, Lushay, Lushei, Mizo, Whelngo Dialects: Dulien, Mizo, Ngente. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Mro-Khimi
[cmr] Rakhine State, Kyauktaw, Buthidaung, Ponnagyun, Pauktaw, Mrauk U, and Maungdaw townships; Chin State, Paletwa township. 75,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa Khami, Khimi, Khumi Awa, “Kwe Myi” (pej.), Mro, Mro Chin, Vakung, Wakun, Wakung Dialects: Arang (Ahraing Khami, Areung, Aroeng), Vakung (Wakung), Xata, Xengna (Hrengna). Generally high comprehension of Vakung dialect among other dialect speakers. Vakung is the largest dialect and basis of literature. Lexical similarity: 91%–98% within Mro-Khimi varieties, 86%-90% with Likhy variety of Eastern Khumi [cek], 81%–85% with Lemi variety of Eastern Khumi [cek], 77%–81% with Kaladan Khumi [cnk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Chin, Müün
[mwq] Chin State, Mindat township. 15,000 (2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cho, K’cho Chin, Mindat, Mün, Müün Dialects: Hngiyung, Ng’men (Hletlong, Hmong-K’cha, Nitu). Related to Daai Chin [dao]. Daai usually understand Müün due to contact, but Müün have difficulty understanding Daai. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: The ethnonyms Yawdwin, Chinbok, Tsinbok, Chinme, and Chinbe are old colonial names referring to people groups of current south Chin State and neighboring Yaw Valley and not to distinct languages. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Ngawn
[cnw] Chin State, north Falam township. 15,000 (1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngawn, Ngon, Ngorn Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Rawngtu
[weu] Chin State, Mindat township; Magway region, Htilin township, 2 villages. 5,000 (2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rongtu, Shimi, Welaung Dialects: Boishi, Kyonnam, Shitwanu, Welaung. Most Rawngtu in Mindat Township adequately comprehend the Kyonnam variety, but nearby Matu [hlt] villages in Matupi Township do not. These villages also do not consider themselves Rawngtu. Lexical similarity: more than 90% within Rawngtu; 84%-89% with Matupi Daai [dao], 67%-74% with Kaang Chin [ckn], 71%-83% with Matu varieties [hlt], less than 70% with Rungtu [rtc]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Christian (Protestant).

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Chin, Rungtu
[rtc] Magway Region, Htilin, and Kyaukhtu townships, 25 villages. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Thaungtha Dialects: Central Rungtu, Northern Rungtu, Southern Rungtu. Lexical similarity: 94%–96% within Rungtu, 60%–66% with Rawngtu Chin [weu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Senthang
[sez] Chin State, Hakha township; Thantlang township, 2 villages; Magway region, Gangaw township, 15 villages; Sagaing region, Kaleymyo township, 2 villages. 33,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hsemtang, Sentang Dialects: Central Senthang (Bungzung, Khuapi, Lei-Um, Phaipha), Sakta, Shoneshi (Shonshe), Shonshe, Surkhua/Lungrang. High intelligibility among all Senthang villages, except possibly outlying dialects of Shoneshi, Surkhua (Lungrang), and Sakta. Lexical similarity: 79%–95% within Senthang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic Comments: Preliminary orthography developed and primers designed: 2007–2010. Christian, Buddhist.

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Chin, Siyin
[csy] Chin State, south Tedim township. 10,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siyang, Siyin, Sizang Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tedim Chin [ctd] and Paite Chin [pck]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Songlai
[csj] Chin State, Paletwa township (Mang Um, Doitu, and Hettui dialects); Rakhine State, Mrauk-U township (Lai dialect); along the Laymyo or Phunglaung river. 7,300 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hio Dialects: Doitu, Hettui, Lai, Mang Um (Song). Reportedly closely related to Laitu Chin [clj]; lexical similarity over 90% but not intelligible. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Sumtu
[csv] Rakhine State, Minbya, Myebon, and Ann townships. 14,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahmyo, Chang, Hmyo, Settu, Settu Hmyo, Sungtu Dialects: Some variation between Minbya and Myebon townships, more variation with Ann township. High intelligibility within Sumtu. Lexical similarity: 91%–96% with Laitu Chin [clj], 96%–97% with Dalet Stream variety of Laitu Chin, 84%–87% with Chinbon Chin [cnb]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Tawr
[tcp] Chin State, Haka township, Lamthok and Rovan villages. 700 (1996 D. van Bik). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tawr, Torr Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Included in official ethnic list as Torr. Not the same as Chintaw, a dialect of Achang [acn], a Northern Burmic language spoken in Yunnan, China. Christian.

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Chin, Tedim
[ctd] Chin State, Tedim, Tonzang, and Cikha townships; Kalay area. 189,000 in Myanmar (1990). Population total all countries: 344,000. L2 users: Used as L2 in Tiddim political subdivision. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hai-Dim, Tedim, Tiddim Dialects: Kamhau (Kamhao, Kamhow), Sokte. Other area Chin languages or dialects are Saizang [pck], Teizang [pck], and Zou [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Zomi may refer to Tedim [ctd] or to all Chin groups. Christian.

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Chin, Thado
[tcz] Sagaing Region, Khamti, Homalin, Layshi, and Tamu townships, India border area. 26,200 in Myanmar (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuki, Kuki-Thado, Thado-Pao, Thadou, Thado-Ubiphei Dialects: Baite, Changsen, Hawkip, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Paite, Sairang, Thangngen. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Thaiphum
[cth] Chin State, Matupi township, 4 villages. 1,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thui Phum Dialects: Very little dialectal variation among the Thaiphum villages. Thaiphum is intelligible to some extent with neighboring languages, such as the Eastern Khumi [cek] varieties of Khenlak, Asang, and Rengsa. Lexical similarity: 72%–75% with Eastern Khumi [cek], 69%–71% with Khumi [cnk], 65%–68% with Mro-Khimi [cmr], 66%–71% with Matu Chin [hlt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Zotung
[czt] Chin State, Reizwa subtownship. 40,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yotun, Zo Mingphuin, Zobya, Zotung Dialects: None known. Reportedly intelligible with Haka Chin [cnh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Zyphe
[zyp] Chin State, Thantlang township. 17,000 in Myanmar (1994). Population total all countries: 20,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zo-pe, Zophei, Zoptei, Zyphe Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe. Reportedly similar to Mara Chin [mrh]. Myanmar and India varieties reportedly mutually intelligible. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic Comments: Christian.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] North Shan State; small groups around the country. 500,000 in Myanmar (1994). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Tayok Dialects: Kokang (Kokant). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: The Kokang have been given a Self-Administered Zone. The Kokang dialect in Myanmar is most similar to the dialect spoken in Yunnan Province, China. Buddhist, Daoist.

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Danau
[dnu] Southwest Shan State, Kalaw township, Ang Pan area, just west of Inle lake, on road to Heho. 1,000 (Robinne 2000). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Robinne 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Danaw Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Riang-Lang [ril]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Danau Comments: Not the same as Danu [dnv], a Southern Burmic language. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Danu
[dnv] Shan State, Danu self-administered zone, Ywa Ngan and Pindaya townships; Taunggyi, Yak Sauk, Ye Oo, Aung Ban, and Kalaw townships. 100,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taruw Dialects: Some dialect variation between Danu villages; however, intelligilibility is quite high. Lexical similarity: 93% with standard Burmese [mya], 93% with Intha [int], 91% with Taungyo [tco], 85%–94% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: Officially considered a Burmese dialect. Not the same as Danau [dnu], a Palaungic language. Buddhist.

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Drung
[duu] Far north Kachin State, Pannandin township, Talatu and Khraung villages. 225 in Myanmar. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Derung, Dulong, Qiu, Rawang, Tarong, Thrung, Trung, T’rung, Tulung Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish Comments: Geographically isolated from the Drung in China. Christian (Protestant).

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Shan State, Kunlong township, 6 villages; Hseni, and Namtu townships. 10,000 in Myanmar (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Man Zi, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Miao Tsi, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Christian.

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Hpon
[hpo] Kachin State, Upper Ayeyarwady gorges, north of Bhamo. No known L1 speakers (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Southern dialect extinct; northern dialect moribund; some older people remember lexical items but none can speak it (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Hpön, Megyaw, Phon, Phön, Phun, Samong Dialects: North Hpon, South Hpon. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern

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Intha
[int] South Shan State, Taunggyi district, Inle lake area, Shwe Nyaung township. Important Intha-speaking villages: Heha Ywama (largest), In Chan, Tha Lay, Nan Pan, and Paw Kon. 90,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inntha, Insa, Naung Ma Dialects: Well-known nonstandard variety of Burmese [mya] with major pronunciation and vocabulary differences. Some dialect variation between Intha villages; however, intelligibility reportedly high. Some comprehension of Danu [dnv] and Taungyo [tco]. Lexical similarity: 95% with standard Burmese [mya], 93% with Danu [dnv], 89% with Taungyo [tco], 90% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect. Pa-O people call them Naung Ma, people who live on the lake. Buddhist.

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Jingpho
[kac] Kachin State; northwest Shan State. 900,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 940,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Lingua franca for Zaiwa [atb], Lashi [lsi], and Lhao Vo [mhx]. Alternate Names: Chingpaw, Chingp’o, Jinghpaw, Kachin Dialects: Dulong (Dalaung, Duleng), Dzili (Jili), Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Gauri, Guari, Hkauri). Dzili may be a separate language. Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different. Lexical similarity: 50% with Singhpo [sgp] of India. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho Comments: Kachin refers to a cultural, not linguistic, group. Glossonym: Aphu or Phu by Rawang [raw] people. Christian.

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Kadu
[zkd] Sagaing Region, Katha district, Banmauk and Indaw townships; also in Homalin, Paungbyin, Pinlebu, and Wuntho townships. 30,000 (2007 SIL), decreasing. Over 30 villages in Mawteik dialect (nearly extinct); over 30 villages in Settaw dialect; 5 villages in Mawkhwin dialect. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gadu, Ka’do, Kadu-Ganaan, Kantu’, Kato, Kudo, Maw, Mawteik, Puteik, Thet Dialects: Mawkhwin, Mawteik, Settaw. Each Kadu dialect distinct with low comprehension between the Mawkhwin, Settaw, and Mawteik Kadu varieties. All Kadu (except possibly Mawkhwin Kadu) have low comprehension of Kanan [zkn]. Lexical similarity: 95%–98% with Settaw and Mawteik Kadu, 91%–93% with Mawkhwin Kadu and other Kadu varieties, 84%–89% with Kadu varieties and Kanan [zkn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Luish Comments: Different from Kaduo [ktp], a Sino-Tibetan language of China and Laos. The Kadu say they are descended from the Thet, also known as Sak (see Chak [ckh]). Buddhist.

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Kanan
[zkn] Sagaing Region, Katha district, Banmauk township, along Mu river, southwest of Kadu [zkd] language area, 24 villages; Homalin, Indaw, and Pinlebu townships, a few villages. 9,000 (2007 SIL). 0 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganaan, Ganan, Ganon, Genan, Kana Dialects: None known. High comprehension within all the Kanan villages. Low comprehension of, but reportedly similar to, Kadu [zkd]. Lexical similarity: 95%–99% within Kanan varieties, 84%–89% with Kadu varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Luish Comments: Buddhist.

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Karen, Bwe
[bwe] Kayin State, Thandaung township, about 100 villages; Kayah State, Hpruso township. 17,200 (1997 F. Bennett), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baghi, Bghai Karen, Blimaw, Bwe, Dareh, Manaw Dialects: Eastern Bwe Karen, Western Bwe Karen. Most comprehend Western Bwe Karen dialect; some comprehend Geba [kvq] and Kayaw [kvl]; no inherent intelligibility with Kayah [eky] or Geko [ghk]. Lexical similarity: 82%–100% with Geba Karen [kvq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central Comments: Western Bwe Karen more widely understood, more prestigious. Bwe is sometimes used as an overarching cover term for all high-dwelling Central Karennic groups, who are not S’gaw Karen or Pwo Karen. Bwe people are very similar to the Mobwa people in lifestyle and culture. Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant).

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Karen, Geba
[kvq] North Kayin State, Thandaunggyi township, 140 villages; Bago Region; Mandalay Region, Pyinmana township; Shan State, Pekon and Pinlong townships; Kayah State. 40,000 (2010 Geba Literature and Culture Committee). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daneh, Geba, Kaba, Karenbyu, Kayinbyu, Kono, Koo-ong, Northern Bwe Dialects: Gerkho-Geba, Sawkho, Thamitaik (Sawkeepho). May be same subgroup with Bwe Karen [bwe] and Kayaw [kvl]. Some comprehension of Bwe Karen [bwe]. Sawkho and Gerkho-Geba varieties slightly divergent. Lexical similarity: 82%–100% with Bwe Karen [bwe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central Comments: Geko Karen [ghk] and Geba Karen are grouped together in the local Baptist Association administration and are often considered to be the same language (Geko-Geba), although they are distinct. Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant).

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Karen, Geko
[ghk] North Kayin State, Thandaunggyi township; south Shan State, Pekon township; Mandalay Region, Yamethin District; Bago Region, Toungoo district. 17,000 (Manson 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaikho, Gekho, Gek’o, Ghekhol, Ghekhu, Gheko, Kakhau, Kayan, Kayan Kakhau, Kekaungdu, Kekhong, Keku, Yathu Gekho Dialects: Geker, Gekho, Thaidai (Htideh). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central Comments: Geko Karen is often considered a sub-variety or clan of Kayan [pdu]. Geko Karen and Geba Karen [kvq] are grouped together in the local Baptist Association administration and are often considered to be the same language (Geko-Geba), although they are distinct. Christian.

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Karen, Mobwa
[jkm] Karen State, Thandaung township, western foot of Thandaung mountains. 9 villages. 4,000 (2010 SIL). Also live mixed with Bwe Karen [bwe] and Paku Karen [jkp] in some villages. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bilichi, Blimaw, Dermuha, Maleh, Monpwa, Mopwa, Palachi, Palakhi, Palaychi, Pa-Le-Chi Dialects: Dermuha (Southern Mobwa), Palaychi (Southern Mobwa). Reportedly similar to Paku Karen [jkp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern Comments: Similar to Bwe Karen [bwe] in lifestyle and culture. Christian.

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Karen, Paku
[jkp] North Kayin State, hills southeast of Taungoo in east Bago Region bordering Kayin State; south Kayah State. 5,300 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mogpha, Mogwa, Monebwa, Monnepwa, Mopaga, Mopha, Pagu, Paku, Thalwepwe Dialects: Bawgali, Kyauk Gyi, Mawchi, Shwe Kyin. Dialects based on villages: Kyauk Gyi and Shwe Kyin are spoken in east Bago Region, Taungoo District near Kayin State border; Mawchi is spoken in Kayah State; Bawgali is spoken in north Kayin State. Some Paku dialects are reportedly quite similar to S’gaw Karen [ksw], while others are more similar to Bwe [bwe] and Geba [kvq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern Comments: Christian.

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Karen, Pwo Eastern
[kjp] Kayin State, Mon State, Tanintharyi Region. 1,000,000 in Myanmar (1998). Population total all countries: 1,050,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Moulmein Pwo Karen, Phlong, Phlou, Pho Dialects: Kawkareik (Eastern Border Pwo Karen), Pa’an (Inland Eastern Pwo Karen, Moulmein), Tavoy (Southern Pwo Karen). Not intelligible with Pwo Karen [pwo]. Reportedly fairly high comprehension among Eastern Pwo Karen dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–97% among dialects; 63%–65% with Pwo Karen [pwo]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral Comments: Buddhist, Christian (Protestant).

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Karen, Pwo Western
[pwo] Ayeyarwaddy Region, Delta area, Pathein, Twante, Ma Ubin, Ein Meh, Kyone Pyaw, Hinthada, and Yangon. 210,000, decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bassein Pwo Karen, Delta Pwo Karen, Mon Karen, Mutheit, Pathein Pwo Karen, Phlong, Phlong Sho, Pho, Shu, Talaing Karen Dialects: Very little dialectal variation among Western Pwo Karen. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Karen, S’gaw
[ksw] Ayeyarwaddy delta area, Tanintharyi Region, the Pegu range between Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers; Kayin State east hills; Mon State. Delta dialect: Ayeyarwaddy delta area, Yangon, up to Mandalay; scattered in Kachin State, Shan State; Eastern dialect: south Kayin and Mon states, and Mawlamyine; Southern dialect: Tanintharyi Region. 1,280,000 in Myanmar (1983 census). Population total all countries: 1,480,000. L2 users: 80,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication).S’gaw Karen used in the church domain for many Karen languages. Alternate Names: Burmese Karen, Kanyaw, Kayinpyu, Kyetho, Paganyaw, Pchcknya, Pwakanyaw, S’gau, S’gaw, S’gaw Kayin, White Karen, Yang Khao Dialects: Delta dialect of S’gaw Karen, Eastern dialect of S’gaw Karen (Pa’an), Southern dialect of Western Kayah (Dawei). Reportedly similar to Paku Karen [jkp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern Comments: Buddhist, Christian (Protestant), traditional religion.

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Kayah, Eastern
[eky] Kayah State, Shadaw township, east of Thanlwin river. 8,000 in Myanmar (2007). Population total all countries: 26,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karenni, Karennyi, Kayah Li, Kayay, Red Karen Dialects: Lower Eastern Kayah, Upper Eastern Kayah. Upper Eastern Kayah and Lower Eastern Kayah are mutually intelligible; Huai Sua Thaw village (Lower Eastern) is prestigious in both dialect groups. Difficulty understanding Western Kayah [kyu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kayah, Western
[kyu] Kayah and Kayin states, east of Thanlwin river; south Shan State, Pekon township. Northern dialect: Shan State, north of Loikaw; Southern dialect: Hpruso and Dimawso townships, south of Loikaw. 150,000 (2007). 2,000 refugees in Thailand. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karenni, Karennyi, Karieng Daeng, Kayah Li, Red Karen, Yang Daeng Dialects: Chi Kwe, Dawnnyjekhu, Dawtama, Northern dialect of Western Kayah, Sounglog, Southern dialect of Western Kayah, Wan Cheh. Part of a dialect continuum of Central Karen varieties stretching from Thailand (Eastern Kayah [eky]) to western Kayah State. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kayan
[pdu] South Shan State, Pekon township; northwest Kayah State; Kayin State, Thandaung township; Mandalay Region, Pyinmana township. Kayan Lahwi dialect: Kayah State, Lahwi and northwest Dimawso; Shan State, south Pekon. Kayan Kangan dialect: northwest Kayah State, Dimawso area. 133,000 in Myanmar (2005 E. Phan). Population total all countries: 133,180. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayang, Ka-Yun, Lahwi, “Long-Necked Karen” (pej.), “Padaung” (pej.), “Padaung Karen” (pej.) Dialects: Kayan Kangan (Yeinbaw, Yinbaw), Kayan Lahwi, Standard Pekon. Significant dialectal variation. Most seem to understand standard Pekon (prestige) dialect. Lexical similarity: more than 90% among dialects, 71%–76% with Lahta [kvt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic), Buddhist, Christian (Protestant).

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Kayaw
[kvl] East Kayah State, 30 villages; northeast Kayin State, Yado area; south Shan State, Pekon township. 16,600 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Bre” (pej.), “Brec” (pej.), “Brek” (pej.), Deleh, Ka-yaw, “Kayaw Brek” (pej.), Laku, “Paret” (pej.), Pramano, “Pre” (pej.), “Pret” (pej.) Dialects: Bwe-Kayaw, Lowe Kayaw, Upper Kayaw. Upper Kayaw dialect is the basis for Kayaw literature. Some intelligibility with Bwe Karen [bwe], though some Kayaw who speak with the Bwe Karen may use S’gaw Karen [ksw] to communicate. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central Comments: Brek and Bwe are variant names of a dialect continuum extending from southwest Kayah State to northeast Kayin (Karen) State. Bwe-Kayaw is a mixed variety spoken in the middle of this continuum. See also Karen, Bwe [bwe]. Christian.

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Khamti
[kht] Kachin State, Putao district (4,500) and Myitkyina area (3,500); north Sagaing Region. 8,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 13,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hkamti, Kam Ti, Khampti, Khampti Shan, Khamti Shan, Khandi Shan, Tai Kam Ti, Tai-Khamti Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Hkamti. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist.

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Khün
[kkh] East Shan State, Kentung valley area. 100,000 in Myanmar (Diller and Juntanamalaga 1990). Population total all countries: 106,880. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gon Shan, Hkun, Khuen, Khun Shan, Khyn, Tai Khun, Tai-Khuen Dialects: Kang Muang, Muang Lang. Khün, Northern Thai [nod] and Lü [khb] traditionally all use the same ancient script. Lexical similarity: 93%–100% with Khün varieties; Khün varieties: 90%–95% with Northern Thai [nod], 92%–95% with Lü [khb], 93%–97% with Shan [shn], 80%–83% with standard Thai [tha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Different from Khuen [khf], a Mon-Khmer language of Laos. Buddhist.

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Lahta
[kvt] South Shan State, Pekon and Pinlaung townships; Mandalay Region, Pyinnmana township. 9,550 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayan Lahta, Khahta, Lahta Karen, Peu, Taru, Tarulakhi, Yan Wohta Dialects: Socially related to Kayan [pdu] but not intelligible. Zayein [kxk] may be a dialect of Lahta. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern Comments: Officially recognized as part of Kayan [pdu]. Much dialect variation. Called Yan Wohta by the Shan [shn]. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Lahu
[lhu] Shan State, Kentung district. 200,000 in Myanmar (2012 D. Bradley), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Lahuna, Launa, Lohei, Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussuh Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Lohei, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Luhishi, Luhushi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] Shan State, Kentung district. 60,000 in Myanmar (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Kwi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Little dialect variation between Lahu Shi spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. They live among the Lahu Na [lhu]. Christian (Protestant).

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Lashi
[lsi] Kachin State, east border area. 30,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 31,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ac’ye, Chashan, La Chit, Lachikwaw, Lacid, Lacik, Lashi-Maru, Lasi, Lechi, Leqi, Letsi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: Glossonym: Lashi by the Jingpho and Burmese, Lachi by the Chinese. Christian.

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Lhao Vo
[mhx] Kachin State, east border area, Waimaw, Chiphwe, and Sawlaw townships, widely dispersed; north Shan State, Kutkai township. 100,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 1997). Population total all countries: 103,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diso, Lang, Langsu, Laungaw, Laungwaw, Lawgore, Lawng, Lhaovo, Malu, “Maru” (pej.), Mulu, Zi Dialects: Dago’ Lawng Bit, Gawan Naw’, Hlo’lan, Laking, Lawng Hsu, Wa Khawk, Zagaran Mran. Lawng Hsu may have difficult intelligibility with the other dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: Different from Mru [mro] and Mro-Khimi [cmr] of northwest Rakhine State and Paletwa Township, South Chin State. Culturally similar to Kachin. Glossonym: Maru by Jingpho [kac] and Burmese [mya], Liangsu by Chinese [cmn]. Christian.

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Lisu
[lis] Shan State, Lashio and Loilem areas; Kachin State, Myitkyina. Bhamo, Putao area toward Assam border. 300,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Many use Lisu as L2. Alternate Names: Central Lisu, Li-Hsaw, Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jeh Dialects: Black Lisu, Hwa Lisu (Flowery Lisu), Lu Shi Lisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: All 3 dialects are found in Myanmar. Black Lisu is most distinct. The Lisu in Myanmar and Thailand have difficulties in communicating due to dialect differences. Christian (Protestant).

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[khb] East Shan State, Muang Yong township. 60,000 in Myanmar (2013). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lue, Pai-I, Shu-Ai-I, Tai Lu Dialects: Muang Yong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist.

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Manumanaw
[kxf] Kayah State, West Kyèbogyi area, border of Bawlake and Hpruso townships. 23 villages. 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayah-Munu, Kayàw, Manö, Manu, Manu Manaw, Manumanaw Karen, Monu Dialects: Doloso, Tawkhu. Reports of comprehension difficulty between the 2 dialects. Reportedly similar to Western Kayah [kyu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central Comments: Christian.

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Moken
[mwt] South. Tanintharyi Region, Mergui archipelago, Dung, and other islands. 4,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 6,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basing, Chau Ko’, Lawta, Mawken, Orang Laut, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung Dialects: Dung, Jait (Ja-It), L’be. Reportedly most similar to Moklen [mkm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen Comments: Primarily live on boats, but occasionally settle on area islands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mon
[mnw] Mon and Kayin states, Tanintharyi, Bago, Yangon, and Mandalay regions. 743,000 in Myanmar (2004), decreasing. Population total all countries: 851,000. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aleng, Mou, Mun, Peguan, Raman, Rman, Rmen, Takanoon, Talaing, Taleng, Teguan Dialects: Martaban-Moulmein (Central Mon, Mon Te), Pegu (Mon Tang, Northern Mon), Ye (Mon Nya, Southern Mon). Intelligibility between Mon varieties high; between Mon in Thailand and Myanmar 99% (Huffman 1976). Varieties in Myanmar and Thailand “mutually intelligible” (Bauer 1990) but lexical borrowings from Thai and Burmese may cause miscommunication (Guillon 1999). Lexical similarity: 69% with Mon and Nyah Kur [cbn] (Huffman 1976). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic Comments: Remnants of a nation that once spread over south Myanmar and west Thailand. Preferred names: Mon or Raman. Buddhist.

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Mru
[mro] Rakhine State, Buthidaung, Maungdaw, and Ponnagyun townships. 20,000 in Myanmar (1999 Association of Baptists for World Evangelization). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dak, Launghu, Mro, Mrucha, Mrung, Mrusa, Murung, Niopreng, Taung Mru Dialects: Anok, Dowpreng (Doumrong, Pongmi, Tamsa), Launghu, Sungma. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Akyaung Ari
[nqy] Sagaing Region, south Layshi township, Heinkut, Jagram, and Ngachan villages. 1,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngachan Dialects: Very little (if any) dialect variation within Akyaung Ari Naga. Lexical similarity: 52% with Tanghkul Naga of Somra [ntx], 23% with Tangkhul Naga of Ukhrul in India [nmf], 23% with Koki Naga [nxk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified Comments: Tribally, the Akyaung Ari are included as part of Tangkhul Naga, but their language is very distinct. Christian.

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Naga, Khiamniungan
[kix] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Lahe and Khamti townships. About 30 villages. 10,000 in Myanmar (2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Makware, Nokaw, Para, Tukhemmi, Welam Dialects: Nokhu, Ponso, Thang, Wolam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: This group is sometimes called Para by other groups, but the Para [pzn] are a different Naga group. Christian (Protestant).

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Naga, Koki
[nxk] Sagaing Region, south Layshi township. 10 villages. 2,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konke Dialects: Very little (if any) dialect variation within Koki. Lexical similarity within Koki: 98%. Lexical similarity: 19%–32% with Tangkhul Naga [ntx] in Myanmar, 23% with Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy], 22%–24% with Para Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified Comments: Tribally, the Koki are included as part of Tangkhul Naga, but their language is very distinct. Not the same as Kuki Chin (Chin, Thado [tcz]). Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Konyak
[nbe] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Lahe township. 2,000 in Myanmar (2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kun, Lonwa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Kyan-Karyaw
[nqq] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Lahe township, 13 villages. Along the border with India. 9,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chen, Kaiyaw, Karyaw, Kayaw, Kayu, Kyan Dialects: Karyaw, Kyan. The 2 dialects are closely related. Karyaw is reportedly similar to the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga [nst]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga

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Naga, Lao
[nlq] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Lahe township, along the border with India. 1,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Law, Loh Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Kyan-Karyaw Naga [nqq] and the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga [nst]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga

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Naga, Leinong
[lzn] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Lahe township. About 25 villages. 7,000 (2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Htang Ngan, Htangan, Lainong Naga, Lenaung Naga Dialects: Southern Leinong, Yao Dyang (Northern Leinong, Zau Dyang). High intelligibility in Leinong villages. Lexical similarity: within Leinong Naga 89%–100%. Lexical similarity: 69%–75% with Ponyo-Gongwang Naga [npg], 62%–67%with Khiamniungan Naga [kix], 37%–41% with Lao variety of Konyak Naga [nbe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: The majority group within Lahe Township. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Long Phuri
[lpn] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Layshi township. 6 villages. Some across the border in India. 1,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amimi Naga, Longpfuri, Longpfuru, Mimi Dialects: Little (if any) dialect variation within Long Phuri. Lexical similarity: 30%–37% with Makuri Naga [jmn], 23%–25% with Para Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Makuri
[jmn] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Layshi, Homalin, and Lahe townships. 2,500 in Myanmar (2004). Population total all countries: 6,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makury Dialects: Arale, Kyaungphuri (Shu), Kyile, Makhwale, Saingphule (Saingpuri), Shera (Shaera). Lexical similarity: 93% with Makuri Naga, 30%–37% with Long Phuri Naga [lpn], 17%–19% with Para Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified Comments: Christian (Protestant), Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Makyan
[umn] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, northeast Lahe township. 13 villages. 4,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lasam, Macham Naga, Makyam, Pongnyun Dialects: Main dialect variation is between western Makyan villages and Kuku villages. Lexical similarity: 99% with western Makyan, 31%–35% with Ponyo-Gongwang Naga [npg], 29%–36% with Leinong Naga [lzn], 27%–28% with Lao variety of Konyak Naga [nbe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: Endoglossonym: Makyam. Distinct language from Leinong Naga [lzn], although culturally and geographically related. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Para
[pzn] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Layshi township. 7 villages. 1,500 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bara Naga, Jejara Naga, Parasar Dialects: Very little dialect variation within Para. Lexical similarity: 83%–93% with Para Naga, 23%–25% with Long Phuri Naga [lpn], 17%–19% with Makuri Naga [jmn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Ponyo-Gongwang
[npg] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Lahe township. 19 villages. 4,500 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gongvan, Gongwang, Manauk, Mannok, Ponyo, Pounyu, Saplow, Solo, Tsawlaw Dialects: Gongwang, Ponyo. Very little dialect variation within Gongwang and within Ponyo, but between these 2 dialects, there are differences. Comprehension seems to be high between Ponyo and Gongwang speakers. Lexical similarity: 89%–91% between Ponyo and Gongwang, 69%–75% with Leinong Naga [lzn], 67%–73% with Khiamniungan Naga [kix]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: They feel culturally and linguistically related to both Leinong Naga [lzn] and Khiamniungan Naga [kix]. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Tangkhul
[ntx] Sagaing Region, south Layshi township, Somra tract; Homalin township. 4,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Somara, Somra Dialects: Somra. Very little dialect variation within Tangkhul (Somra) Naga. Somra village is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 93%–94% with Tangkhul (Somra) Naga, 31% with Tangkhul Naga [nmf] in India, 51%–52% with Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy], 29%–32% with Koki Naga [nxk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Tangkhul Comments: Included in official ethnic group list as Tangkhul. The Koki Naga [nxk] and Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy] in Myanmar are included tribally within Tangkhul, but their languages are quite distinct. The Tangkhul (Somra) Naga [ntx] language in Myanmar is very different from Tangkhul (Ukhrul) Naga [nmf] in India. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Tase
[nst] Sagaing Region, Khamti district, Nanyun, Pangsau, Lahe, and Khamti townships; Kachin State, Myitkyina district, Shinbwiyan and Tanai townships. 60,000 in Myanmar (2010). Population total all countries: 100,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haimi, Hawa, Heimi, Kuwa, Pangmi, Pangwa, Rangpan, Rangpang, Tangshang, Tangwa Dialects: Asen (Aasen, Hansin, Raqsa, Yasa), Bote (Bongtai, Butay, Hteinpa, Nokpa, Nukpa), Chamchang (Kimsing), Chamkok (Tamko, Thamkok), Champhang (Thamphang), Cholim (Tawlum, Tulim, Tulum), Chuyo (Wanggu, Wangoo), Gaha (Halum), Gakat (Wakka, Wanga), Gaqchan (Gashan), Gawkchung (Kochong), Hacheng (Hakyai), Hachum (Chumnyu, Chumsa, Gachung), Hakhü (Gakhi, Hachi, Hakhii, Hatse), Hakhun (Gakhun), Haman (Gaman), Hapaw, Hasik (Awla, Awlay, Laju), Henchin (Sanching, Shangchein), Hokuq, Jöngi (Dongai, Donghee, Dongi), Kaisan (Kyetsan), Khalak (Hkalak), Kon (Chawang, Kyawan, Yawngkon, Yongkon), Kotlum (Kawlum), Kumka (Kum Ga, Kumga), Lakki (Lakai), Lama, Lochang (Lanchein, Langshin), Lonyung (Galawn, Galun), Lumnu, Lungkhi (Longkhai), Lungri, Maitai (Meitei, Mitay), Miku (Maihku), Mitay (Maitai), Moshang (Mawshang), Mungre (Mawrang, Morang), Nahen (Nahim, Nahin), Ngaimong (Maimong, Ngaimau), Pingku (Pyengoo), Ranchi (Rangchein), Ranu, Rara, Rasa, Rera (Ronrang), Riha (Lulum), Ringkhu (Rangkhu), Sansik (Sheiknyo, Siknyo, Sikpo), Shangti (Sangtai, Shangthi), Shangwan (Changwan, Shangwal, Shawvel), Shekyü (Sangche, Sanke, Shaekjeng, Shaekyeu), Shokra (Sawkrang, Shaukra, Shograng), Toke (Tawkay), Yangno. A group of many Naga speech varieties, some of which are separate languages. Intelligibility high between some speech varieties; low between others. Intelligibility between varieties is higher in the north and fairly low in the south. Wide range of lexical similarity within dialects, from 35%–97%. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: This group is called Tangshang in Myanmar and Tangsa in India. Tase is the Chamchang (Kimsing) pronunciation of the name. Christian, Buddhist.

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Nusu
[nuf] Northeast Kachin State near China border, Myitkyina, Chipwi, and Tsawlaw townships. About 22 villages. 670 in Myanmar (2011), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nang Tsu, “Naw” (pej.), “No” (pej.), “No Pha” (pej.), “No Shi” (pej.), No Tso, No Tsu, “Nu” (pej.) Dialects: Central Nusu (Miangu/Laomudeng), Northern Nusu (Wawa, Yuoduoluo), Southern Nusu (Puluo, Tuoping). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Christian (Protestant).

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Palaung, Ruching
[pce] South Shan State, near Kalaw; north Shan State, Kyawkme area; Lashio to the China border; Lashio east to the Salween; Kokaing area villages east of Salween river. 258,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 272,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Da’ang, Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Silver Palaung Dialects: Pale, Rulai. Rulai dialect near Lashio has regular phonological changes and some lexical difference from Ruching. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung Comments: Kalaw dialect tends toward loss of final consonants, could be moving to develop tones. Tense vowels change into glides with a palatal final in the Pale variety. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Palaung, Rumai
[rbb] North Shan State, Lashio area; the road north to the border, Nam Kham and Muse, Mantong, North Hsenwi, and Tawngpeng (the ancient Palaung State). 137,000 in Myanmar. Population total all countries: 140,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Humai, Ngwe Palaung, Rumai, Rumai Humai, Shan Rumai, Silver Palaung, Ta’ang, Ta’ang Rumai, Tai Rumai Dialects: Nam Kham Rumai is a different dialect from Lashio Rumai but comprehension is still good. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Palaung, Shwe
[pll] North Shan State, centered in Nam Hsan. 148,000 in Myanmar (1982). Population total all countries: 150,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Golden Palaung, Liang, Red Da’ang, Shwe Palaung, Ta-Ang Palaung, Ta’ang Samlung Dialects: Ywama. 15 Palaung dialects in Myanmar. Ruching Palaung [pce] and Rumai Palaung [rbb] are related, but distinct languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung Comments: Ywama is a prestige dialect. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Pali
[pli] No known L1 speakers in Myanmar. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified

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Pa’o
[blk] Southwest Shan State; Kayah State, Loikaw; Kayin State areas near Shan State border; Mon State near Thaton. 560,000 in Myanmar (1983 census). Population total all countries: 560,740. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Northern Taungthu, Pa Oh, Pa-O, Pa’o Karen, Pa-U Dialects: Northern Pa’o, Southern Pa’o. Reportedly fairly high comprehension among dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral Comments: Buddhist.

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Pyen
[pyy] East Shan State, Mong Yang township, Namt Theun and Yaw Tan villages. 600 (2013 Pyen Language Committee). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hpinba, Hpyin, Misu, Pyin Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phunoi [pho], Bisu [bzi], and Mpi [mpz]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Hani [hni], 32% with Lahu [lhu], 31% with Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid Comments: Christian.

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Rakhine
[rki] Throughout Rakhine State; Chin State, Paletwa township. 800,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,000,000. L2 users: 1,020,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Minority peoples in Rakhine and Chin states, Paletwa Township. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Throughout Rakhine State and in Paletwa Township, Chin State. Especially in market, business, oral language at school, and in some media. Rakhine is the largest ethnic group and dominant language in the area and Rakhine people control most business, transport, and trade. Alternate Names: Arakanese, Mogh, Rakhain, Rakhaing, Rakkhaine Dialects: Chaungtha, Kyaukphyu, Man Aung (Chebuda Island), Mrauk-U, Sittwe (Akyab), Yangbye (Rambree, Yanbe, Yanbye, Yangye). Intelligibility in Rakhine State of prestigious Sittwe dialect seems fairly high. Slight variations in north Rakhine speech in Sittwe, Kyauktaw, Mrauk-U, Minpya, Ponnagyun, Buthidaung, and Maungdaw townships. The variety spoken in south Rakhine State townships of Kyauk Phyu, Yangbye, Thandwe, and Toungup noticeably different from the northern variety. The southern variety, particularly in Thandwe Township, is more similar to standard Burmese [mya]. Lexical similarity: among Rakhine and Marma varieties in both Myanmar and Bangladesh is over 85%. Lexical similarity: 91% with standard Burmese [mya]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: Buddhist.

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Rawang
[raw] North Kachin State, Putao district, Putao, Machanbaw, Naungmaw, Kawnglangphu, and Pannandin townships. 62,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 63,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Matwang dialect is L2 or church language used by other dialect speakers. Alternate Names: Chiutse, Ch’opa, Ganung-Rawang, Hkanung, Kiutze, Nung, Nung Rawang Dialects: Daru-Jerwang, Khrangkhu/Thininglong (Southern Lungmi), Kyaikhu (Dangraq-Mashang, Northern Lungmi), Matwang, Tangsar East (Changgong), Tangsar West (Langdaqgong, Renyinchi), Thaluq. Most reportedly understand Matwang, a central, written dialect. Part of a chain of related varieties with the Drung [duu] people of Nu nationality in China. Dialects near Tibet border more divergent. Lungmi varieties of Mashang and Dangraq are especially divergent. Rawang speakers from the Kunglang variety of Daru live in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Some Rawang dialects, especially Kyaikhu Lungmi and Changgong Tangsar, have less intelligibility with the standard written dialect of Matwang. Anong (Khingpang) [nun] and Drung (Thrung) [duu] are related to Rawang and are sometimes included as Rawang varieties (Morse 1989). Lexical similarity: 82%–99% among Matwang-related dialects. Lexical similarity between Matwan and the following varieties or languages: 74% with Drung [duu], 79%–80% with Anong [nun], 81%–87% with Renyinchi (Langdaqgong Tangsar), 77% with Changgong Tangsar, 74%–85% with Lungmi, 74%–80% with Daru-Jerwang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish Comments: Glossonym: Kiutze or Qiuze by Chinese, Ch’opa by Lisu. Traditionally, Rawang is made up of five major clan divisions (plus subclans): Lungmi, Matwang, Daru-Jerwang, Tangsar, and Anong [nun] (Morse 1989). Christian.

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Riang
[ril] Northeast. Shan State, near southern Shan town of Pang Long. 12,500 in Myanmar (2008). Population total all countries: 15,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Black Riang, Black Yang, Liang Sek, Riang-Lang, Yang, Yang Wan Kun, Yanglam, Yin, Yin Kya, Yin Net, Yinnet Dialects: Black Riang, Red Riang, Yinja. Not related to Tripuri [trp]-speaking Riang of India and Bangladesh or to Pa’o [blk], which is Sino-Tibetan. Red and Black Riang difference unknown but these have been treated as separate languages; traditionally, the two groups occupy different social and geographic space, and wear different traditional clothing styles. May be the same language as Shwe Palaung [pll]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang Comments: Different from Riang [ria] of India, a Tibeto-Burman language. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Rohingya
[rhg] North Rakhine State, Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships; Sittwe and Rathedaung townships. 800,000 in Myanmar (2012). Due to unrest, numbers are very uncertain. Population total all countries: 1,800,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rohinja Dialects: Not much contact between dialect groups living in different townships; intelligibility situation is not clear. Dialects differ by river valleys. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: About 1,000,000 refugees went to Bangladesh in recent years, the majority of whom have dispersed to other countries. Most refugees in UNHCR-controlled camps in Bangladesh were repatriated back to Myanmar, but many of these have returned to Bangladesh unofficially.

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Samtao
[stu] East Shan State. 9,550 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 13,180. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Samtao is used among the Palaungic peoples to refer to unintelligible dialects of Plang [blr]. In China, Samtao refers to Plang in Burma and occasionally to Plang from other China-based varieties with low intelligibility. ‘Samtao’, also refers to south Mong La area in East Shan State between the China border and Nam Lwe River. A third meaning refers to Plang who live in the Samtao area. Wan Phii Plang is a Samtao variety similar to and intelligible with Wan Sen and Wan Nyet, ancient Plang villages along Mong La-Kentung Road further west. A fourth meaning of ‘Samtao’ refers to Palaungic varieties more similar to Wa, such as the Wa, Pangloh, who also refer to themselves as Samtao. 1 Samtao village in Veng Phu Kha insists they speak the ancient Samtao language, but lexically it is Lao [lao] with Mon-Khmer phonology. Traditional religion.

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Shan
[shn] Shan state. Tai Mao is on Myanmar-Yunnan border, centered at Mu’ang Mao Long or Namkham. 3,200,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 350,000 Tai Mao (1990 A. Diller). Population total all countries: 3,295,000. L2 users: Minority speakers in Shan State. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Burmese Shan, Great Thai, “Ngeo” (pej.), “Ngiao” (pej.), “Ngiaw” (pej.), “Ngio” (pej.), “Ngiow” (pej.), Sam, Sha, Shan Bama, Shan Gyi, Tai Long, Tai Luang, Tai Shan, Tai Yai, Tai-Lon, Thai Yai Dialects: Northern Shan State, Southern Shan State, Tai Mao (Mao Shan, Tai Khe). Regional dialect differences. Low intelligibility of Lü [khb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Tai Mao (Mao Shan, Tai Khe) is linguistically closer to Tai Nüa [tdd] but political and cultural factors lead them to identify with Shan. Buddhist.

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Tai Laing
[tjl] Kachin State, from Myitkyina to Bamaw township; Sagaing Region, Homalin township, along the Irrawaddy, Chindwin, and Uru rivers. 100,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Red Tai, Shan Bamar, Shan Kalee, Shan Ni, Tai Laeng, Tai Lai, Tai Lang, Tai Nai, Tai Naing Dialects: Tai Lai, Tai Nai. Two subgroups: Those who live along the railway line between Myitkyina and Mandalay and call themselves Tai Nai; Those who live along the river south of Myitkyina who call themselves Tai Lai. However, apart from the sound shift l to n among the first group, there do not seem to be any major differences in language between these 2 subgroups. Reportedly similar to Khamti [kht]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: The name Tai Laing means Red Tai. Buddhist.

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Tai Loi
[tlq] East Shan State, north Mong Yawng township and into China. 4,460 in Myanmar (2008). Population total all countries: 4,960. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aw-aak, Bulang-Su, Doi, Khabe, Kon Doi, Kon Loi, Loi, Monglwe, Muak Sa-aak, Tailoi, Tai-Loi, Wakut Dialects: Saneung Muak. Considerable dialectal variation between villages. Lexical similarity: 42% with U [uuu] of China; 40% with Pang Pung Plang [blr]; 25% with standard Wa [prk]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Tai Loi means ‘mountain Tai’ and is a cover term for multiple Palaungic groups in the area, some of which are Angkuic and some of which are Waic. Buddhist, Christian (Protestant).

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] North Shan State; east Kachin State. 72,400 in Myanmar (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Tai Kong, Tai Neua Dialects: Mang Shi, Ruili (Meng Mao). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Mang Shi is the prestige dialect. Tai Nüa in Laos is probably a distinct but related language. Buddhist.

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Taman
[tcl] Sagaing Region, Khamti deistrict, Homalin township, Tamanthi area. No known L1 speakers. Last Taman speaker died in 1990s. Descendants intermarried and now speak other languages. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho

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Taungyo
[tco] East central Shan State, Taunggyi district, Kalaw, and Pinlong townships. 40,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taru, Taung-yo, Toru, Twing Reu, Twinreu Dialects: None known. Nonstandard variety of Burmese [mya]. Intelligibility low between distant villages; low comprehension of Intha [int]; high comprehension of Danu [dnv]. Lexical similarity: 89% with standard Burmese [mya] and Intha [int], 91% with Danu [dnv], 84%–92% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect. Buddhist.

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Tavoyan
[tvn] Southeast, Tanintharyi Region. 400,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dawai, Dawe, Dawei, Tavoya, Tawe-Tavoy Dialects: None known. A well-known nonstandard Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese [mya]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect [mya]. Buddhist.

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Tibetan, Khams
[khg] Far north Kachin State, Da On Dam, San Dam, Mading, and Dahom Dam villages. 300 in Myanmar (2010 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Khams Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Wa, Parauk
[prk] Northeast Shan State, upper Salween river area; East Shan State, Kengtung area; resettling since 2000 in southeast Shan State, Mong Hsat and Mong Ton townships, especially Mong Yawn, Pong Pa Kyin, and Mong Kyut town areas. 400,000 in Myanmar (2000 census). Population total all countries: 805,700. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Shan State. Alternate Names: Baraog, Phalok, Praok, Standard Wa, Wa Dialects: Ai Cheung, Ai Swa, Ang Krax, Awm Plawk, Bible Wa, Caong Naong, Cuan, Hom, Ien, Kang Seu, Kaung Sang, Kawn Cawng, Kawn Jiem, Kawn Mau, Kawn Poih, Kawn Rao, Kawng Lang, Kha Lax, Khui Ma, Kok Lah, La Dah, La Kong, Lah Kreum, Lhax Tiah, Lung Kua, Man Leen, Man Shiang, Man Teu (Jo Phyu, Man Teey, Man Ton, Man Tong), Man Tong, Meung, Meung Kun, Meung Mao, Meung Yum, Muik Lhang, Muik Lhax, Muik Nghawng, Muik Nu, Muik Raix, Muik Sime, Nawng Plawx, Nom Tum, Pa Tah, Pang Vai, Pang Yang (Muik Khaox), Panglao, Rho Mawng, Rok Tong, Sau Hin, Savaik, Sheeiem, Shiem Tum, Shiiem Ceeim, Si Gang Rai, Si Nawk, Si Nga, Si Viex, Simung, Taoh Mie, Toi Lawng, Veng Ngeen, Vui Sai, Yaong Brex, Yaong Khrum, Yaong Krak, Yaong Kua, Yaong Leen, Yaong Lung, Yaong Nong, Yaong O, Yaong Peng, Yaong Raok, Yaong Riex, Yaong Sang, Yaong Soi, Yaong Ting, Ying Phang (Sigang). Over 70 varieties of Wa in Myanmar; 300 varieties in China (2006 Institute of Nationalities, Sun Hong Kai). Wa official nationality standard form in China based on Yong Shuai, one of many Parauk varieties. Bible Wa, a composite language, based on the Yong Shuai, Yong Rauk, Mang Toei, and Toilawng varieties, forms the standard for Myanmar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Wa, Vo
[wbm] Shan State, Hopang township, five villages. 700 in Myanmar (2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Meung Hom, Peung Sux, Vhax Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Wewaw
[wea] Karen hills, near Taungoo; Bago Yoma range between Ayeyawaddy and Sittang rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wewau Dialects: Reportedly similar to and may be a dialect of S’gaw Karen [ksw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern

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Yinbaw
[kvu] East Shan State; Kayah State. 7,300 (1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yeinbaw, Yinbaw Karen Dialects: None known. Consider themselves part of Kayan ethnic group. Reportedly similar to Kayan [pdu] and Geko [ghk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Yinchia
[yin] South Shan State. 12,000 (2008), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Black Riang, Ranei, Striped Karen, Yin Kya, Yin Net, Yinnet Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang Comments: Belha. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Yintale
[kvy] Kayah State, Bawlakhè district, Hpasawng township. 3 villages. 1,000 (2000 D. Bradley), decreasing. Wa Awng village is main village, with 100 households. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Taliak, Yangatalet, Yangtadai, Yintale Karen, Yintalet Dialects: Bawlake, Wa Awng. Reportedly a variety of Western Kayah [kyu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern Comments: Buddhist.

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Zaiwa
[atb] Kachin State, Waimaw township, Sedan area; Shan State, Kentung district. 30,000 in Myanmar (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aci, Atshi, Atsi, Atzi, Azi, Zi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: The Chinese name is Tsaiwa, Jingpho is Atsi, Burmese is Zi. Christian.

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Zayein
[kxk] South Shan State, between Mobyè and Phekon towns. 9,300 (1983 census). Population including Lahta [kvt] and Zayein: 13,500 (Manson 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaungtou, Khaungtou, Zayein Karen Dialects: None known. May be subgroup of Latha [kvt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern Comments: Reportedly, Zayein is an area name where many Latha [kvt] live. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Zo
[zom] Chin State, Tonzang, Hakha, and Tedim townships; Sagaing Region, Kalay, Khampat, and Tamu townships. 61,000 in Myanmar (2012 T. Philipzo). Population total all countries: 81,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jou, Kuki Chin, Yo, Yos, Yote, Zau, Zome, Zomi, Zou Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tedim [ctd], Paite Chin [pck], Vaiphei [vap], and Simte [smt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Zomi or Zome, also a collective name by Tedim Chin [ctd] of Myanmar, Paite [pck], and Vaiphei [vap] of Manipur. Christian.

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